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man: add sd_event_add_child(3)
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1 <?xml version='1.0'?> <!--*-nxml-*-->
2 <?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="http://docbook.sourceforge.net/release/xsl/current/xhtml/docbook.xsl"?>
3 <!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
4         "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">
5
6 <!--
7   This file is part of systemd.
8
9   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
10
11   systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
12   under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
13   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
14   (at your option) any later version.
15
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17   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
18   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
19   Lesser General Public License for more details.
20
21   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
22   along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
23 -->
24
25 <refentry id="systemd.service">
26         <refentryinfo>
27                 <title>systemd.service</title>
28                 <productname>systemd</productname>
29
30                 <authorgroup>
31                         <author>
32                                 <contrib>Developer</contrib>
33                                 <firstname>Lennart</firstname>
34                                 <surname>Poettering</surname>
35                                 <email>lennart@poettering.net</email>
36                         </author>
37                 </authorgroup>
38         </refentryinfo>
39
40         <refmeta>
41                 <refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle>
42                 <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
43         </refmeta>
44
45         <refnamediv>
46                 <refname>systemd.service</refname>
47                 <refpurpose>Service unit configuration</refpurpose>
48         </refnamediv>
49
50         <refsynopsisdiv>
51                 <para><filename><replaceable>service</replaceable>.service</filename></para>
52         </refsynopsisdiv>
53
54         <refsect1>
55                 <title>Description</title>
56
57                 <para>A unit configuration file whose name ends in
58                 <filename>.service</filename> encodes information
59                 about a process controlled and supervised by
60                 systemd.</para>
61
62                 <para>This man page lists the configuration options
63                 specific to this unit type. See
64                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
65                 for the common options of all unit configuration
66                 files. The common configuration items are configured
67                 in the generic <literal>[Unit]</literal> and
68                 <literal>[Install]</literal> sections. The service
69                 specific configuration options are configured in the
70                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section.</para>
71
72                 <para>Additional options are listed in
73                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
74                 which define the execution environment the commands
75                 are executed in, and in
76                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
77                 which define the way the processes of the service are
78                 terminated, and in
79                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
80                 which configure resource control settings for the
81                 processes of the service.</para>
82
83                 <para>Unless <varname>DefaultDependencies=</varname>
84                 is set to <option>false</option>, service units will
85                 implicitly have dependencies of type
86                 <varname>Requires=</varname> and
87                 <varname>After=</varname> on
88                 <filename>basic.target</filename> as well as
89                 dependencies of type <varname>Conflicts=</varname> and
90                 <varname>Before=</varname> on
91                 <filename>shutdown.target</filename>. These ensure
92                 that normal service units pull in basic system
93                 initialization, and are terminated cleanly prior to
94                 system shutdown. Only services involved with early
95                 boot or late system shutdown should disable this
96                 option.</para>
97
98                 <para>If a service is requested under a certain name
99                 but no unit configuration file is found, systemd looks
100                 for a SysV init script by the same name (with the
101                 <filename>.service</filename> suffix removed) and
102                 dynamically creates a service unit from that
103                 script. This is useful for compatibility with
104                 SysV. Note that this compatibility is quite
105                 comprehensive but not 100%. For details about the
106                 incompatibilities, see the <ulink
107                 url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities">Incompatibilities
108                 with SysV</ulink> document.
109                 </para>
110         </refsect1>
111
112         <refsect1>
113                 <title>Options</title>
114
115                 <para>Service files must include a
116                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section, which carries
117                 information about the service and the process it
118                 supervises. A number of options that may be used in
119                 this section are shared with other unit types. These
120                 options are documented in
121                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
122                 and
123                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The
124                 options specific to the <literal>[Service]</literal>
125                 section of service units are the following:</para>
126
127                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
128                         <varlistentry>
129                                 <term><varname>Type=</varname></term>
130
131                                 <listitem><para>Configures the process
132                                 start-up type for this service
133                                 unit. One of <option>simple</option>,
134                                 <option>forking</option>,
135                                 <option>oneshot</option>,
136                                 <option>dbus</option>,
137                                 <option>notify</option> or
138                                 <option>idle</option>.</para>
139
140                                 <para>If set to
141                                 <option>simple</option> (the default
142                                 if neither
143                                 <varname>Type=</varname> nor
144                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>, but
145                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
146                                 specified), it is expected that the
147                                 process configured with
148                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is the
149                                 main process of the service. In this
150                                 mode, if the process offers
151                                 functionality to other processes on
152                                 the system, its communication channels
153                                 should be installed before the daemon
154                                 is started up (e.g. sockets set up by
155                                 systemd, via socket activation), as
156                                 systemd will immediately proceed
157                                 starting follow-up units.</para>
158
159                                 <para>If set to
160                                 <option>forking</option>, it is
161                                 expected that the process configured
162                                 with <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
163                                 will call <function>fork()</function>
164                                 as part of its start-up. The parent process is
165                                 expected to exit when start-up is
166                                 complete and all communication
167                                 channels are set up. The child continues
168                                 to run as the main daemon
169                                 process. This is the behavior of
170                                 traditional UNIX daemons. If this
171                                 setting is used, it is recommended to
172                                 also use the
173                                 <varname>PIDFile=</varname> option, so
174                                 that systemd can identify the main
175                                 process of the daemon. systemd will
176                                 proceed with starting follow-up units
177                                 as soon as the parent process
178                                 exits.</para>
179
180                                 <para>Behavior of
181                                 <option>oneshot</option> is similar to
