chiark / gitweb /
execute: optionally ignore return status of invoked commands
[elogind.git] / src / systemctl.c
1 /*-*- Mode: C; c-basic-offset: 8 -*-*/
2
3 /***
4   This file is part of systemd.
5
6   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
7
8   systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
9   under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
10   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
11   (at your option) any later version.
12
13   systemd is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
14   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
15   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
16   General Public License for more details.
17
18   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
19   along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
20 ***/
21
22 #include <sys/reboot.h>
23 #include <stdio.h>
24 #include <getopt.h>
25 #include <stdbool.h>
26 #include <string.h>
27 #include <errno.h>
28 #include <sys/ioctl.h>
29 #include <termios.h>
30 #include <unistd.h>
31 #include <fcntl.h>
32 #include <sys/socket.h>
33
34 #include <dbus/dbus.h>
35
36 #include "log.h"
37 #include "util.h"
38 #include "macro.h"
39 #include "set.h"
40 #include "utmp-wtmp.h"
41 #include "special.h"
42 #include "initreq.h"
43 #include "strv.h"
44 #include "dbus-common.h"
45 #include "cgroup-show.h"
46 #include "cgroup-util.h"
47 #include "list.h"
48
49 static const char *arg_type = NULL;
50 static const char *arg_property = NULL;
51 static bool arg_all = false;
52 static bool arg_fail = false;
53 static bool arg_session = false;
54 static bool arg_no_block = false;
55 static bool arg_immediate = false;
56 static bool arg_no_wtmp = false;
57 static bool arg_no_sync = false;
58 static bool arg_no_wall = false;
59 static bool arg_dry = false;
60 static bool arg_quiet = false;
61 static char **arg_wall = NULL;
62 enum action {
63         ACTION_INVALID,
64         ACTION_SYSTEMCTL,
65         ACTION_HALT,
66         ACTION_POWEROFF,
67         ACTION_REBOOT,
68         ACTION_RUNLEVEL2,
69         ACTION_RUNLEVEL3,
70         ACTION_RUNLEVEL4,
71         ACTION_RUNLEVEL5,
72         ACTION_RESCUE,
73         ACTION_EMERGENCY,
74         ACTION_DEFAULT,
75         ACTION_RELOAD,
76         ACTION_REEXEC,
77         ACTION_RUNLEVEL,
78         _ACTION_MAX
79 } arg_action = ACTION_SYSTEMCTL;
80
81 static bool private_bus = false;
82
83 static bool error_is_no_service(DBusError *error) {
84
85         assert(error);
86
87         if (!dbus_error_is_set(error))
88                 return false;
89
90         if (dbus_error_has_name(error, DBUS_ERROR_NAME_HAS_NO_OWNER))
91                 return true;
92
93         if (dbus_error_has_name(error, DBUS_ERROR_SERVICE_UNKNOWN))
94                 return true;
95
96         return startswith(error->name, "org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.Spawn.");
97 }
98
99 static int bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(DBusMessageIter *iter, int type, void *data, bool next) {
100
101         assert(iter);
102         assert(data);
103
104         if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(iter) != type)
105                 return -EIO;
106
107         dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, data);
108
109         if (!dbus_message_iter_next(iter) != !next)
110                 return -EIO;
111
112         return 0;
113 }
114
115 static void warn_wall(enum action action) {
116         static const char *table[_ACTION_MAX] = {
117                 [ACTION_HALT]      = "The system is going down for system halt NOW!",
118                 [ACTION_REBOOT]    = "The system is going down for reboot NOW!",
119                 [ACTION_POWEROFF]  = "The system is going down for power-off NOW!",
120                 [ACTION_RESCUE]    = "The system is going down to rescue mode NOW!",
121                 [ACTION_EMERGENCY] = "The system is going down to emergency mode NOW!"
122         };
123
124         if (arg_no_wall)
125                 return;
126
127         if (arg_wall) {
128                 char *p;
129
130                 if (!(p = strv_join(arg_wall, " "))) {
131                         log_error("Failed to join strings.");
132                         return;
133                 }
134
135                 if (*p) {
136                         utmp_wall(p);
137                         free(p);
138                         return;
139                 }
140
141                 free(p);
142         }
143
144         if (!table[action])
145                 return;
146
147         utmp_wall(table[action]);
148 }
149
150 static int list_units(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
151         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
152         DBusError error;
153         int r;
154         DBusMessageIter iter, sub, sub2;
155         unsigned k = 0;
156
157         dbus_error_init(&error);
158
159         assert(bus);
160
161         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
162                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
163                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
164                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
165                               "ListUnits"))) {
166                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
167                 return -ENOMEM;
168         }
169
170         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
171                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
172                 r = -EIO;
173                 goto finish;
174         }
175
176         if (!dbus_message_iter_init(reply, &iter) ||
177             dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY ||
178             dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT)  {
179                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
180                 r = -EIO;
181                 goto finish;
182         }
183
184         dbus_message_iter_recurse(&iter, &sub);
185
186         printf("%-45s %-6s %-12s %-12s %-15s %s\n", "UNIT", "LOAD", "ACTIVE", "SUB", "JOB", "DESCRIPTION");
187
188         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
189                 const char *id, *description, *load_state, *active_state, *sub_state, *unit_state, *job_type, *job_path, *dot;
190                 uint32_t job_id;
191
192                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT) {
193                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
194                         r = -EIO;
195                         goto finish;
196                 }
197
198                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub, &sub2);
199
200                 if (bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &id, true) < 0 ||
201                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &description, true) < 0 ||
202                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &load_state, true) < 0 ||
203                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &active_state, true) < 0 ||
204                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &sub_state, true) < 0 ||
205                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &unit_state, true) < 0 ||
206                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_UINT32, &job_id, true) < 0 ||
207                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &job_type, true) < 0 ||
208                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &job_path, false) < 0) {
209                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
210                         r = -EIO;
211                         goto finish;
212                 }
213
214                 if ((!arg_type || ((dot = strrchr(id, '.')) &&
215                                    streq(dot+1, arg_type))) &&
216                     (arg_all || !streq(active_state, "inactive"))) {
217
218                         int a = 0, b = 0;
219
220                         if (streq(active_state, "maintenance"))
221                                 fputs(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_ON, stdout);
222
223                         printf("%-45s %-6s %-12s %-12s%n", id, load_state, active_state, sub_state, &a);
224
225                         if (job_id != 0)
226                                 printf(" %-15s%n", job_type, &b);
227                         else
228                                 b = 1 + 15;
229
230                         if (a + b + 2 < columns()) {
231                                 if (job_id == 0)
232                                         printf("                ");
233
234                                 printf(" %.*s", columns() - a - b - 2, description);
235                         }
236
237                         if (streq(active_state, "maintenance"))
238                                 fputs(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF, stdout);
239
240                         fputs("\n", stdout);
241                         k++;
242                 }
243
244                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
245         }
246
247         if (arg_all)
248                 printf("\n%u units listed.\n", k);
249         else
250                 printf("\n%u live units listed. Pass --all to see dead units, too.\n", k);
251
252         r = 0;
253
254 finish:
255         if (m)
256                 dbus_message_unref(m);
257
258         if (reply)
259                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
260
261         dbus_error_free(&error);
262
263         return r;
264 }
265
266 static int list_jobs(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
267         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
268         DBusError error;
269         int r;
270         DBusMessageIter iter, sub, sub2;
271         unsigned k = 0;
272
273         dbus_error_init(&error);
274
275         assert(bus);
276
277         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
278                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
279                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
280                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
281                               "ListJobs"))) {
282                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
283                 return -ENOMEM;
284         }
285
286         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
287                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
288                 r = -EIO;
289                 goto finish;
290         }
291
292         if (!dbus_message_iter_init(reply, &iter) ||
293             dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY ||
294             dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT)  {
295                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
296                 r = -EIO;
297                 goto finish;
298         }
299
300         dbus_message_iter_recurse(&iter, &sub);
301
302         printf("%4s %-45s %-17s %-7s\n", "JOB", "UNIT", "TYPE", "STATE");
303
304         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
305                 const char *name, *type, *state, *job_path, *unit_path;
306                 uint32_t id;
307
308                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT) {
309                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
310                         r = -EIO;
311                         goto finish;
312                 }
313
314                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub, &sub2);
315
316                 if (bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_UINT32, &id, true) < 0 ||
317                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &name, true) < 0 ||
318                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &type, true) < 0 ||
319                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &state, true) < 0 ||
320                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &job_path, true) < 0 ||
321                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &unit_path, false) < 0) {
322                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
323                         r = -EIO;
324                         goto finish;
325                 }
326
327                 printf("%4u %-45s %-17s %-7s\n", id, name, type, state);
328                 k++;
329
330                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
331         }
332
333         printf("\n%u jobs listed.\n", k);
334         r = 0;
335
336 finish:
337         if (m)
338                 dbus_message_unref(m);
339
340         if (reply)
341                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
342
343         dbus_error_free(&error);
344
345         return r;
346 }
347
348 static int load_unit(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
349         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
350         DBusError error;
351         int r;
352         unsigned i;
353
354         dbus_error_init(&error);
355
356         assert(bus);
357         assert(args);
358
359         for (i = 1; i < n; i++) {
360
361                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
362                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
363                                       "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
364                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
365                                       "LoadUnit"))) {
366                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
367                         r = -ENOMEM;
368                         goto finish;
369                 }
370
371                 if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
372                                               DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &args[i],
373                                               DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
374                         log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
375                         r = -ENOMEM;
