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9   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
10
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24
25 <refentry id="systemd.service">
26         <refentryinfo>
27                 <title>systemd.service</title>
28                 <productname>systemd</productname>
29
30                 <authorgroup>
31                         <author>
32                                 <contrib>Developer</contrib>
33                                 <firstname>Lennart</firstname>
34                                 <surname>Poettering</surname>
35                                 <email>lennart@poettering.net</email>
36                         </author>
37                 </authorgroup>
38         </refentryinfo>
39
40         <refmeta>
41                 <refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle>
42                 <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
43         </refmeta>
44
45         <refnamediv>
46                 <refname>systemd.service</refname>
47                 <refpurpose>Service unit configuration</refpurpose>
48         </refnamediv>
49
50         <refsynopsisdiv>
51                 <para><filename><replaceable>service</replaceable>.service</filename></para>
52         </refsynopsisdiv>
53
54         <refsect1>
55                 <title>Description</title>
56
57                 <para>A unit configuration file whose name ends in
58                 <filename>.service</filename> encodes information
59                 about a process controlled and supervised by
60                 systemd.</para>
61
62                 <para>This man page lists the configuration options
63                 specific to this unit type. See
64                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
65                 for the common options of all unit configuration
66                 files. The common configuration items are configured
67                 in the generic <literal>[Unit]</literal> and
68                 <literal>[Install]</literal> sections. The service
69                 specific configuration options are configured in the
70                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section.</para>
71
72                 <para>Additional options are listed in
73                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
74                 which define the execution environment the commands
75                 are executed in, and in
76                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
77                 which define the way the processes of the service are
78                 terminated, and in
79                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
80                 which configure resource control settings for the
81                 processes of the service.</para>
82
83                 <para>Unless <varname>DefaultDependencies=</varname>
84                 is set to <option>false</option>, service units will
85                 implicitly have dependencies of type
86                 <varname>Requires=</varname> and
87                 <varname>After=</varname> on
88                 <filename>basic.target</filename> as well as
89                 dependencies of type <varname>Conflicts=</varname> and
90                 <varname>Before=</varname> on
91                 <filename>shutdown.target</filename>. These ensure
92                 that normal service units pull in basic system
93                 initialization, and are terminated cleanly prior to
94                 system shutdown. Only services involved with early
95                 boot or late system shutdown should disable this
96                 option.</para>
97
98                 <para>If a service is requested under a certain name
99                 but no unit configuration file is found, systemd looks
100                 for a SysV init script by the same name (with the
101                 <filename>.service</filename> suffix removed) and
102                 dynamically creates a service unit from that
103                 script. This is useful for compatibility with
104                 SysV. Note that this compatibility is quite
105                 comprehensive but not 100%. For details about the
106                 incompatibilities, see the <ulink
107                 url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities">Incompatibilities
108                 with SysV</ulink> document.
109                 </para>
110         </refsect1>
111
112         <refsect1>
113                 <title>Options</title>
114
115                 <para>Service files must include a
116                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section, which carries
117                 information about the service and the process it
118                 supervises. A number of options that may be used in
119                 this section are shared with other unit types. These
120                 options are documented in
121                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
122                 and
123                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The
124                 options specific to the <literal>[Service]</literal>
125                 section of service units are the following:</para>
126
127                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
128                         <varlistentry>
129                                 <term><varname>Type=</varname></term>
130
131                                 <listitem><para>Configures the process
132                                 start-up type for this service
133                                 unit. One of <option>simple</option>,
134                                 <option>forking</option>,
135                                 <option>oneshot</option>,
136                                 <option>dbus</option>,
137                                 <option>notify</option> or
138                                 <option>idle</option>.</para>
139
140                                 <para>If set to
141                                 <option>simple</option> (the default
142                                 if neither
143                                 <varname>Type=</varname> nor
144                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>, but
145                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
146                                 specified), it is expected that the
147                                 process configured with
148                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is the
149                                 main process of the service. In this
150                                 mode, if the process offers
151                                 functionality to other processes on
152                                 the system, its communication channels
153                                 should be installed before the daemon
154                                 is started up (e.g. sockets set up by
155                                 systemd, via socket activation), as
156                                 systemd will immediately proceed
157                                 starting follow-up units.</para>
158
159                                 <para>If set to
160                                 <option>forking</option>, it is
161                                 expected that the process configured
162                                 with <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
163                                 will call <function>fork()</function>
164                                 as part of its start-up. The parent process is
165                                 expected to exit when start-up is
166                                 complete and all communication
167                                 channels are set up. The child continues
168                                 to run as the main daemon
169                                 process. This is the behavior of
170                                 traditional UNIX daemons. If this
171                                 setting is used, it is recommended to
172                                 also use the
173                                 <varname>PIDFile=</varname> option, so
174                                 that systemd can identify the main
175                                 process of the daemon. systemd will
176                                 proceed with starting follow-up units
177                                 as soon as the parent process
178                                 exits.</para>
179
180                                 <para>Behavior of
181                                 <option>oneshot</option> is similar to
182                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it
183                                 is expected that the process has to
184                                 exit before systemd starts follow-up
185                                 units. <varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname>
186                                 is particularly useful for this type
187                                 of service. This is the implied
188                                 default if neither
189                                 <varname>Type=</varname> or
190                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
191                                 specified.</para>
192
193                                 <para>Behavior of
194                                 <option>dbus</option> is similar to
195                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it is
196                                 expected that the daemon acquires a
197                                 name on the D-Bus bus, as configured
198                                 by
199                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>. systemd
200                                 will proceed with starting follow-up