182                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it
183                                 is expected that the process has to
184                                 exit before systemd starts follow-up
185                                 units. <varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname>
186                                 is particularly useful for this type
187                                 of service. This is the implied
188                                 default if neither
189                                 <varname>Type=</varname> or
190                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
191                                 specified.</para>
192
193                                 <para>Behavior of
194                                 <option>dbus</option> is similar to
195                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it is
196                                 expected that the daemon acquires a
197                                 name on the D-Bus bus, as configured
198                                 by
199                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>. systemd
200                                 will proceed with starting follow-up
201                                 units after the D-Bus bus name has been
202                                 acquired. Service units with this
203                                 option configured implicitly gain
204                                 dependencies on the
205                                 <filename>dbus.socket</filename>
206                                 unit. This type is the default if
207                                 <varname>BusName=</varname> is
208                                 specified.</para>
209
210                                 <para>Behavior of
211                                 <option>notify</option> is similar to
212                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it is
213                                 expected that the daemon sends a
214                                 notification message via
215                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
216                                 or an equivalent call when it has finished
217                                 starting up. systemd will proceed with
218                                 starting follow-up units after this
219                                 notification message has been sent. If
220                                 this option is used,
221                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> (see
222                                 below) should be set to open access to
223                                 the notification socket provided by
224                                 systemd. If
225                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is
226                                 not set, it will be implicitly set to
227                                 <option>main</option>. Note that
228                                 currently
229                                 <varname>Type=</varname><option>notify</option>
230                                 will not work if used in combination with
231                                 <varname>PrivateNetwork=</varname><option>yes</option>.</para>
232
233                                 <para>Behavior of
234                                 <option>idle</option> is very similar
235                                 to <option>simple</option>; however,
236                                 actual execution of the service
237                                 binary is delayed until all jobs are
238                                 dispatched. This may be used to avoid
239                                 interleaving of output of shell
240                                 services with the status output on the
241                                 console.</para>
242                                 </listitem>
243                         </varlistentry>
244
245                         <varlistentry>
246                                 <term><varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname></term>
247
248                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean value
249                                 that specifies whether the service
250                                 shall be considered active even when
251                                 all its processes exited. Defaults to
252                                 <option>no</option>.</para>
253                                 </listitem>
254                         </varlistentry>
255
256                         <varlistentry>
257                                 <term><varname>GuessMainPID=</varname></term>
258
259                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean value
260                                 that specifies whether systemd should
261                                 try to guess the main PID of a service
262                                 if it cannot be determined
263                                 reliably. This option is ignored
264                                 unless <option>Type=forking</option>
265                                 is set and <option>PIDFile=</option>
266                                 is unset because for the other types
267                                 or with an explicitly configured PID
268                                 file, the main PID is always known. The
269                                 guessing algorithm might come to
270                                 incorrect conclusions if a daemon
271                                 consists of more than one process. If
272                                 the main PID cannot be determined,
273                                 failure detection and automatic
274                                 restarting of a service will not work
275                                 reliably. Defaults to
276                                 <option>yes</option>.</para>
277                                 </listitem>
278                         </varlistentry>
279
280                         <varlistentry>
281                                 <term><varname>PIDFile=</varname></term>
282
283                                 <listitem><para>Takes an absolute file
284                                 name pointing to the PID file of this
285                                 daemon. Use of this option is
286                                 recommended for services where
287                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
288                                 <option>forking</option>. systemd will
289                                 read the PID of the main process of
290                                 the daemon after start-up of the
291                                 service. systemd will not write to the
292                                 file configured here.</para>
293                                 </listitem>
294                         </varlistentry>
295
296                         <varlistentry>
297                                 <term><varname>BusName=</varname></term>
298
299                                 <listitem><para>Takes a D-Bus bus
300                                 name that this service is reachable
301                                 as. This option is mandatory for
302                                 services where
303                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
304                                 <option>dbus</option>, but its use
305                                 is otherwise recommended if the process
306                                 takes a name on the D-Bus bus.</para>
307                                 </listitem>
308                         </varlistentry>
309
310                         <varlistentry>
311                                 <term><varname>BusPolicy=</varname></term>
312
313                                 <listitem><para>If specified, a custom
314                                 <ulink url="https://code.google.com/p/d-bus/">kdbus</ulink>
315                                 endpoint will be created and installed as the
316                                 default bus node for the service. Such a custom
317                                 endpoint can hold an own set of policy rules
318                                 that are enforced on top of the bus-wide ones.
319                                 The custom endpoint is named after the service
320                                 it was created for, and its node will be
321                                 bind-mounted over the default bus node
322                                 location, so the service can only access the
323                                 bus through its own endpoint. Note that custom
324                                 bus endpoints default to a 'deny all' policy.
325                                 Hence, if at least one
326                                 <varname>BusPolicy=</varname> directive is
327                                 given, you have to make sure to add explicit
328                                 rules for everything the service should be able
329                                 to do.</para>
330                                 <para>The value of this directive is comprised
331                                 of two parts; the bus name, and a verb to
332                                 specify to granted access, which is one of
333                                 <option>see</option>,
334                                 <option>talk</option>, or
335                                 <option>own</option>.