376                         goto finish;
377                 }
378
379                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
380                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
381                         r = -EIO;
382                         goto finish;
383                 }
384
385                 dbus_message_unref(m);
386                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
387
388                 m = reply = NULL;
389         }
390
391         r = 0;
392
393 finish:
394         if (m)
395                 dbus_message_unref(m);
396
397         if (reply)
398                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
399
400         dbus_error_free(&error);
401
402         return r;
403 }
404
405 static int cancel_job(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
406         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
407         DBusError error;
408         int r;
409         unsigned i;
410
411         dbus_error_init(&error);
412
413         assert(bus);
414         assert(args);
415
416         for (i = 1; i < n; i++) {
417                 unsigned id;
418                 const char *path;
419
420                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
421                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
422                                       "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
423                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
424                                       "GetJob"))) {
425                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
426                         r = -ENOMEM;
427                         goto finish;
428                 }
429
430                 if ((r = safe_atou(args[i], &id)) < 0) {
431                         log_error("Failed to parse job id: %s", strerror(-r));
432                         goto finish;
433                 }
434
435                 assert_cc(sizeof(uint32_t) == sizeof(id));
436                 if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
437                                               DBUS_TYPE_UINT32, &id,
438                                               DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
439                         log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
440                         r = -ENOMEM;
441                         goto finish;
442                 }
443
444                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
445                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
446                         r = -EIO;
447                         goto finish;
448                 }
449
450                 if (!dbus_message_get_args(reply, &error,
451                                            DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
452                                            DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
453                         log_error("Failed to parse reply: %s", error.message);
454                         r = -EIO;
455                         goto finish;
456                 }
457
458                 dbus_message_unref(m);
459                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
460                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
461                                       path,
462                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Job",
463                                       "Cancel"))) {
464                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
465                         r = -ENOMEM;
466                         goto finish;
467                 }
468
469                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
470                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
471                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
472                         r = -EIO;
473                         goto finish;
474                 }
475
476                 dbus_message_unref(m);
477                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
478                 m = reply = NULL;
479         }
480
481         r = 0;
482
483 finish:
484         if (m)
485                 dbus_message_unref(m);
486
487         if (reply)
488                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
489
490         dbus_error_free(&error);
491
492         return r;
493 }
494
495 typedef struct WaitData {
496         Set *set;
497         bool failed;
498 } WaitData;
499
500 static DBusHandlerResult wait_filter(DBusConnection *connection, DBusMessage *message, void *data) {
501         DBusError error;
502         WaitData *d = data;
503
504         assert(connection);
505         assert(message);
506         assert(d);
507
508         dbus_error_init(&error);
509
510         log_debug("Got D-Bus request: %s.%s() on %s",
511                   dbus_message_get_interface(message),
512                   dbus_message_get_member(message),
513                   dbus_message_get_path(message));
514
515         if (dbus_message_is_signal(message, DBUS_INTERFACE_LOCAL, "Disconnected")) {
516                 log_error("Warning! D-Bus connection terminated.");
517                 dbus_connection_close(connection);
518
519         } else if (dbus_message_is_signal(message, "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager", "JobRemoved")) {
520                 uint32_t id;
521                 const char *path;
522                 dbus_bool_t success = true;
523
524                 if (!dbus_message_get_args(message, &error,
525                                            DBUS_TYPE_UINT32, &id,
526                                            DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
527                                            DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN, &success,
528                                            DBUS_TYPE_INVALID))
529                         log_error("Failed to parse message: %s", error.message);
530                 else {
531                         char *p;
532
533                         if ((p = set_remove(d->set, (char*) path)))
534                                 free(p);
535
536                         if (!success)
537                                 d->failed = true;
538                 }
539         }
540
541         dbus_error_free(&error);
542         return DBUS_HANDLER_RESULT_NOT_YET_HANDLED;
543 }
544
545 static int enable_wait_for_jobs(DBusConnection *bus) {
546         DBusError error;
547
548         assert(bus);
549
550         if (private_bus)
551                 return 0;
552
553         dbus_error_init(&error);
554         dbus_bus_add_match(bus,
555                            "type='signal',"
556                            "sender='org.freedesktop.systemd1',"
557                            "interface='org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager',"
558                            "member='JobRemoved',"
559                            "path='/org/freedesktop/systemd1'",
560                            &error);
561
562         if (dbus_error_is_set(&error)) {
563                 log_error("Failed to add match: %s", error.message);
564                 dbus_error_free(&error);
565                 return -EIO;
566         }
567
568         /* This is slightly dirty, since we don't undo the match registrations. */
569         return 0;
570 }
571
572 static int wait_for_jobs(DBusConnection *bus, Set *s) {
573         int r;
574         WaitData d;
575
576         assert(bus);
577         assert(s);
578
579         zero(d);
580         d.set = s;
581         d.failed = false;
582
583         if (!dbus_connection_add_filter(bus, wait_filter, &d, NULL)) {
584                 log_error("Failed to add filter.");
585                 r = -ENOMEM;
586                 goto finish;
587         }
588
589         while (!set_isempty(s) &&
590                dbus_connection_read_write_dispatch(bus, -1))
591                 ;
592
593         if (!arg_quiet && d.failed)
594                 log_error("Job failed, see logs for details.");
595
596         r = d.failed ? -EIO : 0;
597
598 finish:
599         /* This is slightly dirty, since we don't undo the filter registration. */
600
601         return r;
602 }
603
604 static int start_unit_one(
605                 DBusConnection *bus,
606                 const char *method,
607                 const char *name,
608                 const char *mode,
609                 Set *s) {
610
611         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
612         DBusError error;
613         int r;
614
615         assert(bus);
616         assert(method);
617         assert(name);
618         assert(mode);
619         assert(arg_no_block || s);
620
621         dbus_error_init(&error);
622
623         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
624                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
625                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
626                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
627                               method))) {
628                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
629                 r = -ENOMEM;
630                 goto finish;
631         }
632
633         if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
634                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &name,
635                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &mode,
636                                       DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
637                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
638                 r = -ENOMEM;
639                 goto finish;
640         }
641
642         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
643
644                 if (arg_action != ACTION_SYSTEMCTL && error_is_no_service(&error)) {
645                         /* There's always a fallback possible for
646                          * legacy actions. */
647                         r = 0;
648                         goto finish;
649                 }
650
651                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
652                 r = -EIO;
653                 goto finish;
654         }
655
656         if (!arg_no_block) {
657                 const char *path;
658                 char *p;
659
660                 if (!dbus_message_get_args(reply, &error,
661                                            DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
662                                            DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
663                         log_error("Failed to parse reply: %s", error.message);
664                         r = -EIO;
665                         goto finish;
666                 }
667
668                 if (!(p = strdup(path))) {
669                         log_error("Failed to duplicate path.");
670                         r = -ENOMEM;
671                         goto finish;
672                 }
673
674                 if ((r = set_put(s, p)) < 0) {
675                         free(p);
676                         log_error("Failed to add path to set.");
677                         goto finish;
678                 }
679         }
680
681         r = 1;
682
683 finish:
684         if (m)
685                 dbus_message_unref(m);
686
687         if (reply)
688                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
689
690         dbus_error_free(&error);
691
692         return r;
693 }
694
695 static enum action verb_to_action(const char *verb) {
696         if (streq(verb, "halt"))
697                 return ACTION_HALT;
698         else if (streq(verb, "poweroff"))
699                 return ACTION_POWEROFF;
700         else if (streq(verb, "reboot"))
701                 return ACTION_REBOOT;
702         else if (streq(verb, "rescue"))
703                 return ACTION_RESCUE;
704         else if (streq(verb, "emergency"))
705                 return ACTION_EMERGENCY;
706         else if (streq(verb, "default"))
707                 return ACTION_DEFAULT;
708         else
709                 return ACTION_INVALID;
710 }
711
712 static int start_unit(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
713
714         static const char * const table[_ACTION_MAX] = {
715                 [ACTION_HALT] = SPECIAL_HALT_TARGET,
716                 [ACTION_POWEROFF] = SPECIAL_POWEROFF_TARGET,
717                 [ACTION_REBOOT] = SPECIAL_REBOOT_TARGET,
718                 [ACTION_RUNLEVEL2] = SPECIAL_RUNLEVEL2_TARGET,
719                 [ACTION_RUNLEVEL3] = SPECIAL_RUNLEVEL3_TARGET,
720                 [ACTION_RUNLEVEL4] = SPECIAL_RUNLEVEL4_TARGET,
721                 [ACTION_RUNLEVEL5] = SPECIAL_RUNLEVEL5_TARGET,
722                 [ACTION_RESCUE] = SPECIAL_RESCUE_TARGET,
723                 [ACTION_EMERGENCY] = SPECIAL_EMERGENCY_SERVICE,
724                 [ACTION_DEFAULT] = SPECIAL_DEFAULT_TARGET
725         };
726
727         int r;
728         unsigned i;
729         const char *method, *mode, *one_name;
730         Set *s = NULL;
731
732         assert(bus);
733
734         if (arg_action == ACTION_SYSTEMCTL) {
735                 method =
736                         streq(args[0], "stop")    ? "StopUnit" :
737                         streq(args[0], "reload")  ? "ReloadUnit" :
738                         streq(args[0], "restart") ? "RestartUnit" :
739                                                     "StartUnit";
740
741                 mode =
742                         (streq(args[0], "isolate") ||
743                          streq(args[0], "rescue")  ||
744                          streq(args[0], "emergency")) ? "isolate" :
745                                              arg_fail ? "fail" :
746                                                         "replace";
747
748                 one_name = table[verb_to_action(args[0])];
749
750         } else {
751                 assert(arg_action < ELEMENTSOF(table));
752                 assert(table[arg_action]);
753
754                 method = "StartUnit";
755
756                 mode = (arg_action == ACTION_EMERGENCY ||
757                         arg_action == ACTION_RESCUE) ? "isolate" : "replace";
