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9   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
10
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24
25 <refentry id="systemd.service">
26         <refentryinfo>
27                 <title>systemd.service</title>
28                 <productname>systemd</productname>
29
30                 <authorgroup>
31                         <author>
32                                 <contrib>Developer</contrib>
33                                 <firstname>Lennart</firstname>
34                                 <surname>Poettering</surname>
35                                 <email>lennart@poettering.net</email>
36                         </author>
37                 </authorgroup>
38         </refentryinfo>
39
40         <refmeta>
41                 <refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle>
42                 <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
43         </refmeta>
44
45         <refnamediv>
46                 <refname>systemd.service</refname>
47                 <refpurpose>Service unit configuration</refpurpose>
48         </refnamediv>
49
50         <refsynopsisdiv>
51                 <para><filename><replaceable>service</replaceable>.service</filename></para>
52         </refsynopsisdiv>
53
54         <refsect1>
55                 <title>Description</title>
56
57                 <para>A unit configuration file whose name ends in
58                 <filename>.service</filename> encodes information
59                 about a process controlled and supervised by
60                 systemd.</para>
61
62                 <para>This man page lists the configuration options
63                 specific to this unit type. See
64                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
65                 for the common options of all unit configuration
66                 files. The common configuration items are configured
67                 in the generic <literal>[Unit]</literal> and
68                 <literal>[Install]</literal> sections. The service
69                 specific configuration options are configured in the
70                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section.</para>
71
72                 <para>Additional options are listed in
73                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
74                 which define the execution environment the commands
75                 are executed in, and in
76                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
77                 which define the way the processes of the service are
78                 terminated, and in
79                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
80                 which configure resource control settings for the
81                 processes of the service.</para>
82
83                 <para>Unless <varname>DefaultDependencies=</varname>
84                 is set to <option>false</option>, service units will
85                 implicitly have dependencies of type
86                 <varname>Requires=</varname> and
87                 <varname>After=</varname> on
88                 <filename>basic.target</filename> as well as
89                 dependencies of type <varname>Conflicts=</varname> and
90                 <varname>Before=</varname> on
91                 <filename>shutdown.target</filename>. These ensure
92                 that normal service units pull in basic system
93                 initialization, and are terminated cleanly prior to
94                 system shutdown. Only services involved with early
95                 boot or late system shutdown should disable this
96                 option.</para>
97
98                 <para>If a service is requested under a certain name
99                 but no unit configuration file is found, systemd looks
100                 for a SysV init script by the same name (with the
101                 <filename>.service</filename> suffix removed) and
102                 dynamically creates a service unit from that
103                 script. This is useful for compatibility with
104                 SysV. Note that this compatibility is quite
105                 comprehensive but not 100%. For details about the
106                 incompatibilities, see the <ulink
107                 url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities">Incompatibilities
108                 with SysV</ulink> document.
109                 </para>
110         </refsect1>
111
112         <refsect1>
113                 <title>Options</title>
114
115                 <para>Service files must include a
116                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section, which carries
117                 information about the service and the process it
118                 supervises. A number of options that may be used in
119                 this section are shared with other unit types. These
120                 options are documented in
121                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
122                 and
123                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The
124                 options specific to the <literal>[Service]</literal>
125                 section of service units are the following:</para>
126
127                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
128                         <varlistentry>
129                                 <term><varname>Type=</varname></term>
130
131                                 <listitem><para>Configures the process
132                                 start-up type for this service
133                                 unit. One of <option>simple</option>,
134                                 <option>forking</option>,
135                                 <option>oneshot</option>,
136                                 <option>dbus</option>,
137                                 <option>notify</option> or
138                                 <option>idle</option>.</para>
139
140                                 <para>If set to
141                                 <option>simple</option> (the default
142                                 if neither
143                                 <varname>Type=</varname> nor
144                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>, but
145                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
146                                 specified), it is expected that the
147                                 process configured with
148                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is the
149                                 main process of the service. In this
150                                 mode, if the process offers
151                                 functionality to other processes on
152                                 the system, its communication channels
153                                 should be installed before the daemon
154                                 is started up (e.g. sockets set up by
155                                 systemd, via socket activation), as
156                                 systemd will immediately proceed
157                                 starting follow-up units.</para>
158
159                                 <para>If set to
160                                 <option>forking</option>, it is
161                                 expected that the process configured
162                                 with <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
163                                 will call <function>fork()</function>
164                                 as part of its start-up. The parent process is
165                                 expected to exit when start-up is
166                                 complete and all communication
167                                 channels are set up. The child continues
168                                 to run as the main daemon
169                                 process. This is the behavior of
170                                 traditional UNIX daemons. If this
171                                 setting is used, it is recommended to
172                                 also use the
173                                 <varname>PIDFile=</varname> option, so
174                                 that systemd can identify the main
175                                 process of the daemon. systemd will
176                                 proceed with starting follow-up units
177                                 as soon as the parent process
178                                 exits.</para>
179
180                                 <para>Behavior of
181                                 <option>oneshot</option> is similar to
182                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it
183                                 is expected that the process has to
184                                 exit before systemd starts follow-up
185                                 units. <varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname>
186                                 is particularly useful for this type
187                                 of service. This is the implied
188                                 default if neither
189                                 <varname>Type=</varname> or
190                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