201                                 units after the D-Bus bus name has been
202                                 acquired. Service units with this
203                                 option configured implicitly gain
204                                 dependencies on the
205                                 <filename>dbus.socket</filename>
206                                 unit. This type is the default if
207                                 <varname>BusName=</varname> is
208                                 specified.</para>
209
210                                 <para>Behavior of
211                                 <option>notify</option> is similar to
212                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it is
213                                 expected that the daemon sends a
214                                 notification message via
215                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
216                                 or an equivalent call when it has finished
217                                 starting up. systemd will proceed with
218                                 starting follow-up units after this
219                                 notification message has been sent. If
220                                 this option is used,
221                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> (see
222                                 below) should be set to open access to
223                                 the notification socket provided by
224                                 systemd. If
225                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is
226                                 not set, it will be implicitly set to
227                                 <option>main</option>. Note that
228                                 currently
229                                 <varname>Type=</varname><option>notify</option>
230                                 will not work if used in combination with
231                                 <varname>PrivateNetwork=</varname><option>yes</option>.</para>
232
233                                 <para>Behavior of
234                                 <option>idle</option> is very similar
235                                 to <option>simple</option>; however,
236                                 actual execution of the service
237                                 binary is delayed until all jobs are
238                                 dispatched. This may be used to avoid
239                                 interleaving of output of shell
240                                 services with the status output on the
241                                 console.</para>
242                                 </listitem>
243                         </varlistentry>
244
245                         <varlistentry>
246                                 <term><varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname></term>
247
248                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean value
249                                 that specifies whether the service
250                                 shall be considered active even when
251                                 all its processes exited. Defaults to
252                                 <option>no</option>.</para>
253                                 </listitem>
254                         </varlistentry>
255
256                         <varlistentry>
257                                 <term><varname>GuessMainPID=</varname></term>
258
259                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean value
260                                 that specifies whether systemd should
261                                 try to guess the main PID of a service
262                                 if it cannot be determined
263                                 reliably. This option is ignored
264                                 unless <option>Type=forking</option>
265                                 is set and <option>PIDFile=</option>
266                                 is unset because for the other types
267                                 or with an explicitly configured PID
268                                 file, the main PID is always known. The
269                                 guessing algorithm might come to
270                                 incorrect conclusions if a daemon
271                                 consists of more than one process. If
272                                 the main PID cannot be determined,
273                                 failure detection and automatic
274                                 restarting of a service will not work
275                                 reliably. Defaults to
276                                 <option>yes</option>.</para>
277                                 </listitem>
278                         </varlistentry>
279
280                         <varlistentry>
281                                 <term><varname>PIDFile=</varname></term>
282
283                                 <listitem><para>Takes an absolute file
284                                 name pointing to the PID file of this
285                                 daemon. Use of this option is
286                                 recommended for services where
287                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
288                                 <option>forking</option>. systemd will
289                                 read the PID of the main process of
290                                 the daemon after start-up of the
291                                 service. systemd will not write to the
292                                 file configured here.</para>
293                                 </listitem>
294                         </varlistentry>
295
296                         <varlistentry>
297                                 <term><varname>BusName=</varname></term>
298
299                                 <listitem><para>Takes a D-Bus bus
300                                 name that this service is reachable
301                                 as. This option is mandatory for
302                                 services where
303                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
304                                 <option>dbus</option>, but its use
305                                 is otherwise recommended if the process
306                                 takes a name on the D-Bus bus.</para>
307                                 </listitem>
308                         </varlistentry>
309
310                         <varlistentry>
311                                 <term><varname>BusPolicy=</varname></term>
312
313                                 <listitem><para>If specified, a custom
314                                 <ulink url="https://code.google.com/p/d-bus/">kdbus</ulink>
315                                 endpoint will be created and installed as the
316                                 default bus node for the service. Such a custom
317                                 endpoint can hold an own set of policy rules
318                                 that are enforced on top of the bus-wide ones.
319                                 The custom endpoint is named after the service
320                                 it was created for, and its node will be
321                                 bind-mounted over the default bus node
322                                 location, so the service can only access the
323                                 bus through its own endpoint. Note that custom
324                                 bus endpoints default to a 'deny all' policy.
325                                 Hence, if at least one
326                                 <varname>BusPolicy=</varname> directive is
327                                 given, you have to make sure to add explicit
328                                 rules for everything the service should be able
329                                 to do.</para>
330                                 <para>The value of this directive is comprised
331                                 of two parts; the bus name, and a verb to
332                                 specify to granted access, which is one of
333                                 <option>see</option>,
334                                 <option>talk</option>, or
335                                 <option>own</option>.
336                                 <option>talk</option> implies
337                                 <option>see</option>, and <option>own</option>
338                                 implies both <option>talk</option> and
339                                 <option>see</option>.
340                                 If multiple access levels are specified for the
341                                 same bus name, the most powerful one takes
342                                 effect.
343                                 </para>
344                                 <para>Examples:</para>
345                                 <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.freedesktop.systemd1 talk</programlisting>
346                                 <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.foo.bar see</programlisting>
347                                 <para>This option is only available on kdbus enabled systems.</para>
348                                 </listitem>
349                         </varlistentry>
350
351                         <varlistentry>
352                                 <term><varname>ExecStart=</varname></term>
353                                 <listitem><para>Commands with their
354                                 arguments that are executed when this
355                                 service is started. The value is split
356                                 into zero or more command lines is
357                                 according to the rules described below
358                                 (see section "Command Lines" below).