336                                 <option>talk</option> implies
337                                 <option>see</option>, and <option>own</option>
338                                 implies both <option>talk</option> and
339                                 <option>see</option>.
340                                 If multiple access levels are specified for the
341                                 same bus name, the most powerful one takes
342                                 effect.
343                                 </para>
344                                 <para>Examples:</para>
345                                 <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.freedesktop.systemd1 talk</programlisting>
346                                 <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.foo.bar see</programlisting>
347                                 <para>This option is only available on kdbus enabled systems.</para>
348                                 </listitem>
349                         </varlistentry>
350
351                         <varlistentry>
352                                 <term><varname>ExecStart=</varname></term>
353                                 <listitem><para>Commands with their
354                                 arguments that are executed when this
355                                 service is started. For each of the
356                                 specified commands, the first argument
357                                 must be an absolute and literal path
358                                 to an executable.</para>
359
360                                 <para>When <varname>Type</varname> is
361                                 not <option>oneshot</option>, only one
362                                 command may and must be given. When
363                                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
364                                 used, none or more than one command
365                                 may be specified. Multiple command
366                                 lines may be concatenated in a single
367                                 directive by separating them with
368                                 semicolons (these semicolons must be
369                                 passed as separate
370                                 words). Alternatively, this directive
371                                 may be specified more than once with
372                                 the same effect.  Lone semicolons may
373                                 be escaped as
374                                 <literal>\;</literal>. If the empty
375                                 string is assigned to this option, the
376                                 list of commands to start is reset,
377                                 prior assignments of this option will
378                                 have no effect. If no
379                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is
380                                 specified, then the service must have
381                                 <varname>RemainAfterExit=yes</varname>
382                                 set.</para>
383
384                                 <para>Each command line is split on
385                                 whitespace, with the first item being
386                                 the command to execute, and the
387                                 subsequent items being the arguments.
388                                 Double quotes ("...") and single
389                                 quotes ('...') may be used, in which
390                                 case everything until the next
391                                 matching quote becomes part of the
392                                 same argument. Quotes themselves are
393                                 removed after parsing. In addition, a
394                                 trailing backslash
395                                 (<literal>\</literal>) may be used to
396                                 merge lines. This syntax is intended
397                                 to be very similar to shell syntax,
398                                 but only the meta-characters and
399                                 expansions described in the following
400                                 paragraphs are understood.
401                                 Specifically, redirection using
402                                 <literal>&lt;</literal>,
403                                 <literal>&lt;&lt;</literal>,
404                                 <literal>&gt;</literal>, and
405                                 <literal>&gt;&gt;</literal>, pipes
406                                 using <literal>|</literal>, and
407                                 running programs in the background
408                                 using <literal>&amp;</literal>
409                                 and <emphasis>other elements of shell
410                                 syntax are not supported</emphasis>.
411                                 </para>
412
413                                 <para>If more than one command is
414                                 specified, the commands are invoked
415                                 sequentially in the order they appear
416                                 in the unit file. If one of the
417                                 commands fails (and is not prefixed
418                                 with <literal>-</literal>), other lines
419                                 are not executed, and the unit is
420                                 considered failed.</para>
421
422                                 <para>Unless
423                                 <varname>Type=forking</varname> is
424                                 set, the process started via this
425                                 command line will be considered the
426                                 main process of the daemon.</para>
427
428                                 <para>The command line accepts
429                                 <literal>%</literal> specifiers as
430                                 described in
431                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
432                                 Note that the first argument of the
433                                 command line (i.e. the program to
434                                 execute) may not include
435                                 specifiers.</para>
436
437                                 <para>Basic environment variable
438                                 substitution is supported. Use
439                                 <literal>${FOO}</literal> as part of a
440                                 word, or as a word of its own, on the
441                                 command line, in which case it will be
442                                 replaced by the value of the
443                                 environment variable including all
444                                 whitespace it contains, resulting in a
445                                 single argument. Use
446                                 <literal>$FOO</literal> as a separate
447                                 word on the command line, in which
448                                 case it will be replaced by the value
449                                 of the environment variable split at
450                                 whitespace, resulting in zero or more
451                                 arguments. To pass a literal dollar
452                                 sign, use <literal>$$</literal>.
453                                 Variables whose value is not known at
454                                 expansion time are treated as empty
455                                 strings. Note that the first argument
456                                 (i.e. the program to execute) may not
457                                 be a variable.</para>
458
459                                 <para>Variables to be used in this
460                                 fashion may be defined through
461                                 <varname>Environment=</varname> and
462                                 <varname>EnvironmentFile=</varname>.