758
759                 one_name = table[arg_action];
760         }
761
762         if (!arg_no_block) {
763                 if ((r = enable_wait_for_jobs(bus)) < 0) {
764                         log_error("Could not watch jobs: %s", strerror(-r));
765                         goto finish;
766                 }
767
768                 if (!(s = set_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func))) {
769                         log_error("Failed to allocate set.");
770                         r = -ENOMEM;
771                         goto finish;
772                 }
773         }
774
775         r = 0;
776
777         if (one_name) {
778                 if ((r = start_unit_one(bus, method, one_name, mode, s)) <= 0)
779                         goto finish;
780         } else {
781                 for (i = 1; i < n; i++)
782                         if ((r = start_unit_one(bus, method, args[i], mode, s)) < 0)
783                                 goto finish;
784         }
785
786         if (!arg_no_block)
787                 r = wait_for_jobs(bus, s);
788
789 finish:
790         if (s)
791                 set_free_free(s);
792
793         return r;
794 }
795
796 static int start_special(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
797         int r;
798
799         assert(bus);
800         assert(args);
801
802         r = start_unit(bus, args, n);
803
804         if (r >= 0)
805                 warn_wall(verb_to_action(args[0]));
806
807         return r;
808 }
809
810 static int check_unit(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
811         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
812         const char
813                 *interface = "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Unit",
814                 *property = "ActiveState";
815         int r = -EADDRNOTAVAIL;
816         DBusError error;
817         unsigned i;
818
819         assert(bus);
820         assert(args);
821
822         dbus_error_init(&error);
823
824         for (i = 1; i < n; i++) {
825                 const char *path = NULL;
826                 const char *state;
827                 DBusMessageIter iter, sub;
828
829                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
830                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
831                                       "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
832                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
833                                       "GetUnit"))) {
834                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
835                         r = -ENOMEM;
836                         goto finish;
837                 }
838
839                 if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
840                                               DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &args[i],
841                                               DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
842                         log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
843                         r = -ENOMEM;
844                         goto finish;
845                 }
846
847                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
848
849                         /* Hmm, cannot figure out anything about this unit... */
850                         if (!arg_quiet)
851                                 puts("unknown");
852
853                         dbus_error_free(&error);
854                         continue;
855                 }
856
857                 if (!dbus_message_get_args(reply, &error,
858                                            DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
859                                            DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
860                         log_error("Failed to parse reply: %s", error.message);
861                         r = -EIO;
862                         goto finish;
863                 }
864
865                 dbus_message_unref(m);
866                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
867                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
868                                       path,
869                                       "org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties",
870                                       "Get"))) {
871                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
872                         r = -ENOMEM;
873                         goto finish;
874                 }
875
876                 if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
877                                               DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &interface,
878                                               DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &property,
879                                               DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
880                         log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
881                         r = -ENOMEM;
882                         goto finish;
883                 }
884
885                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
886                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
887                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
888                         r = -EIO;
889                         goto finish;
890                 }
891
892                 if (!dbus_message_iter_init(reply, &iter) ||
893                     dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_VARIANT)  {
894                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
895                         r = -EIO;
896                         goto finish;
897                 }
898
899                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(&iter, &sub);
900
901                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_STRING)  {
902                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
903                         r = -EIO;
904                         goto finish;
905                 }
906
907                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub, &state);
908
909                 if (!arg_quiet)
910                         puts(state);
911
912                 if (streq(state, "active") || startswith(state, "reloading"))
913                         r = 0;
914
915                 dbus_message_unref(m);
916                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
917                 m = reply = NULL;
918         }
919
920 finish:
921         if (m)
922                 dbus_message_unref(m);
923
924         if (reply)
925                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
926
927         dbus_error_free(&error);
928
929         return r;
930 }
931
932 typedef struct ExecStatusInfo {
933         char *path;
934         char **argv;
935
936         bool ignore;
937
938         usec_t start_timestamp;
939         usec_t exit_timestamp;
940         pid_t pid;
941         int code;
942         int status;
943
944         LIST_FIELDS(struct ExecStatusInfo, exec);
945 } ExecStatusInfo;
946
947 static void exec_status_info_free(ExecStatusInfo *i) {
948         assert(i);
949
950         free(i->path);
951         strv_free(i->argv);
952         free(i);
953 }
954
955 static int exec_status_info_deserialize(DBusMessageIter *sub, ExecStatusInfo *i) {
956         uint64_t start_timestamp, exit_timestamp;
957         DBusMessageIter sub2, sub3;
958         const char*path;
959         unsigned n;
960         uint32_t pid;
961         int32_t code, status;
962         dbus_bool_t ignore;
963
964         assert(i);
965         assert(i);
966
967         if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(sub) != DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT)
968                 return -EIO;
969
970         dbus_message_iter_recurse(sub, &sub2);
971
972         if (bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &path, true) < 0)
973                 return -EIO;
974
975         if (!(i->path = strdup(path)))
976                 return -ENOMEM;
977
978         if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub2) != DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY ||
979             dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(&sub2) != DBUS_TYPE_STRING)
980                 return -EIO;
981
982         n = 0;
983         dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub2, &sub3);
984         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub3) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
985                 assert(dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub3) == DBUS_TYPE_STRING);
986                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub3);
987                 n++;
988         }
989
990
991         if (!(i->argv = new0(char*, n+1)))
992                 return -ENOMEM;
993
994         n = 0;
995         dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub2, &sub3);
996         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub3) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
997                 const char *s;
998
999                 assert(dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub3) == DBUS_TYPE_STRING);
1000                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub3, &s);
1001                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub3);
1002
1003                 if (!(i->argv[n++] = strdup(s)))
1004                         return -ENOMEM;
1005         }
1006
1007         if (!dbus_message_iter_next(&sub2) ||
1008             bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN, &ignore, true) < 0 ||
1009             bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_UINT64, &start_timestamp, true) < 0 ||
1010             bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_UINT64, &exit_timestamp, true) < 0 ||
1011             bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_UINT32, &pid, true) < 0 ||
1012             bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_INT32, &code, true) < 0 ||
1013             bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_INT32, &status, false) < 0)
1014                 return -EIO;
1015
1016         i->ignore = ignore;
1017         i->start_timestamp = (usec_t) start_timestamp;
1018         i->exit_timestamp = (usec_t) exit_timestamp;
1019         i->pid = (pid_t) pid;
1020         i->code = code;
1021         i->status = status;
1022
1023         return 0;
1024 }
1025
1026 typedef struct UnitStatusInfo {
1027         const char *id;
1028         const char *load_state;
1029         const char *active_state;
1030         const char *sub_state;
1031
1032         const char *description;
1033
1034         const char *fragment_path;
1035         const char *default_control_group;
1036
1037         /* Service */
1038         pid_t main_pid;
1039         pid_t control_pid;
1040         const char *status_text;
1041         bool running;
1042
1043         usec_t start_timestamp;
1044         usec_t exit_timestamp;
1045
1046         int exit_code, exit_status;
1047
1048         /* Socket */
1049         unsigned n_accepted;
1050         unsigned n_connections;
1051         bool accept;
1052
1053         /* Device */
1054         const char *sysfs_path;
1055
1056         /* Mount, Automount */
1057         const char *where;
1058
1059         /* Swap */
1060         const char *what;
1061
1062         LIST_HEAD(ExecStatusInfo, exec);
1063 } UnitStatusInfo;
1064
1065 static void print_status_info(UnitStatusInfo *i) {
1066         ExecStatusInfo *p;
1067         int r;
1068
1069         assert(i);
1070
1071         /* This shows pretty information about a unit. See
1072          * print_property() for a low-level property printer */
1073
1074         printf("%s", strna(i->id));
1075
1076         if (i->description && !streq_ptr(i->id, i->description))
1077                 printf(" - %s", i->description);
1078
1079         printf("\n");
1080
1081         if (i->fragment_path)
1082                 printf("\t  Loaded: %s (%s)\n", strna(i->load_state), i->fragment_path);
1083         else if (streq_ptr(i->load_state, "failed"))
1084                 printf("\t  Loaded: " ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_ON "%s" ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF "\n", strna(i->load_state));
1085         else
1086                 printf("\t  Loaded: %s\n", strna(i->load_state));
1087
1088         if (streq_ptr(i->active_state, "maintenance")) {
1089                         if (streq_ptr(i->active_state, i->sub_state))
1090                                 printf("\t  Active: " ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_ON "%s" ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF "\n",
1091                                        strna(i->active_state));
1092                         else
1093                                 printf("\t  Active: " ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_ON "%s (%s)" ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF "\n",
1094                                        strna(i->active_state),
1095                                        strna(i->sub_state));
1096         } else {
1097                 if (streq_ptr(i->active_state, i->sub_state))
1098                         printf("\t  Active: %s\n",
1099                                strna(i->active_state));
1100                 else
1101                         printf("\t  Active: %s (%s)\n",
1102                                strna(i->active_state),
1103                                strna(i->sub_state));
1104         }
1105
1106         if (i->sysfs_path)
1107                 printf("\t  Device: %s\n", i->sysfs_path);
1108         else if (i->where)
1109                 printf("\t   Where: %s\n", i->where);
1110         else if (i->what)
1111                 printf("\t    What: %s\n", i->what);
1112
1113         if (i->accept)
1114                 printf("\tAccepted: %u; Connected: %u\n", i->n_accepted, i->n_connections);
1115
1116         LIST_FOREACH(exec, p, i->exec) {
1117                 char *t;
1118
1119                 /* Only show exited processes here */