191                                 specified.</para>
192
193                                 <para>Behavior of
194                                 <option>dbus</option> is similar to
195                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it is
196                                 expected that the daemon acquires a
197                                 name on the D-Bus bus, as configured
198                                 by
199                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>. systemd
200                                 will proceed with starting follow-up
201                                 units after the D-Bus bus name has been
202                                 acquired. Service units with this
203                                 option configured implicitly gain
204                                 dependencies on the
205                                 <filename>dbus.socket</filename>
206                                 unit. This type is the default if
207                                 <varname>BusName=</varname> is
208                                 specified.</para>
209
210                                 <para>Behavior of
211                                 <option>notify</option> is similar to
212                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it is
213                                 expected that the daemon sends a
214                                 notification message via
215                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
216                                 or an equivalent call when it has finished
217                                 starting up. systemd will proceed with
218                                 starting follow-up units after this
219                                 notification message has been sent. If
220                                 this option is used,
221                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> (see
222                                 below) should be set to open access to
223                                 the notification socket provided by
224                                 systemd. If
225                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is
226                                 not set, it will be implicitly set to
227                                 <option>main</option>. Note that
228                                 currently
229                                 <varname>Type=</varname><option>notify</option>
230                                 will not work if used in combination with
231                                 <varname>PrivateNetwork=</varname><option>yes</option>.</para>
232
233                                 <para>Behavior of
234                                 <option>idle</option> is very similar
235                                 to <option>simple</option>; however,
236                                 actual execution of the service
237                                 binary is delayed until all jobs are
238                                 dispatched. This may be used to avoid
239                                 interleaving of output of shell
240                                 services with the status output on the
241                                 console.</para>
242                                 </listitem>
243                         </varlistentry>
244
245                         <varlistentry>
246                                 <term><varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname></term>
247
248                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean value
249                                 that specifies whether the service
250                                 shall be considered active even when
251                                 all its processes exited. Defaults to
252                                 <option>no</option>.</para>
253                                 </listitem>
254                         </varlistentry>
255
256                         <varlistentry>
257                                 <term><varname>GuessMainPID=</varname></term>
258
259                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean value
260                                 that specifies whether systemd should
261                                 try to guess the main PID of a service
262                                 if it cannot be determined
263                                 reliably. This option is ignored
264                                 unless <option>Type=forking</option>
265                                 is set and <option>PIDFile=</option>
266                                 is unset because for the other types
267                                 or with an explicitly configured PID
268                                 file, the main PID is always known. The
269                                 guessing algorithm might come to
270                                 incorrect conclusions if a daemon
271                                 consists of more than one process. If
272                                 the main PID cannot be determined,
273                                 failure detection and automatic
274                                 restarting of a service will not work
275                                 reliably. Defaults to
276                                 <option>yes</option>.</para>
277                                 </listitem>
278                         </varlistentry>
279
280                         <varlistentry>
281                                 <term><varname>PIDFile=</varname></term>
282
283                                 <listitem><para>Takes an absolute file
284                                 name pointing to the PID file of this
285                                 daemon. Use of this option is
286                                 recommended for services where
287                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
288                                 <option>forking</option>. systemd will
289                                 read the PID of the main process of
290                                 the daemon after start-up of the
291                                 service. systemd will not write to the
292                                 file configured here.</para>
293                                 </listitem>
294                         </varlistentry>
295
296                         <varlistentry>
297                                 <term><varname>BusName=</varname></term>
298
299                                 <listitem><para>Takes a D-Bus bus
300                                 name that this service is reachable
301                                 as. This option is mandatory for
302                                 services where
303                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
304                                 <option>dbus</option>, but its use
305                                 is otherwise recommended if the process
306                                 takes a name on the D-Bus bus.</para>
307                                 </listitem>
308                         </varlistentry>
309
310                         <varlistentry>
311                                 <term><varname>BusPolicy=</varname></term>
312
313                                 <listitem><para>If specfied, a custom kdbus
314                                 endpoint will be created and installed as the
315                                 default bus node for the service. Such a custom
316                                 endpoint can hold an own set of policy rules
317                                 that are enforced on top of the bus-wide ones.
318                                 The custom endpoint is named after the service
319                                 it was created for, and its node will be
320                                 bind-mounted over the default bus node
321                                 location, so the service can only access the
322                                 bus through its own endpoint. Note that custom
323                                 bus endpoints default to a 'deny all' policy.
324                                 Hence, if at least one
325                                 <varname>BusPolicy=</varname> directive is
326                                 given, you have to make sure to add explicit
327                                 rules for everything the service should be able
328                                 to do.</para>
329                                 <para>The value of this directive is comprised
330                                 of two parts; the bus name, and a verb to
331                                 specify to granted access, which is one of
332                                 <option>see</option>,
333                                 <option>talk</option> or
334                                 <option>own</option>.
335                                 <option>talk</option> implies
336                                 <option>see</option>, and <option>own</option>
337                                 implies both <option>talk</option> and
338                                 <option>see</option>.
339                                 If multiple access levels are specified for the
340                                 same bus name, the most powerful one takes
341                                 effect.