463                                 In addition, variables listed in the
464                                 section "Environment variables in
465                                 spawned processes" in
466                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
467                                 which are considered "static
468                                 configuration", may be used (this includes
469                                 e.g. <varname>$USER</varname>, but not
470                                 <varname>$TERM</varname>).</para>
471
472                                 <para>Optionally, if the absolute file
473                                 name is prefixed with
474                                 <literal>@</literal>, the second token
475                                 will be passed as
476                                 <literal>argv[0]</literal> to the
477                                 executed process, followed by the
478                                 further arguments specified. If the
479                                 absolute filename is prefixed with
480                                 <literal>-</literal>, an exit code of
481                                 the command normally considered a
482                                 failure (i.e. non-zero exit status or
483                                 abnormal exit due to signal) is ignored
484                                 and considered success. If both
485                                 <literal>-</literal> and
486                                 <literal>@</literal> are used, they
487                                 can appear in either order.</para>
488
489                                 <para>Note that this setting does not
490                                 directly support shell command
491                                 lines. If shell command lines are to
492                                 be used, they need to be passed
493                                 explicitly to a shell implementation
494                                 of some kind. Example:</para>
495                                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/sh -c 'dmesg | tac'</programlisting>
496                                 <para>Example:</para>
497                                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo one ; /bin/echo "two two"</programlisting>
498                                 <para>This will execute
499                                 <command>/bin/echo</command> two
500                                 times, each time with one argument:
501                                 <literal>one</literal> and
502                                 <literal>two two</literal>,
503                                 respectively. Because two commands are
504                                 specified,
505                                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> must
506                                 be used.</para>
507
508                                 <para>Example:</para>
509                                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo / &gt;/dev/null &amp; \; \
510 /bin/ls</programlisting>
511                                 <para>This will execute
512                                 <command>/bin/echo</command> with five
513                                 arguments: <literal>/</literal>,
514                                 <literal>&gt;/dev/null</literal>,
515                                 <literal>&amp;</literal>,
516                                 <literal>;</literal>, and
517                                 <literal>/bin/ls</literal>.</para>
518
519                                 <para>Example:</para>
520                                 <programlisting>Environment="ONE=one" 'TWO=two two'
521 ExecStart=/bin/echo $ONE $TWO ${TWO}</programlisting>
522                                 <para>This will execute
523                                 <command>/bin/echo</command> with four
524                                 arguments: <literal>one</literal>,
525                                 <literal>two</literal>,
526                                 <literal>two</literal>, and
527                                 <literal>two two</literal>.</para>
528                               </listitem>
529                         </varlistentry>
530
531                         <varlistentry>
532                                 <term><varname>ExecStartPre=</varname></term>
533                                 <term><varname>ExecStartPost=</varname></term>
534                                 <listitem><para>Additional commands
535                                 that are executed before or after
536                                 the command in
537                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, respectively.
538                                 Syntax is the same as for
539                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, except
540                                 that multiple command lines are allowed
541                                 and the commands are executed one
542                                 after the other, serially.</para>
543
544                                 <para>If any of those commands (not
545                                 prefixed with <literal>-</literal>)
546                                 fail, the rest are not executed and
547                                 the unit is considered failed.</para>
548                                 </listitem>
549                         </varlistentry>
550
551                         <varlistentry>
552                                 <term><varname>ExecReload=</varname></term>
553                                 <listitem><para>Commands to execute to
554                                 trigger a configuration reload in the
555                                 service. This argument takes multiple
556                                 command lines, following the same
557                                 scheme as described for
558                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
559                                 above. Use of this setting is
560                                 optional. Specifier and environment
561                                 variable substitution is supported
562                                 here following the same scheme as for
563                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>.</para>
564
565                                 <para>One additional, special
566                                 environment variable is set: if known,
567                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname> is set to
568                                 the main process of the daemon, and
569                                 may be used for command lines like the
570                                 following:</para>
571
572                                 <programlisting>/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID</programlisting>
573
574                                 <para>Note however that reloading a
575                                 daemon by sending a signal (as with
576                                 the example line above) is usually not
577                                 a good choice, because this is an
578                                 asynchronous operation and hence not
579                                 suitable to order reloads of multiple
580                                 services against each other. It is
581                                 strongly recommended to set
582                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname> to a
583                                 command that not only triggers a
584                                 configuration reload of the daemon,
585                                 but also synchronously waits for it to
586                                 complete.</para>
587                                 </listitem>
588                         </varlistentry>
589
590                         <varlistentry>
591                                 <term><varname>ExecStop=</varname></term>
592                                 <listitem><para>Commands to execute to
593                                 stop the service started via
594                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>. This
595                                 argument takes multiple command lines,
596                                 following the same scheme as described
597                                 for <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
598                                 above. Use of this setting is
599                                 optional. After the commands configured
600                                 in this option are run, all processes
601                                 remaining for a service are
602                                 terminated according to the
603                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname> setting
604                                 (see
605                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>). If
606                                 this option is not specified, the
607                                 process is terminated immediately when
608                                 service stop is requested. Specifier
609                                 and environment variable substitution
610                                 is supported (including
611                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname>, see
612                                 above).</para></listitem>
613                         </varlistentry>
614
615                         <varlistentry>
616                                 <term><varname>ExecStopPost=</varname></term>
617                                 <listitem><para>Additional commands
618                                 that are executed after the service
619                                 was stopped. This includes cases where
620                                 the commands configured in
621                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname> were used,
622                                 where the service does not have any
623                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname> defined, or
624                                 where the service exited unexpectedly. This
625                                 argument takes multiple command lines,
626                                 following the same scheme as described
627                                 for <varname>ExecStart</varname>. Use
628                                 of these settings is
629                                 optional. Specifier and environment
630                                 variable substitution is
631                                 supported.</para></listitem>
632                         </varlistentry>
633
634                         <varlistentry>
635                                 <term><varname>RestartSec=</varname></term>
636                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
637                                 sleep before restarting a service (as
638                                 configured with
639                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>). Takes a
640                                 unit-less value in seconds, or a time
641                                 span value such as "5min
642                                 20s". Defaults to
643                                 100ms.</para></listitem>
644                         </varlistentry>
645
646                         <varlistentry>
647                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStartSec=</varname></term>
648                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
649                                 wait for start-up. If a
650                                 daemon service does not signal
651                                 start-up completion within the
652                                 configured time, the service will be
653                                 considered failed and will be shut
654                                 down again.