1120                 if (p->code == 0)
1121                         continue;
1122
1123                 t = strv_join(p->argv, " ");
1124                 printf("\t  Exited: %u (%s, code=%s, ", p->pid, strna(t), sigchld_code_to_string(p->code));
1125                 free(t);
1126
1127                 if (p->code == CLD_EXITED)
1128                         printf("status=%i", p->status);
1129                 else
1130                         printf("signal=%s", signal_to_string(p->status));
1131                 printf(")\n");
1132
1133                 if (i->main_pid == p->pid &&
1134                     i->start_timestamp == p->start_timestamp &&
1135                     i->exit_timestamp == p->start_timestamp)
1136                         /* Let's not show this twice */
1137                         i->main_pid = 0;
1138
1139                 if (p->pid == i->control_pid)
1140                         i->control_pid = 0;
1141         }
1142
1143         if (i->main_pid > 0 || i->control_pid > 0) {
1144                 printf("\t");
1145
1146                 if (i->main_pid > 0) {
1147                         printf("    Main: %u", (unsigned) i->main_pid);
1148
1149                         if (i->running) {
1150                                 char *t = NULL;
1151                                 get_process_name(i->main_pid, &t);
1152                                 if (t) {
1153                                         printf(" (%s)", t);
1154                                         free(t);
1155                                 }
1156                         } else {
1157                                 printf(" (code=%s, ", sigchld_code_to_string(i->exit_code));
1158
1159                                 if (i->exit_code == CLD_EXITED)
1160                                         printf("status=%i", i->exit_status);
1161                                 else
1162                                         printf("signal=%s", signal_to_string(i->exit_status));
1163                                 printf(")");
1164                         }
1165                 }
1166
1167                 if (i->main_pid > 0 && i->control_pid > 0)
1168                         printf(";");
1169
1170                 if (i->control_pid > 0) {
1171                         char *t = NULL;
1172
1173                         printf(" Control: %u", (unsigned) i->control_pid);
1174
1175                         get_process_name(i->control_pid, &t);
1176                         if (t) {
1177                                 printf(" (%s)", t);
1178                                 free(t);
1179                         }
1180                 }
1181
1182                 printf("\n");
1183         }
1184
1185         if (i->status_text)
1186                 printf("\t  Status: \"%s\"\n", i->status_text);
1187
1188         if (i->default_control_group) {
1189                 unsigned c;
1190
1191                 printf("\t  CGroup: %s\n", i->default_control_group);
1192
1193                 if ((c = columns()) > 18)
1194                         c -= 18;
1195                 else
1196                         c = 0;
1197
1198                 if ((r = cg_init()) < 0)
1199                         log_error("Failed to initialize libcg: %s", strerror(-r));
1200                 else
1201                         show_cgroup_recursive(i->default_control_group, "\t\t  ", c);
1202         }
1203 }
1204
1205 static int status_property(const char *name, DBusMessageIter *iter, UnitStatusInfo *i) {
1206
1207         switch (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(iter)) {
1208
1209         case DBUS_TYPE_STRING: {
1210                 const char *s;
1211
1212                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &s);
1213
1214                 if (s[0]) {
1215                         if (streq(name, "Id"))
1216                                 i->id = s;
1217                         else if (streq(name, "LoadState"))
1218                                 i->load_state = s;
1219                         else if (streq(name, "ActiveState"))
1220                                 i->active_state = s;
1221                         else if (streq(name, "SubState"))
1222                                 i->sub_state = s;
1223                         else if (streq(name, "Description"))
1224                                 i->description = s;
1225                         else if (streq(name, "FragmentPath"))
1226                                 i->fragment_path = s;
1227                         else if (streq(name, "DefaultControlGroup"))
1228                                 i->default_control_group = s;
1229                         else if (streq(name, "StatusText"))
1230                                 i->status_text = s;
1231                         else if (streq(name, "SysFSPath"))
1232                                 i->sysfs_path = s;
1233                         else if (streq(name, "Where"))
1234                                 i->where = s;
1235                         else if (streq(name, "What"))
1236                                 i->what = s;
1237                 }
1238
1239                 break;
1240         }
1241
1242         case DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN: {
1243                 dbus_bool_t b;
1244
1245                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &b);
1246
1247                 if (streq(name, "Accept"))
1248                         i->accept = b;
1249
1250                 break;
1251         }
1252
1253         case DBUS_TYPE_UINT32: {
1254                 uint32_t u;
1255
1256                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &u);
1257
1258                 if (streq(name, "MainPID")) {
1259                         if (u > 0) {
1260                                 i->main_pid = (pid_t) u;
1261                                 i->running = true;
1262                         }
1263                 } else if (streq(name, "ControlPID"))
1264                         i->control_pid = (pid_t) u;
1265                 else if (streq(name, "ExecMainPID")) {
1266                         if (u > 0)
1267                                 i->main_pid = (pid_t) u;
1268                 } else if (streq(name, "NAccepted"))
1269                         i->n_accepted = u;
1270                 else if (streq(name, "NConnections"))
1271                         i->n_connections = u;
1272
1273                 break;
1274         }
1275
1276         case DBUS_TYPE_INT32: {
1277                 int32_t j;
1278
1279                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &j);
1280
1281                 if (streq(name, "ExecMainCode"))
1282                         i->exit_code = (int) j;
1283                 else if (streq(name, "ExecMainStatus"))
1284                         i->exit_status = (int) j;
1285
1286                 break;
1287         }
1288
1289         case DBUS_TYPE_UINT64: {
1290                 uint64_t u;
1291
1292                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &u);
1293
1294                 if (streq(name, "ExecMainStartTimestamp"))
1295                         i->start_timestamp = (usec_t) u;
1296                 else if (streq(name, "ExecMainExitTimestamp"))
1297                         i->exit_timestamp = (usec_t) u;
1298
1299                 break;
1300         }
1301
1302         case DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY: {
1303
1304                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(iter) == DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT &&
1305                     startswith(name, "Exec")) {
1306                         DBusMessageIter sub;
1307
1308                         dbus_message_iter_recurse(iter, &sub);
1309                         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) == DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT) {
1310                                 ExecStatusInfo *info;
1311                                 int r;
1312
1313                                 if (!(info = new0(ExecStatusInfo, 1)))
1314                                         return -ENOMEM;
1315
1316                                 if ((r = exec_status_info_deserialize(&sub, info)) < 0) {
1317                                         free(info);
1318                                         return r;
1319                                 }
1320
1321                                 LIST_PREPEND(ExecStatusInfo, exec, i->exec, info);
1322
1323                                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
1324                         }
1325                 }
1326
1327                 break;
1328         }
1329         }
1330
1331         return 0;
1332 }
1333
1334 static int print_property(const char *name, DBusMessageIter *iter) {
1335         assert(name);
1336         assert(iter);
1337
1338         /* This is a low-level property printer, see
1339          * print_status_info() for the nicer output */
1340
1341         if (arg_property && !streq(name, arg_property))
1342                 return 0;
1343
1344         switch (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(iter)) {
1345
1346         case DBUS_TYPE_STRING: {
1347                 const char *s;
1348                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &s);
1349
1350                 if (arg_all || s[0])
1351                         printf("%s=%s\n", name, s);
1352
1353                 return 0;
1354         }
1355
1356         case DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN: {
1357                 dbus_bool_t b;
1358                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &b);
1359                 printf("%s=%s\n", name, yes_no(b));
1360
1361                 return 0;
1362         }
1363
1364         case DBUS_TYPE_UINT64: {
1365                 uint64_t u;
1366                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &u);
1367
1368                 /* Yes, heuristics! But we can change this check
1369                  * should it turn out to not be sufficient */
1370
1371                 if (strstr(name, "Timestamp")) {
1372                         char timestamp[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX], *t;
1373
1374                         if ((t = format_timestamp(timestamp, sizeof(timestamp), u)) || arg_all)
1375                                 printf("%s=%s\n", name, strempty(t));
1376                 } else if (strstr(name, "USec")) {
1377                         char timespan[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX];
1378
1379                         printf("%s=%s\n", name, format_timespan(timespan, sizeof(timespan), u));
1380                 } else
1381                         printf("%s=%llu\n", name, (unsigned long long) u);
1382
1383                 return 0;
1384         }
1385
1386         case DBUS_TYPE_UINT32: {
1387                 uint32_t u;
1388                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &u);
1389
1390                 if (strstr(name, "UMask") || strstr(name, "Mode"))
1391                         printf("%s=%04o\n", name, u);
1392                 else
1393                         printf("%s=%u\n", name, (unsigned) u);
1394
1395                 return 0;
1396         }
1397
1398         case DBUS_TYPE_INT32: {
1399                 int32_t i;
1400                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(iter, &i);
1401
1402                 printf("%s=%i\n", name, (int) i);
1403                 return 0;
1404         }
1405
1406         case DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT: {
1407                 DBusMessageIter sub;
1408                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(iter, &sub);
1409
1410                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) == DBUS_TYPE_UINT32 && streq(name, "Job")) {
1411                         uint32_t u;
1412
1413                         dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub, &u);
1414
1415                         if (u)
1416                                 printf("%s=%u\n", name, (unsigned) u);
1417                         else if (arg_all)
1418                                 printf("%s=\n", name);
1419
1420                         return 0;
1421                 } else if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) == DBUS_TYPE_STRING && streq(name, "Unit")) {
1422                         const char *s;
1423
1424                         dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub, &s);
1425
1426                         if (arg_all || s[0])
1427                                 printf("%s=%s\n", name, s);
1428
1429                         return 0;
1430                 }
1431
1432                 break;
1433         }
1434
1435         case DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY:
1436
1437                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(iter) == DBUS_TYPE_STRING) {
1438                         DBusMessageIter sub;
1439                         bool space = false;
1440
1441                         dbus_message_iter_recurse(iter, &sub);
1442                         if (arg_all ||
1443                             dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
1444                                 printf("%s=", name);
1445
1446                                 while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
1447                                         const char *s;
1448
1449                                         assert(dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) == DBUS_TYPE_STRING);
1450                                         dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub, &s);
1451                                         printf("%s%s", space ? " " : "", s);
1452
1453                                         space = true;
1454                                         dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
1455                                 }
1456
1457                                 puts("");
1458                         }
1459
1460                         return 0;
1461
1462                 } else if (dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(iter) == DBUS_TYPE_BYTE) {
1463                         DBusMessageIter sub;
1464