359                                 </para>
360
361                                 <para>When <varname>Type</varname> is
362                                 not <option>oneshot</option>, only one
363                                 command may and must be given. When
364                                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
365                                 used, zero or more commands may be
366                                 specified. This can be specified by
367                                 providing multiple command lines in
368                                 the same directive, or alternatively,
369                                 this directive may be specified more
370                                 than once with the same effect. If the
371                                 empty string is assigned to this
372                                 option, the list of commands to start
373                                 is reset, prior assignments of this
374                                 option will have no effect. If no
375                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is
376                                 specified, then the service must have
377                                 <varname>RemainAfterExit=yes</varname>
378                                 set.</para>
379
380                                 <para>For each of the specified
381                                 commands, the first argument must be
382                                 an absolute and literal path to an
383                                 executable. Optionally, if the
384                                 absolute file name is prefixed with
385                                 <literal>@</literal>, the second token
386                                 will be passed as
387                                 <literal>argv[0]</literal> to the
388                                 executed process, followed by the
389                                 further arguments specified. If the
390                                 absolute filename is prefixed with
391                                 <literal>-</literal>, an exit code of
392                                 the command normally considered a
393                                 failure (i.e. non-zero exit status or
394                                 abnormal exit due to signal) is
395                                 ignored and considered success. If
396                                 both <literal>-</literal> and
397                                 <literal>@</literal> are used, they
398                                 can appear in either order.</para>
399
400                                 <para>If more than one command is
401                                 specified, the commands are invoked
402                                 sequentially in the order they appear
403                                 in the unit file. If one of the
404                                 commands fails (and is not prefixed
405                                 with <literal>-</literal>), other
406                                 lines are not executed, and the unit
407                                 is considered failed.</para>
408
409                                 <para>Unless
410                                 <varname>Type=forking</varname> is
411                                 set, the process started via this
412                                 command line will be considered the
413                                 main process of the daemon.</para>
414
415                               </listitem>
416                         </varlistentry>
417
418                         <varlistentry>
419                                 <term><varname>ExecStartPre=</varname></term>
420                                 <term><varname>ExecStartPost=</varname></term>
421                                 <listitem><para>Additional commands
422                                 that are executed before or after
423                                 the command in
424                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, respectively.
425                                 Syntax is the same as for
426                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, except
427                                 that multiple command lines are allowed
428                                 and the commands are executed one
429                                 after the other, serially.</para>
430
431                                 <para>If any of those commands (not
432                                 prefixed with <literal>-</literal>)
433                                 fail, the rest are not executed and
434                                 the unit is considered failed.</para>
435                                 </listitem>
436                         </varlistentry>
437
438                         <varlistentry>
439                                 <term><varname>ExecReload=</varname></term>
440                                 <listitem><para>Commands to execute to
441                                 trigger a configuration reload in the
442                                 service. This argument takes multiple
443                                 command lines, following the same
444                                 scheme as described for
445                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
446                                 above. Use of this setting is
447                                 optional. Specifier and environment
448                                 variable substitution is supported
449                                 here following the same scheme as for
450                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>.</para>
451
452                                 <para>One additional, special
453                                 environment variable is set: if known,
454                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname> is set to
455                                 the main process of the daemon, and
456                                 may be used for command lines like the
457                                 following:</para>
458
459                                 <programlisting>/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID</programlisting>
460
461                                 <para>Note however that reloading a
462                                 daemon by sending a signal (as with
463                                 the example line above) is usually not
464                                 a good choice, because this is an
465                                 asynchronous operation and hence not
466                                 suitable to order reloads of multiple
467                                 services against each other. It is
468                                 strongly recommended to set
469                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname> to a
470                                 command that not only triggers a
471                                 configuration reload of the daemon,
472                                 but also synchronously waits for it to
473                                 complete.</para>
474                                 </listitem>
475                         </varlistentry>
476
477                         <varlistentry>
478                                 <term><varname>ExecStop=</varname></term>
479                                 <listitem><para>Commands to execute to
480                                 stop the service started via
481                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>. This
482                                 argument takes multiple command lines,
483                                 following the same scheme as described
484                                 for <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
485                                 above. Use of this setting is
486                                 optional. After the commands configured
487                                 in this option are run, all processes
488                                 remaining for a service are
489                                 terminated according to the
490                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname> setting
491                                 (see
492                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>). If
493                                 this option is not specified, the
494                                 process is terminated immediately when
495                                 service stop is requested. Specifier
496                                 and environment variable substitution
497                                 is supported (including
498                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname>, see
499                                 above).</para></listitem>
500                         </varlistentry>
501
502                         <varlistentry>
503                                 <term><varname>ExecStopPost=</varname></term>
504                                 <listitem><para>Additional commands
505                                 that are executed after the service
506                                 was stopped. This includes cases where
507                                 the commands configured in
508                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname> were used,
509                                 where the service does not have any
510                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname> defined, or
511                                 where the service exited unexpectedly. This
512                                 argument takes multiple command lines,
513                                 following the same scheme as described
514                                 for <varname>ExecStart</varname>. Use
515                                 of these settings is
516                                 optional. Specifier and environment
517                                 variable substitution is
518                                 supported.</para></listitem>
519                         </varlistentry>
520
521                         <varlistentry>
522                                 <term><varname>RestartSec=</varname></term>
523                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
524                                 sleep before restarting a service (as
525                                 configured with
526                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>). Takes a
527                                 unit-less value in seconds, or a time
528                                 span value such as "5min
529                                 20s". Defaults to
530                                 100ms.</para></listitem>
531                         </varlistentry>
532
533                         <varlistentry>
534                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStartSec=</varname></term>
535                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
536                                 wait for start-up. If a
537                                 daemon service does not signal
538                                 start-up completion within the
539                                 configured time, the service will be
540                                 considered failed and will be shut
541                                 down again.