655                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
656                                 time span value such as "5min
657                                 20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to
658                                 disable the timeout logic. Defaults to
659                                 <varname>DefaultTimeoutStartSec=</varname> from
660                                 the manager configuration file, except
661                                 when <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
662                                 used, in which case the timeout
663                                 is disabled by default
664                                 (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-systemd.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
665                                 </para></listitem>
666                         </varlistentry>
667
668                         <varlistentry>
669                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname></term>
670                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
671                                 wait for stop. If a service is asked
672                                 to stop, but does not terminate in the
673                                 specified time, it will be terminated
674                                 forcibly via <constant>SIGTERM</constant>,
675                                 and after another timeout of equal duration
676                                 with <constant>SIGKILL</constant> (see
677                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname>
678                                 in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
679                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
680                                 time span value such as "5min
681                                 20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to disable
682                                 the timeout logic. Defaults to
683                                 <varname>DefaultTimeoutStopSec=</varname> from the
684                                 manager configuration file
685                                 (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-systemd.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
686                                 </para></listitem>
687                         </varlistentry>
688
689                         <varlistentry>
690                                 <term><varname>TimeoutSec=</varname></term>
691                                 <listitem><para>A shorthand for configuring
692                                 both <varname>TimeoutStartSec=</varname>
693                                 and <varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname>
694                                 to the specified value.
695                                 </para></listitem>
696                         </varlistentry>
697
698                         <varlistentry>
699                                 <term><varname>WatchdogSec=</varname></term>
700                                 <listitem><para>Configures the
701                                 watchdog timeout for a service. The
702                                 watchdog is activated when the start-up is
703                                 completed. The service must call
704                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
705                                 regularly with <literal>WATCHDOG=1</literal>
706                                 (i.e. the "keep-alive ping"). If the time
707                                 between two such calls is larger than
708                                 the configured time, then the service
709                                 is placed in a failed state. By
710                                 setting <varname>Restart=</varname> to
711                                 <option>on-failure</option> or
712                                 <option>always</option>, the service
713                                 will be automatically restarted. The
714                                 time configured here will be passed to
715                                 the executed service process in the
716                                 <varname>WATCHDOG_USEC=</varname>
717                                 environment variable. This allows
718                                 daemons to automatically enable the
719                                 keep-alive pinging logic if watchdog
720                                 support is enabled for the service. If
721                                 this option is used,
722                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> (see
723                                 below) should be set to open access to
724                                 the notification socket provided by
725                                 systemd. If
726                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is
727                                 not set, it will be implicitly set to
728                                 <option>main</option>. Defaults to 0,
729                                 which disables this
730                                 feature.</para></listitem>
731                         </varlistentry>
732
733                         <varlistentry>
734                                 <term><varname>Restart=</varname></term>
735                                 <listitem><para>Configures whether the
736                                 service shall be restarted when the
737                                 service process exits, is killed,
738                                 or a timeout is reached. The service
739                                 process may be the main service
740                                 process, but it may also be one of the
741                                 processes specified with
742                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
743                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
744                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>,
745                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>, or
746                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>.
747                                 When the death of the process is a
748                                 result of systemd operation (e.g. service
749                                 stop or restart), the service will not be
750                                 restarted. Timeouts include missing
751                                 the watchdog "keep-alive ping"
752                                 deadline and a service start, reload,
753                                 and stop operation timeouts.</para>
754
755                                 <para>Takes one of
756                                 <option>no</option>,
757                                 <option>on-success</option>,
758                                 <option>on-failure</option>,
759                                 <option>on-abnormal</option>,
760                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>,
761                                 <option>on-abort</option>, or
762                                 <option>always</option>. If set to
763                                 <option>no</option> (the default), the
764                                 service will not be restarted. If set
765                                 to <option>on-success</option>, it
766                                 will be restarted only when the
767                                 service process exits cleanly.  In
768                                 this context, a clean exit means an
769                                 exit code of 0, or one of the signals
770                                 <constant>SIGHUP</constant>,
771                                 <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
772                                 <constant>SIGTERM</constant> or
773                                 <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>, and
774                                 additionally, exit statuses and
775                                 signals specified in
776                                 <varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname>.