1465                         dbus_message_iter_recurse(iter, &sub);
1466                         if (arg_all ||
1467                             dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
1468                                 printf("%s=", name);
1469
1470                                 while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
1471                                         uint8_t u;
1472
1473                                         assert(dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) == DBUS_TYPE_BYTE);
1474                                         dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub, &u);
1475                                         printf("%02x", u);
1476
1477                                         dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
1478                                 }
1479
1480                                 puts("");
1481                         }
1482
1483                         return 0;
1484
1485                 } else if (dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(iter) == DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT && streq(name, "Paths")) {
1486                         DBusMessageIter sub, sub2;
1487
1488                         dbus_message_iter_recurse(iter, &sub);
1489                         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) == DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT) {
1490                                 const char *type, *path;
1491
1492                                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub, &sub2);
1493
1494                                 if (bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &type, true) >= 0 &&
1495                                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &path, false) >= 0)
1496                                         printf("%s=%s\n", type, path);
1497
1498                                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
1499                         }
1500
1501                         return 0;
1502
1503                 } else if (dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(iter) == DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT && streq(name, "Timers")) {
1504                         DBusMessageIter sub, sub2;
1505
1506                         dbus_message_iter_recurse(iter, &sub);
1507                         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) == DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT) {
1508                                 const char *base;
1509                                 uint64_t value, next_elapse;
1510
1511                                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub, &sub2);
1512
1513                                 if (bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &base, true) >= 0 &&
1514                                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_UINT64, &value, true) >= 0 &&
1515                                     bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_UINT64, &next_elapse, false) >= 0) {
1516                                         char timespan1[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX], timespan2[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX];
1517
1518                                         printf("%s={ value=%s ; next_elapse=%s }\n",
1519                                                base,
1520                                                format_timespan(timespan1, sizeof(timespan1), value),
1521                                                format_timespan(timespan2, sizeof(timespan2), next_elapse));
1522                                 }
1523
1524                                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
1525                         }
1526
1527                         return 0;
1528
1529                 } else if (dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(iter) == DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT && startswith(name, "Exec")) {
1530                         DBusMessageIter sub;
1531
1532                         dbus_message_iter_recurse(iter, &sub);
1533                         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) == DBUS_TYPE_STRUCT) {
1534                                 ExecStatusInfo info;
1535
1536                                 zero(info);
1537                                 if (exec_status_info_deserialize(&sub, &info) >= 0) {
1538                                         char timestamp1[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX], timestamp2[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX];
1539                                         char *t;
1540
1541                                         t = strv_join(info.argv, " ");
1542
1543                                         printf("%s={ path=%s ; argv[]=%s ; ignore=%s ; start_time=[%s] ; stop_time=[%s] ; pid=%u ; code=%s ; status=%i%s%s }\n",
1544                                                name,
1545                                                strna(info.path),
1546                                                strna(t),
1547                                                yes_no(info.ignore),
1548                                                strna(format_timestamp(timestamp1, sizeof(timestamp1), info.start_timestamp)),
1549                                                strna(format_timestamp(timestamp2, sizeof(timestamp2), info.exit_timestamp)),
1550                                                (unsigned) info. pid,
1551                                                sigchld_code_to_string(info.code),
1552                                                info.status,
1553                                                info.code == CLD_EXITED ? "" : "/",
1554                                                strempty(info.code == CLD_EXITED ? NULL : signal_to_string(info.status)));
1555
1556                                         free(t);
1557                                 }
1558
1559                                 free(info.path);
1560                                 strv_free(info.argv);
1561
1562                                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
1563                         }
1564
1565                         return 0;
1566                 }
1567
1568                 break;
1569         }
1570
1571         if (arg_all)
1572                 printf("%s=[unprintable]\n", name);
1573
1574         return 0;
1575 }
1576
1577 static int show_one(DBusConnection *bus, const char *path, bool show_properties, bool *new_line) {
1578         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
1579         const char *interface = "";
1580         int r;
1581         DBusError error;
1582         DBusMessageIter iter, sub, sub2, sub3;
1583         UnitStatusInfo info;
1584         ExecStatusInfo *p;
1585
1586         assert(bus);
1587         assert(path);
1588         assert(new_line);
1589
1590         zero(info);
1591         dbus_error_init(&error);
1592
1593         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
1594                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
1595                               path,
1596                               "org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties",
1597                               "GetAll"))) {
1598                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
1599                 r = -ENOMEM;
1600                 goto finish;
1601         }
1602
1603         if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
1604                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &interface,
1605                                       DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
1606                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
1607                 r = -ENOMEM;
1608                 goto finish;
1609         }
1610
1611         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
1612                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
1613                 r = -EIO;
1614                 goto finish;
1615         }
1616
1617         if (!dbus_message_iter_init(reply, &iter) ||
1618             dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY ||
1619             dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_DICT_ENTRY)  {
1620                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
1621                 r = -EIO;
1622                 goto finish;
1623         }
1624
1625         dbus_message_iter_recurse(&iter, &sub);
1626
1627         if (*new_line)
1628                 printf("\n");
1629
1630         *new_line = true;
1631
1632         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
1633                 const char *name;
1634
1635                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_DICT_ENTRY) {
1636                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
1637                         r = -EIO;
1638                         goto finish;
1639                 }
1640
1641                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub, &sub2);
1642
1643                 if (bus_iter_get_basic_and_next(&sub2, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &name, true) < 0) {
1644                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
1645                         r = -EIO;
1646                         goto finish;
1647                 }
1648
1649                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub2) != DBUS_TYPE_VARIANT)  {
1650                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
1651                         r = -EIO;
1652                         goto finish;
1653                 }
1654
1655                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub2, &sub3);
1656
1657                 if (show_properties)
1658                         r = print_property(name, &sub3);
1659                 else
1660                         r = status_property(name, &sub3, &info);
1661
1662                 if (r < 0) {
1663                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
1664                         r = -EIO;
1665                         goto finish;
1666                 }
1667
1668                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub);
1669         }
1670
1671         if (!show_properties)
1672                 print_status_info(&info);
1673
1674         while ((p = info.exec)) {
1675                 LIST_REMOVE(ExecStatusInfo, exec, info.exec, p);
1676                 exec_status_info_free(p);
1677         }
1678
1679         r = 0;
1680
1681 finish:
1682         if (m)
1683                 dbus_message_unref(m);
1684
1685         if (reply)
1686                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
1687
1688         dbus_error_free(&error);
1689
1690         return r;
1691 }
1692
1693 static int show(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
1694         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
1695         int r;
1696         DBusError error;
1697         unsigned i;
1698         bool show_properties, new_line = false;
1699
1700         assert(bus);
1701         assert(args);
1702
1703         dbus_error_init(&error);
1704
1705         show_properties = !streq(args[0], "status");
1706
1707         if (show_properties && n <= 1) {
1708                 /* If not argument is specified inspect the manager
1709                  * itself */
1710
1711                 r = show_one(bus, "/org/freedesktop/systemd1", show_properties, &new_line);
1712                 goto finish;
1713         }
1714
1715         for (i = 1; i < n; i++) {
1716                 const char *path = NULL;
1717                 uint32_t id;
1718
1719                 if (!show_properties || safe_atou32(args[i], &id) < 0) {
1720
1721                         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
1722                                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
1723                                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
1724                                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
1725                                               "LoadUnit"))) {
1726                                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
1727                                 r = -ENOMEM;
1728                                 goto finish;
1729                         }
1730
1731                         if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
1732                                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &args[i],
1733                                                       DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
1734                                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
1735                                 r = -ENOMEM;
1736                                 goto finish;
1737                         }
1738
1739                         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
1740
1741                                 if (!dbus_error_has_name(&error, DBUS_ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED)) {
1742                                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
1743                                         r = -EIO;
1744                                         goto finish;
1745                                 }
1746
1747                                 dbus_error_free(&error);
1748
1749                                 dbus_message_unref(m);
1750                                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
1751                                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
1752                                                       "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
1753                                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
1754                                                       "GetUnit"))) {
1755                                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
1756                                         r = -ENOMEM;
1757                                         goto finish;