542                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
543                                 time span value such as "5min
544                                 20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to
545                                 disable the timeout logic. Defaults to
546                                 <varname>DefaultTimeoutStartSec=</varname> from
547                                 the manager configuration file, except
548                                 when <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
549                                 used, in which case the timeout
550                                 is disabled by default
551                                 (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
552                                 </para></listitem>
553                         </varlistentry>
554
555                         <varlistentry>
556                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname></term>
557                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
558                                 wait for stop. If a service is asked
559                                 to stop, but does not terminate in the
560                                 specified time, it will be terminated
561                                 forcibly via <constant>SIGTERM</constant>,
562                                 and after another timeout of equal duration
563                                 with <constant>SIGKILL</constant> (see
564                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname>
565                                 in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
566                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
567                                 time span value such as "5min
568                                 20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to disable
569                                 the timeout logic. Defaults to
570                                 <varname>DefaultTimeoutStopSec=</varname> from the
571                                 manager configuration file
572                                 (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
573                                 </para></listitem>
574                         </varlistentry>
575
576                         <varlistentry>
577                                 <term><varname>TimeoutSec=</varname></term>
578                                 <listitem><para>A shorthand for configuring
579                                 both <varname>TimeoutStartSec=</varname>
580                                 and <varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname>
581                                 to the specified value.
582                                 </para></listitem>
583                         </varlistentry>
584
585                         <varlistentry>
586                                 <term><varname>WatchdogSec=</varname></term>
587                                 <listitem><para>Configures the
588                                 watchdog timeout for a service. The
589                                 watchdog is activated when the start-up is
590                                 completed. The service must call
591                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
592                                 regularly with <literal>WATCHDOG=1</literal>
593                                 (i.e. the "keep-alive ping"). If the time
594                                 between two such calls is larger than
595                                 the configured time, then the service
596                                 is placed in a failed state and it will
597                                 be terminated with <varname>SIGABRT</varname>.
598                                 By setting <varname>Restart=</varname> to
599                                 <option>on-failure</option> or
600                                 <option>always</option>, the service
601                                 will be automatically restarted. The
602                                 time configured here will be passed to
603                                 the executed service process in the
604                                 <varname>WATCHDOG_USEC=</varname>
605                                 environment variable. This allows
606                                 daemons to automatically enable the
607                                 keep-alive pinging logic if watchdog
608                                 support is enabled for the service. If
609                                 this option is used,
610                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> (see
611                                 below) should be set to open access to
612                                 the notification socket provided by
613                                 systemd. If
614                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is
615                                 not set, it will be implicitly set to
616                                 <option>main</option>. Defaults to 0,
617                                 which disables this
618                                 feature.</para></listitem>
619                         </varlistentry>
620
621                         <varlistentry>
622                                 <term><varname>Restart=</varname></term>
623                                 <listitem><para>Configures whether the
624                                 service shall be restarted when the
625                                 service process exits, is killed,
626                                 or a timeout is reached. The service
627                                 process may be the main service
628                                 process, but it may also be one of the
629                                 processes specified with
630                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
631                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
632                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>,
633                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>, or
634                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>.
635                                 When the death of the process is a
636                                 result of systemd operation (e.g. service
637                                 stop or restart), the service will not be
638                                 restarted. Timeouts include missing
639                                 the watchdog "keep-alive ping"
640                                 deadline and a service start, reload,
641                                 and stop operation timeouts.</para>
642
643                                 <para>Takes one of
644                                 <option>no</option>,
645                                 <option>on-success</option>,
646                                 <option>on-failure</option>,
647                                 <option>on-abnormal</option>,
648                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>,
649                                 <option>on-abort</option>, or
650                                 <option>always</option>. If set to
651                                 <option>no</option> (the default), the
652                                 service will not be restarted. If set
653                                 to <option>on-success</option>, it
654                                 will be restarted only when the
655                                 service process exits cleanly.  In
656                                 this context, a clean exit means an
657                                 exit code of 0, or one of the signals
658                                 <constant>SIGHUP</constant>,
659                                 <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
660                                 <constant>SIGTERM</constant> or
661                                 <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>, and
662                                 additionally, exit statuses and
663                                 signals specified in
664                                 <varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname>.