342                                 </para>
343                                 <para>Examples:</para>
344                                 <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.freedesktop.systemd1 talk</programlisting>
345                                 <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.foo.bar see</programlisting>
346                                 <para>This option is only available on kdbus enabled systems.</para>
347                                 </listitem>
348                         </varlistentry>
349
350                         <varlistentry>
351                                 <term><varname>ExecStart=</varname></term>
352                                 <listitem><para>Commands with their
353                                 arguments that are executed when this
354                                 service is started. For each of the
355                                 specified commands, the first argument
356                                 must be an absolute and literal path
357                                 to an executable.</para>
358
359                                 <para>When <varname>Type</varname> is
360                                 not <option>oneshot</option>, only one
361                                 command may and must be given. When
362                                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
363                                 used, none or more than one command
364                                 may be specified. Multiple command
365                                 lines may be concatenated in a single
366                                 directive by separating them with
367                                 semicolons (these semicolons must be
368                                 passed as separate
369                                 words). Alternatively, this directive
370                                 may be specified more than once with
371                                 the same effect.  Lone semicolons may
372                                 be escaped as
373                                 <literal>\;</literal>. If the empty
374                                 string is assigned to this option, the
375                                 list of commands to start is reset,
376                                 prior assignments of this option will
377                                 have no effect. If no
378                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is
379                                 specified, then the service must have
380                                 <varname>RemainAfterExit=yes</varname>
381                                 set.</para>
382
383                                 <para>Each command line is split on
384                                 whitespace, with the first item being
385                                 the command to execute, and the
386                                 subsequent items being the arguments.
387                                 Double quotes ("...") and single
388                                 quotes ('...') may be used, in which
389                                 case everything until the next
390                                 matching quote becomes part of the
391                                 same argument. Quotes themselves are
392                                 removed after parsing. In addition, a
393                                 trailing backslash
394                                 (<literal>\</literal>) may be used to
395                                 merge lines. This syntax is intended
396                                 to be very similar to shell syntax,
397                                 but only the meta-characters and
398                                 expansions described in the following
399                                 paragraphs are understood.
400                                 Specifically, redirection using
401                                 <literal>&lt;</literal>,
402                                 <literal>&lt;&lt;</literal>,
403                                 <literal>&gt;</literal>, and
404                                 <literal>&gt;&gt;</literal>, pipes
405                                 using <literal>|</literal>, and
406                                 running programs in the background
407                                 using <literal>&amp;</literal>
408                                 and <emphasis>other elements of shell
409                                 syntax are not supported</emphasis>.
410                                 </para>
411
412                                 <para>If more than one command is
413                                 specified, the commands are invoked
414                                 sequentially in the order they appear
415                                 in the unit file. If one of the
416                                 commands fails (and is not prefixed
417                                 with <literal>-</literal>), other lines
418                                 are not executed, and the unit is
419                                 considered failed.</para>
420
421                                 <para>Unless
422                                 <varname>Type=forking</varname> is
423                                 set, the process started via this
424                                 command line will be considered the
425                                 main process of the daemon.</para>
426
427                                 <para>The command line accepts
428                                 <literal>%</literal> specifiers as
429                                 described in
430                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
431                                 Note that the first argument of the
432                                 command line (i.e. the program to
433                                 execute) may not include
434                                 specifiers.</para>
435
436                                 <para>Basic environment variable
437                                 substitution is supported. Use
438                                 <literal>${FOO}</literal> as part of a
439                                 word, or as a word of its own, on the
440                                 command line, in which case it will be
441                                 replaced by the value of the
442                                 environment variable including all
443                                 whitespace it contains, resulting in a
444                                 single argument. Use
445                                 <literal>$FOO</literal> as a separate
446                                 word on the command line, in which
447                                 case it will be replaced by the value
448                                 of the environment variable split at
449                                 whitespace, resulting in zero or more
450                                 arguments. To pass a literal dollar
451                                 sign, use <literal>$$</literal>.
452                                 Variables whose value is not known at
453                                 expansion time are treated as empty
454                                 strings. Note that the first argument
455                                 (i.e. the program to execute) may not
456                                 be a variable.</para>
457
458                                 <para>Variables to be used in this
459                                 fashion may be defined through
460                                 <varname>Environment=</varname> and
461                                 <varname>EnvironmentFile=</varname>.