1758                                 }
1759
1760                                 if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
1761                                                               DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &args[i],
1762                                                               DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
1763                                         log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
1764                                         r = -ENOMEM;
1765                                         goto finish;
1766                                 }
1767
1768                                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
1769                                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
1770                                         r = -EIO;
1771                                         goto finish;
1772                                 }
1773                         }
1774
1775                 } else {
1776
1777                         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
1778                                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
1779                                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
1780                                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
1781                                               "GetJob"))) {
1782                                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
1783                                 r = -ENOMEM;
1784                                 goto finish;
1785                         }
1786
1787                         if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
1788                                                       DBUS_TYPE_UINT32, &id,
1789                                                       DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
1790                                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
1791                                 r = -ENOMEM;
1792                                 goto finish;
1793                         }
1794
1795                         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
1796                                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
1797                                 r = -EIO;
1798                                 goto finish;
1799                         }
1800                 }
1801
1802                 if (!dbus_message_get_args(reply, &error,
1803                                            DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
1804                                            DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
1805                         log_error("Failed to parse reply: %s", error.message);
1806                         r = -EIO;
1807                         goto finish;
1808                 }
1809
1810                 if ((r = show_one(bus, path, show_properties, &new_line)) < 0)
1811                         goto finish;
1812
1813                 dbus_message_unref(m);
1814                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
1815                 m = reply = NULL;
1816         }
1817
1818         r = 0;
1819
1820 finish:
1821         if (m)
1822                 dbus_message_unref(m);
1823
1824         if (reply)
1825                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
1826
1827         dbus_error_free(&error);
1828
1829         return r;
1830 }
1831
1832 static DBusHandlerResult monitor_filter(DBusConnection *connection, DBusMessage *message, void *data) {
1833         DBusError error;
1834         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
1835
1836         assert(connection);
1837         assert(message);
1838
1839         dbus_error_init(&error);
1840
1841         log_debug("Got D-Bus request: %s.%s() on %s",
1842                   dbus_message_get_interface(message),
1843                   dbus_message_get_member(message),
1844                   dbus_message_get_path(message));
1845
1846         if (dbus_message_is_signal(message, DBUS_INTERFACE_LOCAL, "Disconnected")) {
1847                 log_error("Warning! D-Bus connection terminated.");
1848                 dbus_connection_close(connection);
1849
1850         } else if (dbus_message_is_signal(message, "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager", "UnitNew") ||
1851                    dbus_message_is_signal(message, "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager", "UnitRemoved")) {
1852                 const char *id, *path;
1853
1854                 if (!dbus_message_get_args(message, &error,
1855                                            DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &id,
1856                                            DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
1857                                            DBUS_TYPE_INVALID))
1858                         log_error("Failed to parse message: %s", error.message);
1859                 else if (streq(dbus_message_get_member(message), "UnitNew"))
1860                         printf("Unit %s added.\n", id);
1861                 else
1862                         printf("Unit %s removed.\n", id);
1863
1864         } else if (dbus_message_is_signal(message, "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager", "JobNew") ||
1865                    dbus_message_is_signal(message, "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager", "JobRemoved")) {
1866                 uint32_t id;
1867                 const char *path;
1868
1869                 if (!dbus_message_get_args(message, &error,
1870                                            DBUS_TYPE_UINT32, &id,
1871                                            DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
1872                                            DBUS_TYPE_INVALID))
1873                         log_error("Failed to parse message: %s", error.message);
1874                 else if (streq(dbus_message_get_member(message), "JobNew"))
1875                         printf("Job %u added.\n", id);
1876                 else
1877                         printf("Job %u removed.\n", id);
1878
1879
1880         } else if (dbus_message_is_signal(message, "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Unit", "Changed") ||
1881                    dbus_message_is_signal(message, "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Job", "Changed")) {
1882
1883                 const char *path, *interface, *property = "Id";
1884                 DBusMessageIter iter, sub;
1885
1886                 path = dbus_message_get_path(message);
1887                 interface = dbus_message_get_interface(message);
1888
1889                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
1890                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
1891                               path,
1892                               "org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties",
1893                               "Get"))) {
1894                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
1895                         goto oom;
1896                 }
1897
1898                 if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
1899                                               DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &interface,
1900                                               DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &property,
1901                                               DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
1902                         log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
1903                         goto finish;
1904                 }
1905
1906                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(connection, m, -1, &error))) {
1907                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
1908                         goto finish;
1909                 }
1910
1911                 if (!dbus_message_iter_init(reply, &iter) ||
1912                     dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_VARIANT)  {
1913                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
1914                         goto finish;
1915                 }
1916
1917                 dbus_message_iter_recurse(&iter, &sub);
1918
1919                 if (streq(interface, "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Unit")) {
1920                         const char *id;
1921
1922                         if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_STRING)  {
1923                                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
1924                                 goto finish;
1925                         }
1926
1927                         dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub, &id);
1928                         printf("Unit %s changed.\n", id);
1929                 } else {
1930                         uint32_t id;
1931
1932                         if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_UINT32)  {
1933                                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
1934                                 goto finish;
1935                         }
1936
1937                         dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub, &id);
1938                         printf("Job %u changed.\n", id);
1939                 }
1940         }
1941
1942 finish:
1943         if (m)
1944                 dbus_message_unref(m);
1945
1946         if (reply)
1947                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
1948
1949         dbus_error_free(&error);
1950         return DBUS_HANDLER_RESULT_NOT_YET_HANDLED;
1951
1952 oom:
1953         if (m)
1954                 dbus_message_unref(m);
1955
1956         if (reply)
1957                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
1958
1959         dbus_error_free(&error);
1960         return DBUS_HANDLER_RESULT_NEED_MEMORY;
1961 }
1962
1963 static int monitor(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
1964         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
1965         DBusError error;
1966         int r;
1967
1968         dbus_error_init(&error);
1969
1970         if (!private_bus) {
1971                 dbus_bus_add_match(bus,
1972                                    "type='signal',"
1973                                    "sender='org.freedesktop.systemd1',"
1974                                    "interface='org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager',"
1975                                    "path='/org/freedesktop/systemd1'",
1976                                    &error);
1977
1978                 if (dbus_error_is_set(&error)) {
1979                         log_error("Failed to add match: %s", error.message);
1980                         r = -EIO;
1981                         goto finish;
1982                 }
1983
1984                 dbus_bus_add_match(bus,
1985                                    "type='signal',"
1986                                    "sender='org.freedesktop.systemd1',"
1987                                    "interface='org.freedesktop.systemd1.Unit',"
1988                                    "member='Changed'",
1989                                    &error);
1990
1991                 if (dbus_error_is_set(&error)) {
1992                         log_error("Failed to add match: %s", error.message);
1993                         r = -EIO;
1994                         goto finish;
1995                 }
1996
1997                 dbus_bus_add_match(bus,
1998                                    "type='signal',"
1999                                    "sender='org.freedesktop.systemd1',"
2000                                    "interface='org.freedesktop.systemd1.Job',"
2001                                    "member='Changed'",
2002                                    &error);
2003
2004                 if (dbus_error_is_set(&error)) {
2005                         log_error("Failed to add match: %s", error.message);
2006                         r = -EIO;
2007                         goto finish;
2008                 }
2009         }
2010
2011         if (!dbus_connection_add_filter(bus, monitor_filter, NULL, NULL)) {
2012                 log_error("Failed to add filter.");
2013                 r = -ENOMEM;
2014                 goto finish;
2015         }
2016
2017         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2018                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2019                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
2020                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
2021                               "Subscribe"))) {
2022                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2023                 r = -ENOMEM;
2024                 goto finish;
2025         }
2026
2027         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2028                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2029                 r = -EIO;
2030                 goto finish;
2031         }
2032
2033         while (dbus_connection_read_write_dispatch(bus, -1))
2034                 ;
2035
2036         r = 0;
2037
2038 finish:
2039
2040         /* This is slightly dirty, since we don't undo the filter or the matches. */
2041
2042         if (m)
2043                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2044
2045         if (reply)
2046                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2047
2048         dbus_error_free(&error);
2049
2050         return r;
2051 }
2052
2053 static int dump(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
2054         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
2055         DBusError error;
2056         int r;
2057         const char *text;
2058
2059         dbus_error_init(&error);
2060
2061         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2062                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2063                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
2064                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