777                                 If set to <option>on-failure</option>,
778                                 the service will be restarted when the
779                                 process exits with a non-zero exit
780                                 code, is terminated by a signal
781                                 (including on core dump, but excluding
782                                 the aforementiond four signals), when
783                                 an operation (such as service reload)
784                                 times out, and when the configured
785                                 watchdog timeout is triggered.  If set
786                                 to <option>on-abnormal</option>, the
787                                 service will be restarted when the
788                                 process is terminated by a signal
789                                 (including on core dump, excluding the
790                                 aforementioned four signals), when an
791                                 operation times out, or when the
792                                 watchdog timeout is triggered. If set
793                                 to <option>on-abort</option>, the
794                                 service will be restarted only if the
795                                 service process exits due to an
796                                 uncaught signal not specified as a
797                                 clean exit status.  If set to
798                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>, the
799                                 service will be restarted only if the
800                                 watchdog timeout for the service
801                                 expires.  If set to
802                                 <option>always</option>, the service
803                                 will be restarted regardless of
804                                 whether it exited cleanly or not, got
805                                 terminated abnormally by a signal, or
806                                 hit a timeout.</para>
807
808                                 <table>
809                                         <title>Exit causes and the effect of the <varname>Restart=</varname> settings on them</title>
810
811                                         <tgroup cols='2'>
812                                                 <colspec colname='path' />
813                                                 <colspec colname='expl' />
814                                                 <thead>
815                                                         <row>
816                                                                 <entry>Restart settings/Exit causes</entry>
817                                                                 <entry><option>no</option></entry>
818                                                                 <entry><option>always</option></entry>
819                                                                 <entry><option>on-success</option></entry>
820                                                                 <entry><option>on-failure</option></entry>
821                                                                 <entry><option>on-abnormal</option></entry>
822                                                                 <entry><option>on-abort</option></entry>
823                                                                 <entry><option>on-watchdog</option></entry>
824                                                         </row>
825                                                 </thead>
826                                                 <tbody>
827                                                         <row>
828                                                                 <entry>Clean exit code or signal</entry>
829                                                                 <entry/>
830                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
831                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
832                                                                 <entry/>
833                                                                 <entry/>
834                                                                 <entry/>
835                                                                 <entry/>
836                                                         </row>
837                                                         <row>
838                                                                 <entry>Unclean exit code</entry>
839                                                                 <entry/>
840                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
841                                                                 <entry/>
842                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
843                                                                 <entry/>
844                                                                 <entry/>
845                                                                 <entry/>
846                                                         </row>
847                                                         <row>
848                                                                 <entry>Unclean signal</entry>
849                                                                 <entry/>
850                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
851                                                                 <entry/>
852                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
853                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
854                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
855                                                                 <entry/>
856                                                         </row>
857                                                         <row>
858                                                                 <entry>Timeout</entry>
859                                                                 <entry/>
860                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
861                                                                 <entry/>
862                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
863                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
864                                                                 <entry/>
865                                                                 <entry/>
866                                                         </row>
867                                                         <row>
868                                                                 <entry>Watchdog</entry>
869                                                                 <entry/>
870                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
871                                                                 <entry/>
872                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
873                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
874                                                                 <entry/>
875                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
876                                                         </row>
877                                                 </tbody>
878                                         </tgroup>
879                                 </table>
880
881                                 <para>As exceptions to the setting
882                                 above the service will not be
883                                 restarted if the exit code or signal
884                                 is specified in
885                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>
886                                 (see below). Also, the services will
887                                 always be restarted if the exit code
888                                 or signal is specified in
889                                 <varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname>
890                                 (see below).</para>
891
892                                 <para>Setting this to
893                                 <option>on-failure</option> is the
894                                 recommended choice for long-running
895                                 services, in order to increase
896                                 reliability by attempting automatic
897                                 recovery from errors. For services
898                                 that shall be able to terminate on
899                                 their own choice (and avoid
900                                 immediate restarting),
901                                 <option>on-abnormal</option> is an
902                                 alternative choice.</para>
903                                 </listitem>
904                         </varlistentry>
905
906                         <varlistentry>
907                                 <term><varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname></term>
908                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
909                                 status definitions that when returned
910                                 by the main service process will be
911                                 considered successful termination, in
912                                 addition to the normal successful exit
913                                 code 0 and the signals <constant>SIGHUP</constant>, <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
914                                 <constant>SIGTERM</constant>, and <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>. Exit status
915                                 definitions can either be numeric exit
916                                 codes or termination signal names,
917                                 separated by spaces. For example:
918                                 <programlisting>SuccessExitStatus=1 2 8 SIGKILL</programlisting>
919                                 ensures that exit codes 1, 2, 8 and
920                                 the termination signal
921                                 <constant>SIGKILL</constant> are
922                                 considered clean service terminations.
923                                 </para>
924
925                                 <para>Note that if a process has a
926                                 signal handler installed and exits by
927                                 calling
928                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>_exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
929                                 in response to a signal, the
930                                 information about the signal is lost.