462                                 In addition, variables listed in the
463                                 section "Environment variables in
464                                 spawned processes" in
465                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
466                                 which are considered "static
467                                 configuration", may be used (this includes
468                                 e.g. <varname>$USER</varname>, but not
469                                 <varname>$TERM</varname>).</para>
470
471                                 <para>Optionally, if the absolute file
472                                 name is prefixed with
473                                 <literal>@</literal>, the second token
474                                 will be passed as
475                                 <literal>argv[0]</literal> to the
476                                 executed process, followed by the
477                                 further arguments specified. If the
478                                 absolute filename is prefixed with
479                                 <literal>-</literal>, an exit code of
480                                 the command normally considered a
481                                 failure (i.e. non-zero exit status or
482                                 abnormal exit due to signal) is ignored
483                                 and considered success. If both
484                                 <literal>-</literal> and
485                                 <literal>@</literal> are used, they
486                                 can appear in either order.</para>
487
488                                 <para>Note that this setting does not
489                                 directly support shell command
490                                 lines. If shell command lines are to
491                                 be used, they need to be passed
492                                 explicitly to a shell implementation
493                                 of some kind. Example:</para>
494                                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/sh -c 'dmesg | tac'</programlisting>
495                                 <para>Example:</para>
496                                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo one ; /bin/echo "two two"</programlisting>
497                                 <para>This will execute
498                                 <command>/bin/echo</command> two
499                                 times, each time with one argument:
500                                 <literal>one</literal> and
501                                 <literal>two two</literal>,
502                                 respectively. Because two commands are
503                                 specified,
504                                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> must
505                                 be used.</para>
506
507                                 <para>Example:</para>
508                                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo / &gt;/dev/null &amp; \; \
509 /bin/ls</programlisting>
510                                 <para>This will execute
511                                 <command>/bin/echo</command> with five
512                                 arguments: <literal>/</literal>,
513                                 <literal>&gt;/dev/null</literal>,
514                                 <literal>&amp;</literal>,
515                                 <literal>;</literal>, and
516                                 <literal>/bin/ls</literal>.</para>
517
518                                 <para>Example:</para>
519                                 <programlisting>Environment="ONE=one" 'TWO=two two'
520 ExecStart=/bin/echo $ONE $TWO ${TWO}</programlisting>
521                                 <para>This will execute
522                                 <command>/bin/echo</command> with four
523                                 arguments: <literal>one</literal>,
524                                 <literal>two</literal>,
525                                 <literal>two</literal>, and
526                                 <literal>two two</literal>.</para>
527                               </listitem>
528                         </varlistentry>
529
530                         <varlistentry>
531                                 <term><varname>ExecStartPre=</varname></term>
532                                 <term><varname>ExecStartPost=</varname></term>
533                                 <listitem><para>Additional commands
534                                 that are executed before or after
535                                 the command in
536                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, respectively.
537                                 Syntax is the same as for
538                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, except
539                                 that multiple command lines are allowed
540                                 and the commands are executed one
541                                 after the other, serially.</para>
542
543                                 <para>If any of those commands (not
544                                 prefixed with <literal>-</literal>)
545                                 fail, the rest are not executed and
546                                 the unit is considered failed.</para>
547                                 </listitem>
548                         </varlistentry>
549
550                         <varlistentry>
551                                 <term><varname>ExecReload=</varname></term>
552                                 <listitem><para>Commands to execute to
553                                 trigger a configuration reload in the
554                                 service. This argument takes multiple
555                                 command lines, following the same
556                                 scheme as described for
557                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
558                                 above. Use of this setting is
559                                 optional. Specifier and environment
560                                 variable substitution is supported
561                                 here following the same scheme as for
562                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>.</para>
563
564                                 <para>One additional, special
565                                 environment variable is set: if known,
566                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname> is set to
567                                 the main process of the daemon, and
568                                 may be used for command lines like the
569                                 following:</para>
570
571                                 <programlisting>/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID</programlisting>
572
573                                 <para>Note however that reloading a
574                                 daemon by sending a signal (as with
575                                 the example line above) is usually not
576                                 a good choice, because this is an
577                                 asynchronous operation and hence not
578                                 suitable to order reloads of multiple
579                                 services against each other. It is
580                                 strongly recommended to set
581                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname> to a
582                                 command that not only triggers a
583                                 configuration reload of the daemon,
584                                 but also synchronously waits for it to
585                                 complete.</para>
586                                 </listitem>
587                         </varlistentry>
588
589                         <varlistentry>
590                                 <term><varname>ExecStop=</varname></term>
591                                 <listitem><para>Commands to execute to
592                                 stop the service started via
593                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>. This
594                                 argument takes multiple command lines,
595                                 following the same scheme as described
596                                 for <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
597                                 above. Use of this setting is
598                                 optional. After the commands configured
599                                 in this option are run, all processes
600                                 remaining for a service are
601                                 terminated according to the
602                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname> setting
603                                 (see
604                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>). If
605                                 this option is not specified, the
606                                 process is terminated immediately when
607                                 service stop is requested. Specifier
608                                 and environment variable substitution
609                                 is supported (including
610                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname>, see
611                                 above).</para></listitem>
612                         </varlistentry>
613
614                         <varlistentry>
615                                 <term><varname>ExecStopPost=</varname></term>
616                                 <listitem><para>Additional commands
617                                 that are executed after the service
618                                 was stopped. This includes cases where
619                                 the commands configured in
620                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname> were used,
621                                 where the service does not have any
622                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname> defined, or
623                                 where the service exited unexpectedly. This
624                                 argument takes multiple command lines,
625                                 following the same scheme as described
626                                 for <varname>ExecStart</varname>. Use
627                                 of these settings is
628                                 optional. Specifier and environment
629                                 variable substitution is
630                                 supported.</para></listitem>
631                         </varlistentry>
632
633                         <varlistentry>
634                                 <term><varname>RestartSec=</varname></term>
635                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
636                                 sleep before restarting a service (as
637                                 configured with
638                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>). Takes a
639                                 unit-less value in seconds, or a time
640                                 span value such as "5min
641                                 20s". Defaults to
642                                 100ms.</para></listitem>
643                         </varlistentry>
644
645                         <varlistentry>
646                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStartSec=</varname></term>
647                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
648                                 wait for start-up. If a
649                                 daemon service does not signal
650                                 start-up completion within the
651                                 configured time, the service will be
652                                 considered failed and will be shut
653                                 down again.