2065                               "Dump"))) {
2066                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2067                 return -ENOMEM;
2068         }
2069
2070         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2071                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2072                 r = -EIO;
2073                 goto finish;
2074         }
2075
2076         if (!dbus_message_get_args(reply, &error,
2077                                    DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &text,
2078                                    DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
2079                 log_error("Failed to parse reply: %s", error.message);
2080                 r = -EIO;
2081                 goto finish;
2082         }
2083
2084         fputs(text, stdout);
2085
2086         r = 0;
2087
2088 finish:
2089         if (m)
2090                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2091
2092         if (reply)
2093                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2094
2095         dbus_error_free(&error);
2096
2097         return r;
2098 }
2099
2100 static int snapshot(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
2101         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
2102         DBusError error;
2103         int r;
2104         const char *name = "", *path, *id;
2105         dbus_bool_t cleanup = FALSE;
2106         DBusMessageIter iter, sub;
2107         const char
2108                 *interface = "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Unit",
2109                 *property = "Id";
2110
2111         dbus_error_init(&error);
2112
2113         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2114                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2115                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
2116                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
2117                               "CreateSnapshot"))) {
2118                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2119                 return -ENOMEM;
2120         }
2121
2122         if (n > 1)
2123                 name = args[1];
2124
2125         if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
2126                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &name,
2127                                       DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN, &cleanup,
2128                                       DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
2129                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
2130                 r = -ENOMEM;
2131                 goto finish;
2132         }
2133
2134         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2135                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2136                 r = -EIO;
2137                 goto finish;
2138         }
2139
2140         if (!dbus_message_get_args(reply, &error,
2141                                    DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
2142                                    DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
2143                 log_error("Failed to parse reply: %s", error.message);
2144                 r = -EIO;
2145                 goto finish;
2146         }
2147
2148         dbus_message_unref(m);
2149         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2150                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2151                               path,
2152                               "org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties",
2153                               "Get"))) {
2154                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2155                 return -ENOMEM;
2156         }
2157
2158         if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
2159                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &interface,
2160                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &property,
2161                                       DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
2162                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
2163                 r = -ENOMEM;
2164                 goto finish;
2165         }
2166
2167         dbus_message_unref(reply);
2168         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2169                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2170                 r = -EIO;
2171                 goto finish;
2172         }
2173
2174         if (!dbus_message_iter_init(reply, &iter) ||
2175             dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_VARIANT)  {
2176                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
2177                 r = -EIO;
2178                 goto finish;
2179         }
2180
2181         dbus_message_iter_recurse(&iter, &sub);
2182
2183         if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_STRING)  {
2184                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
2185                 r = -EIO;
2186                 goto finish;
2187         }
2188
2189         dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub, &id);
2190
2191         if (!arg_quiet)
2192                 puts(id);
2193         r = 0;
2194
2195 finish:
2196         if (m)
2197                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2198
2199         if (reply)
2200                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2201
2202         dbus_error_free(&error);
2203
2204         return r;
2205 }
2206
2207 static int delete_snapshot(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
2208         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
2209         int r;
2210         DBusError error;
2211         unsigned i;
2212
2213         assert(bus);
2214         assert(args);
2215
2216         dbus_error_init(&error);
2217
2218         for (i = 1; i < n; i++) {
2219                 const char *path = NULL;
2220
2221                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2222                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2223                                       "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
2224                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
2225                                       "GetUnit"))) {
2226                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2227                         r = -ENOMEM;
2228                         goto finish;
2229                 }
2230
2231                 if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
2232                                               DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &args[i],
2233                                               DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
2234                         log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
2235                         r = -ENOMEM;
2236                         goto finish;
2237                 }
2238
2239                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2240                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2241                         r = -EIO;
2242                         goto finish;
2243                 }
2244
2245                 if (!dbus_message_get_args(reply, &error,
2246                                            DBUS_TYPE_OBJECT_PATH, &path,
2247                                            DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
2248                         log_error("Failed to parse reply: %s", error.message);
2249                         r = -EIO;
2250                         goto finish;
2251                 }
2252
2253                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2254                 if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2255                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2256                                       path,
2257                                       "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Snapshot",
2258                                       "Remove"))) {
2259                         log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2260                         r = -ENOMEM;
2261                         goto finish;
2262                 }
2263
2264                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2265                 if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2266                         log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2267                         r = -EIO;
2268                         goto finish;
2269                 }
2270
2271                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2272                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2273                 m = reply = NULL;
2274         }
2275
2276         r = 0;
2277
2278 finish:
2279         if (m)
2280                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2281
2282         if (reply)
2283                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2284
2285         dbus_error_free(&error);
2286
2287         return r;
2288 }
2289
2290 static int clear_jobs(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
2291         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
2292         DBusError error;
2293         int r;
2294         const char *method;
2295
2296         dbus_error_init(&error);
2297
2298         if (arg_action == ACTION_RELOAD)
2299                 method = "Reload";
2300         else if (arg_action == ACTION_REEXEC)
2301                 method = "Reexecute";
2302         else {
2303                 assert(arg_action == ACTION_SYSTEMCTL);
2304
2305                 method =
2306                         streq(args[0], "clear-jobs")    ? "ClearJobs" :
2307                         streq(args[0], "daemon-reload") ? "Reload" :
2308                         streq(args[0], "daemon-reexec") ? "Reexecute" :
2309                                                           "Exit";
2310         }
2311
2312         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2313                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2314                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
2315                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
2316                               method))) {
2317                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2318                 return -ENOMEM;
2319         }
2320
2321         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2322
2323                 if (arg_action != ACTION_SYSTEMCTL && error_is_no_service(&error)) {
2324                         /* There's always a fallback possible for
2325                          * legacy actions. */
2326                         r = 0;
2327                         goto finish;
2328                 }
2329
2330                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2331                 r = -EIO;
2332                 goto finish;
2333         }
2334
2335         r = 1;
2336
2337 finish:
2338         if (m)
2339                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2340
2341         if (reply)
2342                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2343
2344         dbus_error_free(&error);
2345
2346         return r;
2347 }
2348
2349 static int show_enviroment(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
2350         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
2351         DBusError error;
2352         DBusMessageIter iter, sub, sub2;
2353         int r;
2354         const char
2355                 *interface = "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
2356                 *property = "Environment";
2357
2358         dbus_error_init(&error);
2359
2360         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2361                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2362                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
2363                               "org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties",
2364                               "Get"))) {
2365                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2366                 return -ENOMEM;
2367         }
2368
2369         if (!dbus_message_append_args(m,
2370                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &interface,
2371                                       DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &property,
2372                                       DBUS_TYPE_INVALID)) {
2373                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
2374                 r = -ENOMEM;
2375                 goto finish;
2376         }
2377
2378         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2379                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2380                 r = -EIO;
2381                 goto finish;
2382         }
2383
2384         if (!dbus_message_iter_init(reply, &iter) ||
2385             dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&iter) != DBUS_TYPE_VARIANT)  {
2386                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
2387                 r = -EIO;
2388                 goto finish;
2389         }
2390
2391         dbus_message_iter_recurse(&iter, &sub);
2392
2393         if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY ||
2394             dbus_message_iter_get_element_type(&sub) != DBUS_TYPE_STRING)  {
2395                 log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
2396                 r = -EIO;
2397                 goto finish;
2398         }
2399
2400         dbus_message_iter_recurse(&sub, &sub2);
2401
2402         while (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub2) != DBUS_TYPE_INVALID) {
2403                 const char *text;
2404
2405                 if (dbus_message_iter_get_arg_type(&sub2) != DBUS_TYPE_STRING) {
2406                         log_error("Failed to parse reply.");
2407                         r = -EIO;
2408                         goto finish;
2409                 }
2410