931                                 Programs should instead perform cleanup and kill themselves with the same signal instead. See
932                                 <ulink url="http://www.cons.org/cracauer/sigint.html">Proper handling of SIGINT/SIGQUIT — How to be a proper program</ulink>.</para>
933
934                                 <para>This option may appear more than once,
935                                 in which case the list of successful
936                                 exit statuses is merged. If the empty
937                                 string is assigned to this option, the
938                                 list is reset, all prior assignments
939                                 of this option will have no
940                                 effect.</para></listitem>
941                         </varlistentry>
942
943                         <varlistentry>
944                                 <term><varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname></term>
945                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
946                                 status definitions that when returned
947                                 by the main service process will
948                                 prevent automatic service restarts,
949                                 regardless of the restart setting
950                                 configured with
951                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. Exit
952                                 status definitions can either be
953                                 numeric exit codes or termination
954                                 signal names, and are separated by
955                                 spaces. Defaults to the empty list, so
956                                 that, by default, no exit status is
957                                 excluded from the configured restart
958                                 logic. For example:
959                                 <programlisting>RestartPreventExitStatus=1 6 SIGABRT</programlisting> ensures that exit
960                                 codes 1 and 6 and the termination
961                                 signal <constant>SIGABRT</constant> will
962                                 not result in automatic service
963                                 restarting. This
964                                 option may appear more than once, in
965                                 which case the list of restart-preventing
966                                 statuses is merged. If the empty
967                                 string is assigned to this option, the
968                                 list is reset and all prior assignments
969                                 of this option will have no
970                                 effect.</para></listitem>
971                         </varlistentry>
972
973                         <varlistentry>
974                                 <term><varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname></term>
975                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
976                                 status definitions that when returned
977                                 by the main service process will force
978                                 automatic service restarts, regardless
979                                 of the restart setting configured with
980                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. The
981                                 argument format is similar to
982                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>.</para></listitem>
983                         </varlistentry>
984
985                         <varlistentry>
986                                 <term><varname>PermissionsStartOnly=</varname></term>
987                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
988                                 argument. If true, the permission-related
989                                 execution options, as
990                                 configured with
991                                 <varname>User=</varname> and similar
992                                 options (see
993                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
994                                 for more information), are only applied
995                                 to the process started with
996                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
997                                 to the various other
998                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
999                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
1000                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
1001                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
1002                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
1003                                 commands. If false, the setting is
1004                                 applied to all configured commands the
1005                                 same way. Defaults to
1006                                 false.</para></listitem>
1007                         </varlistentry>
1008
1009                         <varlistentry>
1010                                 <term><varname>RootDirectoryStartOnly=</varname></term>
1011                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
1012                                 argument. If true, the root directory,
1013                                 as configured with the
1014                                 <varname>RootDirectory=</varname>
1015                                 option (see
1016                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1017                                 for more information), is only applied
1018                                 to the process started with
1019                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
1020                                 to the various other
1021                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
1022                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
1023                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
1024                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
1025                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
1026                                 commands. If false, the setting is
1027                                 applied to all configured commands the
1028                                 same way. Defaults to
1029                                 false.</para></listitem>
1030                         </varlistentry>
1031
1032                         <varlistentry>
1033                                 <term><varname>NonBlocking=</varname></term>
1034                                 <listitem><para>Set the
1035                                 <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
1036                                 for all file descriptors passed via
1037                                 socket-based activation. If true, all
1038                                 file descriptors >= 3 (i.e. all except
1039                                 stdin, stdout, and stderr) will have
1040                                 the <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
1041                                 set and hence are in
1042                                 non-blocking mode. This option is only
1043                                 useful in conjunction with a socket
1044                                 unit, as described in
1045                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Defaults
1046                                 to false.</para></listitem>
1047                         </varlistentry>
1048
1049                         <varlistentry>
1050                                 <term><varname>NotifyAccess=</varname></term>
1051                                 <listitem><para>Controls access to the
1052                                 service status notification socket, as
1053                                 accessible via the
1054                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1055                                 call. Takes one of
1056                                 <option>none</option> (the default),
1057                                 <option>main</option> or
1058                                 <option>all</option>. If
1059                                 <option>none</option>, no daemon status
1060                                 updates are accepted from the service
1061                                 processes, all status update messages
1062                                 are ignored. If <option>main</option>,
1063                                 only service updates sent from the
1064                                 main process of the service are
1065                                 accepted. If <option>all</option>, all
1066                                 services updates from all members of
1067                                 the service's control group are
1068                                 accepted. This option should be set to
1069                                 open access to the notification socket
1070                                 when using
1071                                 <varname>Type=notify</varname> or
1072                                 <varname>WatchdogSec=</varname> (see
1073                                 above). If those options are used but
1074                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is not
1075                                 configured, it will be implicitly set
1076                                 to
1077                                 <option>main</option>.</para></listitem>
1078                         </varlistentry>
1079
1080                         <varlistentry>
1081                                 <term><varname>Sockets=</varname></term>
1082                                 <listitem><para>Specifies the name of
1083                                 the socket units this service shall
1084                                 inherit the sockets from when the
1085                                 service is started. Normally it
1086                                 should not be necessary to use this
1087                                 setting as all sockets whose unit
1088                                 shares the same name as the service
1089                                 (ignoring the different suffix of course)
1090                                 are passed to the spawned
1091                                 process.</para>
1092
1093                                 <para>Note that the same socket may be
1094                                 passed to multiple processes at the
1095                                 same time. Also note that a different
1096                                 service may be activated on incoming
1097                                 traffic than that which inherits the
1098                                 sockets. Or in other words: the
1099                                 <varname>Service=</varname> setting of
1100                                 <filename>.socket</filename> units
1101                                 does not have to match the inverse of
1102                                 the <varname>Sockets=</varname>
1103                                 setting of the
1104                                 <filename>.service</filename> it
1105                                 refers to.</para>
1106
1107                                 <para>This option may appear more than
1108                                 once, in which case the list of socket
1109                                 units is merged. If the empty string
1110                                 is assigned to this option, the list of
1111                                 sockets is reset, and all prior uses of
1112                                 this setting will have no
1113                                 effect.</para></listitem>
1114                         </varlistentry>
1115
1116                         <varlistentry>
1117                                 <term><varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname></term>
1118                                 <term><varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname></term>
1119
1120                                 <listitem><para>Configure service
1121                                 start rate limiting. By default,
1122                                 services which are started more
1123                                 than 5 times within 10 seconds are not
1124                                 permitted to start any more times
1125                                 until the 10 second interval ends. With
1126                                 these two options, this rate limiting
1127                                 may be modified. Use
1128                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
1129                                 to configure the checking interval (defaults to
1130                                 <varname>DefaultStartLimitInterval=</varname> in
1131                                 manager configuration file, set to 0 to disable
1132                                 any kind of rate limiting). Use
1133                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> to
1134                                 configure how many starts per interval
1135                                 are allowed (defaults to
1136                                 <varname>DefaultStartLimitBurst=</varname> in
1137                                 manager configuration file). These
1138                                 configuration options are particularly
1139                                 useful in conjunction with
1140                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>; however,
1141                                 they apply to all kinds of starts
1142                                 (including manual), not just those
1143                                 triggered by the
1144                                 <varname>Restart=</varname> logic.