654                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
655                                 time span value such as "5min
656                                 20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to
657                                 disable the timeout logic. Defaults to
658                                 <varname>DefaultTimeoutStartSec=</varname> from
659                                 the manager configuration file, except
660                                 when <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
661                                 used, in which case the timeout
662                                 is disabled by default
663                                 (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-systemd.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
664                                 </para></listitem>
665                         </varlistentry>
666
667                         <varlistentry>
668                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname></term>
669                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
670                                 wait for stop. If a service is asked
671                                 to stop, but does not terminate in the
672                                 specified time, it will be terminated
673                                 forcibly via <constant>SIGTERM</constant>,
674                                 and after another timeout of equal duration
675                                 with <constant>SIGKILL</constant> (see
676                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname>
677                                 in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
678                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
679                                 time span value such as "5min
680                                 20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to disable
681                                 the timeout logic. Defaults to
682                                 <varname>DefaultTimeoutStopSec=</varname> from the
683                                 manager configuration file
684                                 (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-systemd.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
685                                 </para></listitem>
686                         </varlistentry>
687
688                         <varlistentry>
689                                 <term><varname>TimeoutSec=</varname></term>
690                                 <listitem><para>A shorthand for configuring
691                                 both <varname>TimeoutStartSec=</varname>
692                                 and <varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname>
693                                 to the specified value.
694                                 </para></listitem>
695                         </varlistentry>
696
697                         <varlistentry>
698                                 <term><varname>WatchdogSec=</varname></term>
699                                 <listitem><para>Configures the
700                                 watchdog timeout for a service. The
701                                 watchdog is activated when the start-up is
702                                 completed. The service must call
703                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
704                                 regularly with <literal>WATCHDOG=1</literal>
705                                 (i.e. the "keep-alive ping"). If the time
706                                 between two such calls is larger than
707                                 the configured time, then the service
708                                 is placed in a failed state. By
709                                 setting <varname>Restart=</varname> to
710                                 <option>on-failure</option> or
711                                 <option>always</option>, the service
712                                 will be automatically restarted. The
713                                 time configured here will be passed to
714                                 the executed service process in the
715                                 <varname>WATCHDOG_USEC=</varname>
716                                 environment variable. This allows
717                                 daemons to automatically enable the
718                                 keep-alive pinging logic if watchdog
719                                 support is enabled for the service. If
720                                 this option is used,
721                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> (see
722                                 below) should be set to open access to
723                                 the notification socket provided by
724                                 systemd. If
725                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is
726                                 not set, it will be implicitly set to
727                                 <option>main</option>. Defaults to 0,
728                                 which disables this
729                                 feature.</para></listitem>
730                         </varlistentry>
731
732                         <varlistentry>
733                                 <term><varname>Restart=</varname></term>
734                                 <listitem><para>Configures whether the
735                                 service shall be restarted when the
736                                 service process exits, is killed,
737                                 or a timeout is reached. The service
738                                 process may be the main service
739                                 process, but it may also be one of the
740                                 processes specified with
741                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
742                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
743                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>,
744                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>, or
745                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>.
746                                 When the death of the process is a
747                                 result of systemd operation (e.g. service
748                                 stop or restart), the service will not be
749                                 restarted. Timeouts include missing
750                                 the watchdog "keep-alive ping"
751                                 deadline and a service start, reload,
752                                 and stop operation timeouts.</para>
753
754                                 <para>Takes one of
755                                 <option>no</option>,
756                                 <option>on-success</option>,
757                                 <option>on-failure</option>,
758                                 <option>on-abnormal</option>,
759                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>,
760                                 <option>on-abort</option>, or
761                                 <option>always</option>. If set to
762                                 <option>no</option> (the default), the
763                                 service will not be restarted. If set
764                                 to <option>on-success</option>, it
765                                 will be restarted only when the
766                                 service process exits cleanly.  In
767                                 this context, a clean exit means an
768                                 exit code of 0, or one of the signals
769                                 <constant>SIGHUP</constant>,
770                                 <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
771                                 <constant>SIGTERM</constant> or
772                                 <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>, and
773                                 additionally, exit statuses and
774                                 signals specified in
775                                 <varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname>.