665                                 If set to <option>on-failure</option>,
666                                 the service will be restarted when the
667                                 process exits with a non-zero exit
668                                 code, is terminated by a signal
669                                 (including on core dump, but excluding
670                                 the aforementiond four signals), when
671                                 an operation (such as service reload)
672                                 times out, and when the configured
673                                 watchdog timeout is triggered.  If set
674                                 to <option>on-abnormal</option>, the
675                                 service will be restarted when the
676                                 process is terminated by a signal
677                                 (including on core dump, excluding the
678                                 aforementioned four signals), when an
679                                 operation times out, or when the
680                                 watchdog timeout is triggered. If set
681                                 to <option>on-abort</option>, the
682                                 service will be restarted only if the
683                                 service process exits due to an
684                                 uncaught signal not specified as a
685                                 clean exit status.  If set to
686                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>, the
687                                 service will be restarted only if the
688                                 watchdog timeout for the service
689                                 expires.  If set to
690                                 <option>always</option>, the service
691                                 will be restarted regardless of
692                                 whether it exited cleanly or not, got
693                                 terminated abnormally by a signal, or
694                                 hit a timeout.</para>
695
696                                 <table>
697                                         <title>Exit causes and the effect of the <varname>Restart=</varname> settings on them</title>
698
699                                         <tgroup cols='2'>
700                                                 <colspec colname='path' />
701                                                 <colspec colname='expl' />
702                                                 <thead>
703                                                         <row>
704                                                                 <entry>Restart settings/Exit causes</entry>
705                                                                 <entry><option>no</option></entry>
706                                                                 <entry><option>always</option></entry>
707                                                                 <entry><option>on-success</option></entry>
708                                                                 <entry><option>on-failure</option></entry>
709                                                                 <entry><option>on-abnormal</option></entry>
710                                                                 <entry><option>on-abort</option></entry>
711                                                                 <entry><option>on-watchdog</option></entry>
712                                                         </row>
713                                                 </thead>
714                                                 <tbody>
715                                                         <row>
716                                                                 <entry>Clean exit code or signal</entry>
717                                                                 <entry/>
718                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
719                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
720                                                                 <entry/>
721                                                                 <entry/>
722                                                                 <entry/>
723                                                                 <entry/>
724                                                         </row>
725                                                         <row>
726                                                                 <entry>Unclean exit code</entry>
727                                                                 <entry/>
728                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
729                                                                 <entry/>
730                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
731                                                                 <entry/>
732                                                                 <entry/>
733                                                                 <entry/>
734                                                         </row>
735                                                         <row>
736                                                                 <entry>Unclean signal</entry>
737                                                                 <entry/>
738                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
739                                                                 <entry/>
740                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
741                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
742                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
743                                                                 <entry/>
744                                                         </row>
745                                                         <row>
746                                                                 <entry>Timeout</entry>
747                                                                 <entry/>
748                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
749                                                                 <entry/>
750                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
751                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
752                                                                 <entry/>
753                                                                 <entry/>
754                                                         </row>
755                                                         <row>
756                                                                 <entry>Watchdog</entry>
757                                                                 <entry/>
758                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
759                                                                 <entry/>
760                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
761                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
762                                                                 <entry/>
763                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
764                                                         </row>
765                                                 </tbody>
766                                         </tgroup>
767                                 </table>
768
769                                 <para>As exceptions to the setting
770                                 above the service will not be
771                                 restarted if the exit code or signal
772                                 is specified in
773                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>
774                                 (see below). Also, the services will
775                                 always be restarted if the exit code
776                                 or signal is specified in
777                                 <varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname>
778                                 (see below).</para>
779
780                                 <para>Setting this to
781                                 <option>on-failure</option> is the
782                                 recommended choice for long-running
783                                 services, in order to increase
784                                 reliability by attempting automatic
785                                 recovery from errors. For services
786                                 that shall be able to terminate on
787                                 their own choice (and avoid
788                                 immediate restarting),
789                                 <option>on-abnormal</option> is an
790                                 alternative choice.</para>
791                                 </listitem>
792                         </varlistentry>
793
794                         <varlistentry>
795                                 <term><varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname></term>
796                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
797                                 status definitions that when returned
798                                 by the main service process will be
799                                 considered successful termination, in
800                                 addition to the normal successful exit
801                                 code 0 and the signals <constant>SIGHUP</constant>, <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
802                                 <constant>SIGTERM</constant>, and <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>. Exit status
803                                 definitions can either be numeric exit
804                                 codes or termination signal names,
805                                 separated by spaces. For example:
806                                 <programlisting>SuccessExitStatus=1 2 8 SIGKILL</programlisting>
807                                 ensures that exit codes 1, 2, 8 and
808                                 the termination signal
809                                 <constant>SIGKILL</constant> are
810                                 considered clean service terminations.
811                                 </para>
812
813                                 <para>Note that if a process has a
814                                 signal handler installed and exits by
815                                 calling
816                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>_exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
817                                 in response to a signal, the
818                                 information about the signal is lost.