1145                                 Note that units which are configured
1146                                 for <varname>Restart=</varname> and
1147                                 which reach the start limit are not
1148                                 attempted to be restarted anymore;
1149                                 however, they may still be restarted
1150                                 manually at a later point, from which
1151                                 point on, the restart logic is again
1152                                 activated. Note that
1153                                 <command>systemctl
1154                                 reset-failed</command> will cause the
1155                                 restart rate counter for a service to
1156                                 be flushed, which is useful if the
1157                                 administrator wants to manually start
1158                                 a service and the start limit
1159                                 interferes with
1160                                 that.</para></listitem>
1161                         </varlistentry>
1162
1163                         <varlistentry>
1164                                 <term><varname>StartLimitAction=</varname></term>
1165
1166                                 <listitem><para>Configure the action
1167                                 to take if the rate limit configured
1168                                 with
1169                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
1170                                 and
1171                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> is
1172                                 hit. Takes one of
1173                                 <option>none</option>,
1174                                 <option>reboot</option>,
1175                                 <option>reboot-force</option>,
1176                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>,
1177                                 <option>poweroff</option>,
1178                                 <option>poweroff-force</option> or
1179                                 <option>poweroff-immediate</option>. If
1180                                 <option>none</option> is set, hitting
1181                                 the rate limit will trigger no action
1182                                 besides that the start will not be
1183                                 permitted. <option>reboot</option>
1184                                 causes a reboot following the normal
1185                                 shutdown procedure (i.e. equivalent to
1186                                 <command>systemctl reboot</command>).
1187                                 <option>reboot-force</option> causes a
1188                                 forced reboot which will terminate all
1189                                 processes forcibly but should cause no
1190                                 dirty file systems on reboot
1191                                 (i.e. equivalent to <command>systemctl
1192                                 reboot -f</command>) and
1193                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>
1194                                 causes immediate execution of the
1195                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1196                                 system call, which might result in
1197                                 data loss. Similar,
1198                                 <option>poweroff</option>,
1199                                 <option>poweroff-force</option>,
1200                                 <option>poweroff-immediate</option>
1201                                 have the effect of powering down the
1202                                 system with similar
1203                                 semantics. Defaults to
1204                                 <option>none</option>.</para></listitem>
1205                         </varlistentry>
1206
1207                         <varlistentry>
1208                                 <term><varname>FailureAction=</varname></term>
1209                                 <listitem><para>Configure the action
1210                                 to take when the service enters a failed
1211                                 state. Takes the same values as
1212                                 <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
1213                                 and executes the same actions.
1214                                 Defaults to <option>none</option>.
1215                                 </para></listitem>
1216                         </varlistentry>
1217
1218                         <varlistentry>
1219                                 <term><varname>RebootArgument=</varname></term>
1220                                 <listitem><para>Configure the optional
1221                                 argument for the
1222                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1223                                 system call if
1224                                 <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
1225                                 or <varname>FailureAction=</varname>
1226                                 is a reboot action. This works just
1227                                 like the optional argument to
1228                                 <command>systemctl reboot</command>
1229                                 command.</para></listitem>
1230                         </varlistentry>
1231
1232                 </variablelist>
1233
1234                 <para>Check
1235                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1236                 and
1237                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1238                 for more settings.</para>
1239
1240         </refsect1>
1241
1242         <refsect1>
1243                 <title>Compatibility Options</title>
1244
1245                 <para>The following options are also available in the
1246                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section, but exist purely
1247                 for compatibility reasons and should not be used in
1248                 newly written service files.</para>
1249
1250                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
1251                         <varlistentry>
1252                                 <term><varname>SysVStartPriority=</varname></term>
1253                                 <listitem><para>Set the SysV start
1254                                 priority to use to order this service
1255                                 in relation to SysV services lacking
1256                                 LSB headers. This option is only
1257                                 necessary to fix ordering in relation
1258                                 to legacy SysV services that have no
1259                                 ordering information encoded in the
1260                                 script headers. As such, it should only
1261                                 be used as a temporary compatibility
1262                                 option and should not be used in new unit
1263                                 files. Almost always, it is a better
1264                                 choice to add explicit ordering
1265                                 directives via
1266                                 <varname>After=</varname> or
1267                                 <varname>Before=</varname>,
1268                                 instead. For more details, see
1269                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1270                                 If used, pass an integer value in the
1271                                 range 0-99.</para></listitem>
1272                         </varlistentry>
1273                 </variablelist>
1274         </refsect1>
1275
1276         <refsect1>
1277                   <title>See Also</title>
1278                   <para>
1279                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1280                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1281                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1282                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1283                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1284                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1285                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.directives</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1286                   </para>
1287         </refsect1>
1288
1289 </refentry>