776                                 If set to <option>on-failure</option>,
777                                 the service will be restarted when the
778                                 process exits with a non-zero exit
779                                 code, is terminated by a signal
780                                 (including on core dump, but excluding
781                                 the aforementiond four signals), when
782                                 an operation (such as service reload)
783                                 times out, and when the configured
784                                 watchdog timeout is triggered.  If set
785                                 to <option>on-abnormal</option>, the
786                                 service will be restarted when the
787                                 process is terminated by a signal
788                                 (including on core dump, excluding the
789                                 aforementioned four signals), when an
790                                 operation times out, or when the
791                                 watchdog timeout is triggered. If set
792                                 to <option>on-abort</option>, the
793                                 service will be restarted only if the
794                                 service process exits due to an
795                                 uncaught signal not specified as a
796                                 clean exit status.  If set to
797                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>, the
798                                 service will be restarted only if the
799                                 watchdog timeout for the service
800                                 expires.  If set to
801                                 <option>always</option>, the service
802                                 will be restarted regardless of
803                                 whether it exited cleanly or not, got
804                                 terminated abnormally by a signal, or
805                                 hit a timeout.</para>
806
807                                 <table>
808                                         <title>Exit causes and the effect of the <varname>Restart=</varname> settings on them</title>
809
810                                         <tgroup cols='2'>
811                                                 <colspec colname='path' />
812                                                 <colspec colname='expl' />
813                                                 <thead>
814                                                         <row>
815                                                                 <entry>Restart settings/Exit causes</entry>
816                                                                 <entry><option>no</option></entry>
817                                                                 <entry><option>always</option></entry>
818                                                                 <entry><option>on-success</option></entry>
819                                                                 <entry><option>on-failure</option></entry>
820                                                                 <entry><option>on-abnormal</option></entry>
821                                                                 <entry><option>on-abort</option></entry>
822                                                                 <entry><option>on-watchdog</option></entry>
823                                                         </row>
824                                                 </thead>
825                                                 <tbody>
826                                                         <row>
827                                                                 <entry>Clean exit code or signal</entry>
828                                                                 <entry/>
829                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
830                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
831                                                                 <entry/>
832                                                                 <entry/>
833                                                                 <entry/>
834                                                                 <entry/>
835                                                         </row>
836                                                         <row>
837                                                                 <entry>Unclean exit code</entry>
838                                                                 <entry/>
839                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
840                                                                 <entry/>
841                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
842                                                                 <entry/>
843                                                                 <entry/>
844                                                                 <entry/>
845                                                         </row>
846                                                         <row>
847                                                                 <entry>Unclean signal</entry>
848                                                                 <entry/>
849                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
850                                                                 <entry/>
851                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
852                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
853                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
854                                                                 <entry/>
855                                                         </row>
856                                                         <row>
857                                                                 <entry>Timeout</entry>
858                                                                 <entry/>
859                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
860                                                                 <entry/>
861                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
862                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
863                                                                 <entry/>
864                                                                 <entry/>
865                                                         </row>
866                                                         <row>
867                                                                 <entry>Watchdog</entry>
868                                                                 <entry/>
869                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
870                                                                 <entry/>
871                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
872                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
873                                                                 <entry/>
874                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
875                                                         </row>
876                                                 </tbody>
877                                         </tgroup>
878                                 </table>
879
880                                 <para>As exceptions to the setting
881                                 above the service will not be
882                                 restarted if the exit code or signal
883                                 is specified in
884                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>
885                                 (see below). Also, the services will
886                                 always be restarted if the exit code
887                                 or signal is specified in
888                                 <varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname>
889                                 (see below).</para>
890
891                                 <para>Setting this to
892                                 <option>on-failure</option> is the
893                                 recommended choice for long-running
894                                 services, in order to increase
895                                 reliability by attempting automatic
896                                 recovery from errors. For services
897                                 that shall be able to terminate on
898                                 their own choice (and avoid
899                                 immediate restarting),
900                                 <option>on-abnormal</option> is an
901                                 alternative choice.</para>
902                                 </listitem>
903                         </varlistentry>
904
905                         <varlistentry>
906                                 <term><varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname></term>
907                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
908                                 status definitions that when returned
909                                 by the main service process will be
910                                 considered successful termination, in
911                                 addition to the normal successful exit
912                                 code 0 and the signals <constant>SIGHUP</constant>, <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
913                                 <constant>SIGTERM</constant>, and <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>. Exit status
914                                 definitions can either be numeric exit
915                                 codes or termination signal names,
916                                 separated by spaces. For example:
917                                 <programlisting>SuccessExitStatus=1 2 8 SIGKILL</programlisting>
918                                 ensures that exit codes 1, 2, 8 and
919                                 the termination signal
920                                 <constant>SIGKILL</constant> are
921                                 considered clean service terminations.
922                                 </para>
923
924                                 <para>Note that if a process has a
925                                 signal handler installed and exits by
926                                 calling
927                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>_exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
928                                 in response to a signal, the
929                                 information about the signal is lost.