819                                 Programs should instead perform cleanup and kill themselves with the same signal instead. See
820                                 <ulink url="http://www.cons.org/cracauer/sigint.html">Proper handling of SIGINT/SIGQUIT — How to be a proper program</ulink>.</para>
821
822                                 <para>This option may appear more than once,
823                                 in which case the list of successful
824                                 exit statuses is merged. If the empty
825                                 string is assigned to this option, the
826                                 list is reset, all prior assignments
827                                 of this option will have no
828                                 effect.</para></listitem>
829                         </varlistentry>
830
831                         <varlistentry>
832                                 <term><varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname></term>
833                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
834                                 status definitions that when returned
835                                 by the main service process will
836                                 prevent automatic service restarts,
837                                 regardless of the restart setting
838                                 configured with
839                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. Exit
840                                 status definitions can either be
841                                 numeric exit codes or termination
842                                 signal names, and are separated by
843                                 spaces. Defaults to the empty list, so
844                                 that, by default, no exit status is
845                                 excluded from the configured restart
846                                 logic. For example:
847                                 <programlisting>RestartPreventExitStatus=1 6 SIGABRT</programlisting> ensures that exit
848                                 codes 1 and 6 and the termination
849                                 signal <constant>SIGABRT</constant> will
850                                 not result in automatic service
851                                 restarting. This
852                                 option may appear more than once, in
853                                 which case the list of restart-preventing
854                                 statuses is merged. If the empty
855                                 string is assigned to this option, the
856                                 list is reset and all prior assignments
857                                 of this option will have no
858                                 effect.</para></listitem>
859                         </varlistentry>
860
861                         <varlistentry>
862                                 <term><varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname></term>
863                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
864                                 status definitions that when returned
865                                 by the main service process will force
866                                 automatic service restarts, regardless
867                                 of the restart setting configured with
868                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. The
869                                 argument format is similar to
870                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>.</para></listitem>
871                         </varlistentry>
872
873                         <varlistentry>
874                                 <term><varname>PermissionsStartOnly=</varname></term>
875                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
876                                 argument. If true, the permission-related
877                                 execution options, as
878                                 configured with
879                                 <varname>User=</varname> and similar
880                                 options (see
881                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
882                                 for more information), are only applied
883                                 to the process started with
884                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
885                                 to the various other
886                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
887                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
888                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
889                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
890                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
891                                 commands. If false, the setting is
892                                 applied to all configured commands the
893                                 same way. Defaults to
894                                 false.</para></listitem>
895                         </varlistentry>
896
897                         <varlistentry>
898                                 <term><varname>RootDirectoryStartOnly=</varname></term>
899                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
900                                 argument. If true, the root directory,
901                                 as configured with the
902                                 <varname>RootDirectory=</varname>
903                                 option (see
904                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
905                                 for more information), is only applied
906                                 to the process started with
907                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
908                                 to the various other
909                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
910                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
911                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
912                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
913                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
914                                 commands. If false, the setting is
915                                 applied to all configured commands the
916                                 same way. Defaults to
917                                 false.</para></listitem>
918                         </varlistentry>
919
920                         <varlistentry>
921                                 <term><varname>NonBlocking=</varname></term>
922                                 <listitem><para>Set the
923                                 <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
924                                 for all file descriptors passed via
925                                 socket-based activation. If true, all
926                                 file descriptors >= 3 (i.e. all except
927                                 stdin, stdout, and stderr) will have
928                                 the <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
929                                 set and hence are in
930                                 non-blocking mode. This option is only
931                                 useful in conjunction with a socket
932                                 unit, as described in
933                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Defaults
934                                 to false.</para></listitem>
935                         </varlistentry>
936
937                         <varlistentry>
938                                 <term><varname>NotifyAccess=</varname></term>
939                                 <listitem><para>Controls access to the
940                                 service status notification socket, as
941                                 accessible via the
942                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
943                                 call. Takes one of
944                                 <option>none</option> (the default),
945                                 <option>main</option> or
946                                 <option>all</option>. If
947                                 <option>none</option>, no daemon status
948                                 updates are accepted from the service
949                                 processes, all status update messages
950                                 are ignored. If <option>main</option>,
951                                 only service updates sent from the
952                                 main process of the service are
953                                 accepted. If <option>all</option>, all
954                                 services updates from all members of
955                                 the service's control group are
956                                 accepted. This option should be set to
957                                 open access to the notification socket
958                                 when using
959                                 <varname>Type=notify</varname> or
960                                 <varname>WatchdogSec=</varname> (see
961                                 above). If those options are used but
962                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is not
963                                 configured, it will be implicitly set
964                                 to
965                                 <option>main</option>.</para></listitem>
966                         </varlistentry>
967
968                         <varlistentry>
969                                 <term><varname>Sockets=</varname></term>
970                                 <listitem><para>Specifies the name of
971                                 the socket units this service shall
972                                 inherit socket file descriptors
973                                 from when the service is
974                                 started. Normally it should not be
975                                 necessary to use this setting as all
976                                 socket file descriptors whose unit
977                                 shares the same name as the service
978                                 (subject to the different unit name
979                                 suffix of course) are passed to the
980                                 spawned process.</para>
981
982                                 <para>Note that the same socket file
983                                 descriptors may be passed to multiple
984                                 processes simultaneously. Also note
985                                 that a different service may be
986                                 activated on incoming socket traffic
987                                 than the one which is ultimately
988                                 configured to inherit the socket file
989                                 descriptors. Or in other words: the
990                                 <varname>Service=</varname> setting of
991                                 <filename>.socket</filename> units
992                                 does not have to match the inverse of
993                                 the <varname>Sockets=</varname>
994                                 setting of the
995                                 <filename>.service</filename> it
996                                 refers to.</para>
997
998                                 <para>This option may appear more than
999                                 once, in which case the list of socket
1000                                 units is merged. If the empty string
1001                                 is assigned to this option, the list of
1002                                 sockets is reset, and all prior uses of
1003                                 this setting will have no
1004                                 effect.</para></listitem>
1005                         </varlistentry>
1006
1007                         <varlistentry>
1008                                 <term><varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname></term>
1009                                 <term><varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname></term>
1010
1011                                 <listitem><para>Configure service
1012                                 start rate limiting. By default,
1013                                 services which are started more
1014                                 than 5 times within 10 seconds are not
1015                                 permitted to start any more times
1016                                 until the 10 second interval ends. With
1017                                 these two options, this rate limiting
1018                                 may be modified. Use
1019                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
1020                                 to configure the checking interval (defaults to
1021                                 <varname>DefaultStartLimitInterval=</varname> in
1022                                 manager configuration file, set to 0 to disable
1023                                 any kind of rate limiting). Use
1024                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> to
1025                                 configure how many starts per interval
1026                                 are allowed (defaults to
1027                                 <varname>DefaultStartLimitBurst=</varname> in
1028                                 manager configuration file). These
1029                                 configuration options are particularly
1030                                 useful in conjunction with
1031                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>; however,
1032                                 they apply to all kinds of starts
1033                                 (including manual), not just those
1034                                 triggered by the
1035                                 <varname>Restart=</varname> logic.