930                                 Programs should instead perform cleanup and kill themselves with the same signal instead. See
931                                 <ulink url="http://www.cons.org/cracauer/sigint.html">Proper handling of SIGINT/SIGQUIT — How to be a proper program</ulink>.</para>
932
933                                 <para>This option may appear more than once,
934                                 in which case the list of successful
935                                 exit statuses is merged. If the empty
936                                 string is assigned to this option, the
937                                 list is reset, all prior assignments
938                                 of this option will have no
939                                 effect.</para></listitem>
940                         </varlistentry>
941
942                         <varlistentry>
943                                 <term><varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname></term>
944                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
945                                 status definitions that when returned
946                                 by the main service process will
947                                 prevent automatic service restarts,
948                                 regardless of the restart setting
949                                 configured with
950                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. Exit
951                                 status definitions can either be
952                                 numeric exit codes or termination
953                                 signal names, and are separated by
954                                 spaces. Defaults to the empty list, so
955                                 that, by default, no exit status is
956                                 excluded from the configured restart
957                                 logic. For example:
958                                 <programlisting>RestartPreventExitStatus=1 6 SIGABRT</programlisting> ensures that exit
959                                 codes 1 and 6 and the termination
960                                 signal <constant>SIGABRT</constant> will
961                                 not result in automatic service
962                                 restarting. This
963                                 option may appear more than once, in
964                                 which case the list of restart-preventing
965                                 statuses is merged. If the empty
966                                 string is assigned to this option, the
967                                 list is reset and all prior assignments
968                                 of this option will have no
969                                 effect.</para></listitem>
970                         </varlistentry>
971
972                         <varlistentry>
973                                 <term><varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname></term>
974                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
975                                 status definitions that when returned
976                                 by the main service process will force
977                                 automatic service restarts, regardless
978                                 of the restart setting configured with
979                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. The
980                                 argument format is similar to
981                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>.</para></listitem>
982                         </varlistentry>
983
984                         <varlistentry>
985                                 <term><varname>PermissionsStartOnly=</varname></term>
986                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
987                                 argument. If true, the permission-related
988                                 execution options, as
989                                 configured with
990                                 <varname>User=</varname> and similar
991                                 options (see
992                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
993                                 for more information), are only applied
994                                 to the process started with
995                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
996                                 to the various other
997                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
998                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
999                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
1000                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
1001                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
1002                                 commands. If false, the setting is
1003                                 applied to all configured commands the
1004                                 same way. Defaults to
1005                                 false.</para></listitem>
1006                         </varlistentry>
1007
1008                         <varlistentry>
1009                                 <term><varname>RootDirectoryStartOnly=</varname></term>
1010                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
1011                                 argument. If true, the root directory,
1012                                 as configured with the
1013                                 <varname>RootDirectory=</varname>
1014                                 option (see
1015                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1016                                 for more information), is only applied
1017                                 to the process started with
1018                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
1019                                 to the various other
1020                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
1021                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
1022                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
1023                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
1024                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
1025                                 commands. If false, the setting is
1026                                 applied to all configured commands the
1027                                 same way. Defaults to
1028                                 false.</para></listitem>
1029                         </varlistentry>
1030
1031                         <varlistentry>
1032                                 <term><varname>NonBlocking=</varname></term>
1033                                 <listitem><para>Set the
1034                                 <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
1035                                 for all file descriptors passed via
1036                                 socket-based activation. If true, all
1037                                 file descriptors >= 3 (i.e. all except
1038                                 stdin, stdout, and stderr) will have
1039                                 the <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
1040                                 set and hence are in
1041                                 non-blocking mode. This option is only
1042                                 useful in conjunction with a socket
1043                                 unit, as described in
1044                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Defaults
1045                                 to false.</para></listitem>
1046                         </varlistentry>
1047
1048                         <varlistentry>
1049                                 <term><varname>NotifyAccess=</varname></term>
1050                                 <listitem><para>Controls access to the
1051                                 service status notification socket, as
1052                                 accessible via the
1053                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1054                                 call. Takes one of
1055                                 <option>none</option> (the default),
1056                                 <option>main</option> or
1057                                 <option>all</option>. If
1058                                 <option>none</option>, no daemon status
1059                                 updates are accepted from the service
1060                                 processes, all status update messages
1061                                 are ignored. If <option>main</option>,
1062                                 only service updates sent from the
1063                                 main process of the service are
1064                                 accepted. If <option>all</option>, all
1065                                 services updates from all members of
1066                                 the service's control group are
1067                                 accepted. This option should be set to
1068                                 open access to the notification socket
1069                                 when using
1070                                 <varname>Type=notify</varname> or
1071                                 <varname>WatchdogSec=</varname> (see
1072                                 above). If those options are used but
1073                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is not
1074                                 configured, it will be implicitly set
1075                                 to
1076                                 <option>main</option>.</para></listitem>
1077                         </varlistentry>
1078
1079                         <varlistentry>
1080                                 <term><varname>Sockets=</varname></term>
1081                                 <listitem><para>Specifies the name of
1082                                 the socket units this service shall
1083                                 inherit the sockets from when the
1084                                 service is started. Normally it
1085                                 should not be necessary to use this
1086                                 setting as all sockets whose unit
1087                                 shares the same name as the service
1088                                 (ignoring the different suffix of course)
1089                                 are passed to the spawned
1090                                 process.</para>
1091
1092                                 <para>Note that the same socket may be
1093                                 passed to multiple processes at the
1094                                 same time. Also note that a different
1095                                 service may be activated on incoming
1096                                 traffic than that which inherits the
1097                                 sockets. Or in other words: the
1098                                 <varname>Service=</varname> setting of
1099                                 <filename>.socket</filename> units
1100                                 does not have to match the inverse of
1101                                 the <varname>Sockets=</varname>
1102                                 setting of the
1103                                 <filename>.service</filename> it
1104                                 refers to.</para>
1105
1106                                 <para>This option may appear more than
1107                                 once, in which case the list of socket
1108                                 units is merged. If the empty string
1109                                 is assigned to this option, the list of
1110                                 sockets is reset, and all prior uses of
1111                                 this setting will have no
1112                                 effect.</para></listitem>
1113                         </varlistentry>
1114
1115                         <varlistentry>
1116                                 <term><varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname></term>
1117                                 <term><varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname></term>
1118
1119                                 <listitem><para>Configure service
1120                                 start rate limiting. By default,
1121                                 services which are started more
1122                                 than 5 times within 10 seconds are not
1123                                 permitted to start any more times
1124                                 until the 10 second interval ends. With
1125                                 these two options, this rate limiting
1126                                 may be modified. Use
1127                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
1128                                 to configure the checking interval (defaults to
1129                                 <varname>DefaultStartLimitInterval=</varname> in
1130                                 manager configuration file, set to 0 to disable
1131                                 any kind of rate limiting). Use
1132                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> to
1133                                 configure how many starts per interval
1134                                 are allowed (defaults to
1135                                 <varname>DefaultStartLimitBurst=</varname> in
1136                                 manager configuration file). These
1137                                 configuration options are particularly
1138                                 useful in conjunction with
1139                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>; however,
1140                                 they apply to all kinds of starts
1141                                 (including manual), not just those
1142                                 triggered by the
1143                                 <varname>Restart=</varname> logic.
1144                                 Note that units which are configured
1145                                 for <varname>Restart=</varname> and
1146                                 which reach the start limit are not
1147                                 attempted to be restarted anymore;
1148                                 however, they may still be restarted
1149                                 manually at a later point, from which
1150                                 point on, the restart logic is again
1151                                 activated. Note that
1152                                 <command>systemctl
1153                                 reset-failed</command> will cause the
1154                                 restart rate counter for a service to
1155                                 be flushed, which is useful if the
1156                                 administrator wants to manually start
1157                                 a service and the start limit
1158                                 interferes with
1159                                 that.</para></listitem>
1160                         </varlistentry>
1161
1162                         <varlistentry>
1163                                 <term><varname>StartLimitAction=</varname></term>
1164
1165                                 <listitem><para>Configure the action
1166                                 to take if the rate limit configured
1167                                 with
1168                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
1169                                 and
1170                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> is
1171                                 hit. Takes one of
1172                                 <option>none</option>,
1173                                 <option>reboot</option>,
1174                                 <option>reboot-force</option>,
1175                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>,
1176                                 <option>poweroff</option>,
1177                                 <option>poweroff-force</option> or
1178                                 <option>poweroff-immediate</option>. If
1179                                 <option>none</option> is set, hitting
1180                                 the rate limit will trigger no action
1181                                 besides that the start will not be
1182                                 permitted. <option>reboot</option>
1183                                 causes a reboot following the normal
1184                                 shutdown procedure (i.e. equivalent to
1185                                 <command>systemctl reboot</command>).
1186                                 <option>reboot-force</option> causes a
1187                                 forced reboot which will terminate all
1188                                 processes forcibly but should cause no
1189                                 dirty file systems on reboot
1190                                 (i.e. equivalent to <command>systemctl
1191                                 reboot -f</command>) and
1192                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>
1193                                 causes immediate execution of the
1194                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1195                                 system call, which might result in
1196                                 data loss. Similar,
1197                                 <option>poweroff</option>,
1198                                 <option>poweroff-force</option>,
1199                                 <option>poweroff-immediate</option>
1200                                 have the effect of powering down the
1201                                 system with similar
1202                                 semantics. Defaults to
1203                                 <option>none</option>.</para></listitem>
1204                         </varlistentry>
1205
1206                         <varlistentry>
1207                                 <term><varname>FailureAction=</varname></term>
1208                                 <listitem><para>Configure the action
1209                                 to take when the service enters a failed
1210                                 state. Takes the same values as
1211                                 <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
1212                                 and executes the same actions.
1213                                 Defaults to <option>none</option>.
1214                                 </para></listitem>
1215                         </varlistentry>
1216
1217                         <varlistentry>
1218                                 <term><varname>RebootArgument=</varname></term>
1219                                 <listitem><para>Configure the optional
1220                                 argument for the
1221                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1222                                 system call if
1223                                 <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
1224                                 or <varname>FailureAction=</varname>
1225                                 is a reboot action. This works just
1226                                 like the optional argument to
1227                                 <command>systemctl reboot</command>
1228                                 command.</para></listitem>
1229                         </varlistentry>
1230
1231                 </variablelist>
1232
1233                 <para>Check
1234                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1235                 and
1236                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1237                 for more settings.</para>
1238
1239         </refsect1>
1240
1241         <refsect1>
1242                 <title>Compatibility Options</title>
1243
1244                 <para>The following options are also available in the
1245                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section, but exist purely
1246                 for compatibility reasons and should not be used in
1247                 newly written service files.</para>
1248
1249                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
1250                         <varlistentry>
1251                                 <term><varname>SysVStartPriority=</varname></term>
1252                                 <listitem><para>Set the SysV start
1253                                 priority to use to order this service
1254                                 in relation to SysV services lacking
1255                                 LSB headers. This option is only
1256                                 necessary to fix ordering in relation
1257                                 to legacy SysV services that have no
1258                                 ordering information encoded in the
1259                                 script headers. As such, it should only
1260                                 be used as a temporary compatibility
1261                                 option and should not be used in new unit
1262                                 files. Almost always, it is a better
1263                                 choice to add explicit ordering
1264                                 directives via
1265                                 <varname>After=</varname> or
1266                                 <varname>Before=</varname>,
1267                                 instead. For more details, see
1268                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1269                                 If used, pass an integer value in the
1270                                 range 0-99.</para></listitem>
1271                         </varlistentry>
1272                 </variablelist>
1273         </refsect1>
1274
1275         <refsect1>
1276                   <title>See Also</title>
1277                   <para>
1278                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1279                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1280                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1281                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1282                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1283                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1284                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.directives</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1285                   </para>
1286         </refsect1>
1287
1288 </refentry>