1036                                 Note that units which are configured
1037                                 for <varname>Restart=</varname> and
1038                                 which reach the start limit are not
1039                                 attempted to be restarted anymore;
1040                                 however, they may still be restarted
1041                                 manually at a later point, from which
1042                                 point on, the restart logic is again
1043                                 activated. Note that
1044                                 <command>systemctl
1045                                 reset-failed</command> will cause the
1046                                 restart rate counter for a service to
1047                                 be flushed, which is useful if the
1048                                 administrator wants to manually start
1049                                 a service and the start limit
1050                                 interferes with
1051                                 that.</para></listitem>
1052                         </varlistentry>
1053
1054                         <varlistentry>
1055                                 <term><varname>StartLimitAction=</varname></term>
1056
1057                                 <listitem><para>Configure the action
1058                                 to take if the rate limit configured
1059                                 with
1060                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
1061                                 and
1062                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> is
1063                                 hit. Takes one of
1064                                 <option>none</option>,
1065                                 <option>reboot</option>,
1066                                 <option>reboot-force</option>,
1067                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>,
1068                                 <option>poweroff</option>,
1069                                 <option>poweroff-force</option> or
1070                                 <option>poweroff-immediate</option>. If
1071                                 <option>none</option> is set, hitting
1072                                 the rate limit will trigger no action
1073                                 besides that the start will not be
1074                                 permitted. <option>reboot</option>
1075                                 causes a reboot following the normal
1076                                 shutdown procedure (i.e. equivalent to
1077                                 <command>systemctl reboot</command>).
1078                                 <option>reboot-force</option> causes a
1079                                 forced reboot which will terminate all
1080                                 processes forcibly but should cause no
1081                                 dirty file systems on reboot
1082                                 (i.e. equivalent to <command>systemctl
1083                                 reboot -f</command>) and
1084                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>
1085                                 causes immediate execution of the
1086                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1087                                 system call, which might result in
1088                                 data loss. Similar,
1089                                 <option>poweroff</option>,
1090                                 <option>poweroff-force</option>,
1091                                 <option>poweroff-immediate</option>
1092                                 have the effect of powering down the
1093                                 system with similar
1094                                 semantics. Defaults to
1095                                 <option>none</option>.</para></listitem>
1096                         </varlistentry>
1097
1098                         <varlistentry>
1099                                 <term><varname>FailureAction=</varname></term>
1100                                 <listitem><para>Configure the action
1101                                 to take when the service enters a failed
1102                                 state. Takes the same values as
1103                                 <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
1104                                 and executes the same actions.
1105                                 Defaults to <option>none</option>.
1106                                 </para></listitem>
1107                         </varlistentry>
1108
1109                         <varlistentry>
1110                                 <term><varname>RebootArgument=</varname></term>
1111                                 <listitem><para>Configure the optional
1112                                 argument for the
1113                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1114                                 system call if
1115                                 <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
1116                                 or <varname>FailureAction=</varname>
1117                                 is a reboot action. This works just
1118                                 like the optional argument to
1119                                 <command>systemctl reboot</command>
1120                                 command.</para></listitem>
1121                         </varlistentry>
1122
1123                 </variablelist>
1124
1125                 <para>Check
1126                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1127                 and
1128                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1129                 for more settings.</para>
1130
1131         </refsect1>
1132
1133         <refsect1>
1134                 <title>Compatibility Options</title>
1135
1136                 <para>The following options are also available in the
1137                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section, but exist purely
1138                 for compatibility reasons and should not be used in
1139                 newly written service files.</para>
1140
1141                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
1142                         <varlistentry>
1143                                 <term><varname>SysVStartPriority=</varname></term>
1144                                 <listitem><para>Set the SysV start
1145                                 priority to use to order this service
1146                                 in relation to SysV services lacking
1147                                 LSB headers. This option is only
1148                                 necessary to fix ordering in relation
1149                                 to legacy SysV services that have no
1150                                 ordering information encoded in the
1151                                 script headers. As such, it should only
1152                                 be used as a temporary compatibility
1153                                 option and should not be used in new unit
1154                                 files. Almost always, it is a better
1155                                 choice to add explicit ordering
1156                                 directives via
1157                                 <varname>After=</varname> or
1158                                 <varname>Before=</varname>,
1159                                 instead. For more details, see
1160                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1161                                 If used, pass an integer value in the
1162                                 range 0-99.</para></listitem>
1163                         </varlistentry>
1164                 </variablelist>
1165         </refsect1>
1166
1167         <refsect1>
1168                 <title>Command lines</title>
1169
1170                 <para>This section describes command line parsing and
1171                 variable and specifier substitions for
1172                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>,
1173                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
1174                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
1175                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
1176                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
1177                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname> options.</para>
1178
1179                 <para>Multiple command lines may be concatenated in a
1180                 single directive by separating them with semicolons
1181                 (these semicolons must be passed as separate words).
1182                 Lone semicolons may be escaped as
1183                 <literal>\;</literal>.</para>
1184
1185                 <para>Each command line is split on whitespace, with
1186                 the first item being the command to execute, and the
1187                 subsequent items being the arguments.  Double quotes
1188                 ("...") and single quotes ('...') may be used, in
1189                 which case everything until the next matching quote
1190                 becomes part of the same argument. Quotes themselves
1191                 are removed after parsing. In addition, a trailing
1192                 backslash (<literal>\</literal>) may be used to merge
1193                 lines. </para>
1194
1195                 <para>This syntax is intended to be very similar to
1196                 shell syntax, but only the meta-characters and
1197                 expansions described in the following paragraphs are
1198                 understood.  Specifically, redirection using
1199                 <literal>&lt;</literal>, <literal>&lt;&lt;</literal>,
1200                 <literal>&gt;</literal>, and
1201                 <literal>&gt;&gt;</literal>, pipes using
1202                 <literal>|</literal>, running programs in the
1203                 background using <literal>&amp;</literal>, and
1204                 <emphasis>other elements of shell syntax are not
1205                 supported</emphasis>.</para>
1206
1207                 <para>The command line accepts <literal>%</literal>
1208                 specifiers as described in
1209                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1210                 Note that the first argument of the command line
1211                 (i.e. the program to execute) may not include
1212                 specifiers.</para>
1213
1214                 <para>Basic environment variable substitution is
1215                 supported. Use <literal>${FOO}</literal> as part of a
1216                 word, or as a word of its own, on the command line, in
1217                 which case it will be replaced by the value of the
1218                 environment variable including all whitespace it
1219                 contains, resulting in a single argument. Use
1220                 <literal>$FOO</literal> as a separate word on the
1221                 command line, in which case it will be replaced by the
1222                 value of the environment variable split at whitespace
1223                 resulting in zero or more arguments. For this type of
1224                 expansion, quotes and respected when splitting into
1225                 words, and afterwards removed.</para>
1226
1227                 <para>Example:</para>
1228
1229                 <programlisting>Environment="ONE=one" 'TWO=two two'
1230 ExecStart=/bin/echo $ONE $TWO ${TWO}</programlisting>
1231
1232                 <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
1233                 with four arguments: <literal>one</literal>,
1234                 <literal>two</literal>, <literal>two</literal>, and
1235                 <literal>two two</literal>.</para>
1236
1237                 <para>Example:</para>
1238                 <programlisting>Environment=ONE='one' "TWO='two two' too" THREE=
1239 ExecStart=/bin/echo ${ONE} ${TWO} ${THREE}
1240 ExecStart=/bin/echo $ONE $TWO $THREE</programlisting>
1241                 <para>This results in <filename>echo</filename> being
1242                 called twice, the first time with arguments
1243                 <literal>'one'</literal>,
1244                 <literal>'two two' too</literal>, <literal></literal>,
1245                 and the second time with arguments
1246                 <literal>one</literal>, <literal>two two</literal>,
1247                 <literal>too</literal>.
1248                 </para>
1249
1250                 <para>To pass a literal dollar sign, use
1251                 <literal>$$</literal>. Variables whose value is not
1252                 known at expansion time are treated as empty
1253                 strings. Note that the first argument (i.e. the
1254                 program to execute) may not be a variable.</para>
1255
1256                 <para>Variables to be used in this fashion may be
1257                 defined through <varname>Environment=</varname> and
1258                 <varname>EnvironmentFile=</varname>.  In addition,
1259                 variables listed in the section "Environment variables
1260                 in spawned processes" in
1261                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1262                 which are considered "static configuration", may be
1263                 used (this includes e.g. <varname>$USER</varname>, but
1264                 not <varname>$TERM</varname>).</para>
1265
1266                 <para>Note that shell command lines are not directly
1267                 supported. If shell command lines are to be used, they
1268                 need to be passed explicitly to a shell implementation
1269                 of some kind. Example:</para>
1270                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/sh -c 'dmesg | tac'</programlisting>
1271
1272                 <para>Example:</para>
1273
1274                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo one ; /bin/echo "two two"</programlisting>
1275
1276                 <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
1277                 two times, each time with one argument:
1278                 <literal>one</literal> and <literal>two two</literal>,
1279                 respectively. Because two commands are specified,
1280                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> must be used.</para>
1281
1282                 <para>Example:</para>
1283
1284                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo / &gt;/dev/null &amp; \; \
1285 /bin/ls</programlisting>
1286
1287                 <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
1288                 with five arguments: <literal>/</literal>,
1289                 <literal>&gt;/dev/null</literal>,
1290                 <literal>&amp;</literal>, <literal>;</literal>, and
1291                 <literal>/bin/ls</literal>.</para>
1292         </refsect1>
1293
1294         <refsect1>
1295                   <title>See Also</title>
1296                   <para>
1297                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1298                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1299                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1300                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1301                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1302                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1303                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.directives</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1304                   </para>
1305         </refsect1>
1306
1307 </refentry>