2411                 dbus_message_iter_get_basic(&sub2, &text);
2412                 printf("%s\n", text);
2413
2414                 dbus_message_iter_next(&sub2);
2415         }
2416
2417         r = 0;
2418
2419 finish:
2420         if (m)
2421                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2422
2423         if (reply)
2424                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2425
2426         dbus_error_free(&error);
2427
2428         return r;
2429 }
2430
2431 static int set_environment(DBusConnection *bus, char **args, unsigned n) {
2432         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
2433         DBusError error;
2434         int r;
2435         const char *method;
2436         DBusMessageIter iter, sub;
2437         unsigned i;
2438
2439         dbus_error_init(&error);
2440
2441         method = streq(args[0], "set-environment")
2442                 ? "SetEnvironment"
2443                 : "UnsetEnvironment";
2444
2445         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
2446                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1",
2447                               "/org/freedesktop/systemd1",
2448                               "org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager",
2449                               method))) {
2450
2451                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
2452                 return -ENOMEM;
2453         }
2454
2455         dbus_message_iter_init_append(m, &iter);
2456
2457         if (!dbus_message_iter_open_container(&iter, DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY, "s", &sub)) {
2458                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
2459                 r = -ENOMEM;
2460                 goto finish;
2461         }
2462
2463         for (i = 1; i < n; i++)
2464                 if (!dbus_message_iter_append_basic(&sub, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &args[i])) {
2465                         log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
2466                         r = -ENOMEM;
2467                         goto finish;
2468                 }
2469
2470         if (!dbus_message_iter_close_container(&iter, &sub)) {
2471                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
2472                 r = -ENOMEM;
2473                 goto finish;
2474         }
2475
2476         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
2477                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
2478                 r = -EIO;
2479                 goto finish;
2480         }
2481
2482         r = 0;
2483
2484 finish:
2485         if (m)
2486                 dbus_message_unref(m);
2487
2488         if (reply)
2489                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
2490
2491         dbus_error_free(&error);
2492
2493         return r;
2494 }
2495
2496 static int systemctl_help(void) {
2497
2498         printf("%s [OPTIONS...] {COMMAND} ...\n\n"
2499                "Send control commands to the systemd manager.\n\n"
2500                "  -h --help          Show this help\n"
2501                "  -t --type=TYPE     List only units of a particular type\n"
2502                "  -p --property=NAME Show only properties by this name\n"
2503                "  -a --all           Show all units/properties, including dead/empty ones\n"
2504                "     --fail          When installing a new job, fail if conflicting jobs are pending\n"
2505                "     --system        Connect to system bus\n"
2506                "     --session       Connect to session bus\n"
2507                "  -q --quiet         Suppress output\n"
2508                "     --no-block      Do not wait until operation finished\n"
2509                "     --no-wall       Don't send wall message before halt/power-off/reboot\n\n"
2510                "Commands:\n"
2511                "  list-units                      List units\n"
2512                "  start [NAME...]                 Start one or more units\n"
2513                "  stop [NAME...]                  Stop one or more units\n"
2514                "  restart [NAME...]               Restart one or more units\n"
2515                "  reload [NAME...]                Reload one or more units\n"
2516                "  isolate [NAME]                  Start one unit and stop all others\n"
2517                "  check [NAME...]                 Check whether any of the passed units are active\n"
2518                "  status [NAME...]                Show status of one or more units\n"
2519                "  show [NAME...|JOB...]           Show properties of one or more units/jobs/manager\n"
2520                "  load [NAME...]                  Load one or more units\n"
2521                "  list-jobs                       List jobs\n"
2522                "  cancel [JOB...]                 Cancel one or more jobs\n"
2523                "  clear-jobs                      Cancel all jobs\n"
2524                "  monitor                         Monitor unit/job changes\n"
2525                "  dump                            Dump server status\n"
2526                "  snapshot [NAME]                 Create a snapshot\n"
2527                "  delete [NAME...]                Remove one or more snapshots\n"
2528                "  daemon-reload                   Reload systemd manager configuration\n"
2529                "  daemon-reexec                   Reexecute systemd manager\n"
2530                "  daemon-exit                     Ask the systemd manager to quit\n"
2531                "  show-environment                Dump environment\n"
2532                "  set-environment [NAME=VALUE...] Set one or more environment variables\n"
2533                "  unset-environment [NAME...]     Unset one or more environment variables\n"
2534                "  halt                            Shut down and halt the system\n"
2535                "  poweroff                        Shut down and power-off the system\n"
2536                "  reboot                          Shut down and reboot the system\n"
2537                "  default                         Enter default mode\n"
2538                "  rescue                          Enter rescue mode\n"
2539                "  emergency                       Enter emergency mode\n",
2540                program_invocation_short_name);
2541
2542         return 0;
2543 }
2544
2545 static int halt_help(void) {
2546
2547         printf("%s [OPTIONS...]\n\n"
2548                "%s the system.\n\n"
2549                "     --help      Show this help\n"
2550                "     --halt      Halt the machine\n"
2551                "  -p --poweroff  Switch off the machine\n"
2552                "     --reboot    Reboot the machine\n"
2553                "  -f --force     Force immediate halt/power-off/reboot\n"
2554                "  -w --wtmp-only Don't halt/power-off/reboot, just write wtmp record\n"
2555                "  -d --no-wtmp   Don't write wtmp record\n"
2556                "  -n --no-sync   Don't sync before halt/power-off/reboot\n"
2557                "     --no-wall   Don't send wall message before halt/power-off/reboot\n",
2558                program_invocation_short_name,
2559                arg_action == ACTION_REBOOT   ? "Reboot" :
2560                arg_action == ACTION_POWEROFF ? "Power off" :
2561                                                "Halt");
2562
2563         return 0;
2564 }
2565
2566 static int shutdown_help(void) {
2567
2568         printf("%s [OPTIONS...] [now] [WALL...]\n\n"
2569                "Shut down the system.\n\n"
2570                "     --help      Show this help\n"
2571                "  -H --halt      Halt the machine\n"
2572                "  -P --poweroff  Power-off the machine\n"
2573                "  -r --reboot    Reboot the machine\n"
2574                "  -h             Equivalent to --poweroff, overriden by --halt\n"
2575                "  -k             Don't halt/power-off/reboot, just send warnings\n"
2576                "     --no-wall   Don't send wall message before halt/power-off/reboot\n",
2577                program_invocation_short_name);
2578
2579         return 0;
2580 }
2581
2582 static int telinit_help(void) {
2583
2584         printf("%s [OPTIONS...] {COMMAND}\n\n"
2585                "Send control commands to the init daemon.\n\n"
2586                "     --help      Show this help\n"
2587                "     --no-wall   Don't send wall message before halt/power-off/reboot\n\n"
2588                "Commands:\n"
2589                "  0              Power-off the machine\n"
2590                "  6              Reboot the machine\n"
2591                "  2, 3, 4, 5     Start runlevelX.target unit\n"
2592                "  1, s, S        Enter rescue mode\n"
2593                "  q, Q           Reload init daemon configuration\n"
2594                "  u, U           Reexecute init daemon\n",
2595                program_invocation_short_name);
2596
2597         return 0;
2598 }
2599
2600 static int runlevel_help(void) {
2601
2602         printf("%s [OPTIONS...]\n\n"
2603                "Prints the previous and current runlevel of the init system.\n\n"
2604                "     --help      Show this help\n",
2605                program_invocation_short_name);
2606
2607         return 0;
2608 }
2609
2610 static int systemctl_parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
2611
2612         enum {
2613                 ARG_FAIL = 0x100,
2614                 ARG_SESSION,
2615                 ARG_SYSTEM,
2616                 ARG_NO_BLOCK,
2617                 ARG_NO_WALL
2618         };
2619
2620         static const struct option options[] = {
2621                 { "help",      no_argument,       NULL, 'h'          },
2622                 { "type",      required_argument, NULL, 't'          },
2623                 { "property",  required_argument, NULL, 'p'          },
2624                 { "all",       no_argument,       NULL, 'a'          },
2625                 { "fail",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_FAIL     },
2626                 { "session",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_SESSION  },
2627                 { "system",    no_argument,       NULL, ARG_SYSTEM   },
2628                 { "no-block",  no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_BLOCK },
2629                 { "no-wall",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_WALL  },
2630                 { "quiet",     no_argument,       NULL, 'q'          },
2631                 { NULL,        0,                 NULL, 0            }
2632         };
2633
2634         int c;
2635
2636         assert(argc >= 0);
2637         assert(argv);
2638
2639         while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "ht:p:aq", options, NULL)) >= 0) {
2640
2641                 switch (c) {
2642
2643                 case 'h':
2644                         systemctl_help();
2645                         return 0;
2646
2647                 case 't':
2648                         arg_type = optarg;
2649                         break;
2650
2651                 case 'p':
2652                         arg_property = optarg;
2653
2654                         /* If the user asked for a particular
2655                          * property, show it to him, even if it is
2656                          * empty. */
2657                         arg_all = true;
2658                         break;
2659
2660                 case 'a':
2661                         arg_all = true;
2662                         break;
2663
2664                 case ARG_FAIL:
2665                         arg_fail = true;
2666                         break;
2667
2668                 case ARG_SESSION:
2669                         arg_session = true;
2670                         break;
2671
2672                 case ARG_SYSTEM:
2673                         arg_session = false;
2674                         break;
2675
2676                 case ARG_NO_BLOCK:
2677                         arg_no_block = true;
2678                         break;
2679
2680                 case ARG_NO_WALL:
2681                         arg_no_wall = true;
2682                         break;
2683
2684                 case 'q':
2685                         arg_quiet = true;
2686                         break;
2687
2688                 case '?':
2689                         return -EINVAL;
2690
2691                 default:
2692                         log_error("Unknown option code %c", c);
2693                         return -EINVAL;
2694                 }
2695         }
2696
2697         return 1;
2698 }
2699
2700 static int halt_parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
2701
2702         enum {
2703                 ARG_HELP = 0x100,
2704                 ARG_HALT,
2705                 ARG_REBOOT,
2706                 ARG_NO_WALL
2707         };
2708
2709         static const struct option options[] = {
2710                 { "help",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_HELP    },
2711                 { "halt",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_HALT    },
2712                 { "poweroff",  no_argument,       NULL, 'p'         },
2713                 { "reboot",    no_argument,       NULL, ARG_REBOOT  },
2714                 { "force",     no_argument,       NULL, 'f'         },
2715                 { "wtmp-only", no_argument,       NULL, 'w'         },
2716                 { "no-wtmp",   no_argument,       NULL, 'd'         },
2717                 { "no-sync",   no_argument,       NULL, 'n'         },
2718                 { "no-wall",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_WALL },
2719                 { NULL,        0,                 NULL, 0           }
2720         };
2721
2722         int c, runlevel;
2723
2724         assert(argc >= 0);
2725         assert(argv);
2726
2727         if (utmp_get_runlevel(&runlevel, NULL) >= 0)
2728                 if (runlevel == '0' || runlevel == '6')
2729                         arg_immediate = true;
2730
2731         while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "pfwdnih", options, NULL)) >= 0) {
2732                 switch (c) {
2733
2734                 case ARG_HELP:
2735                         halt_help();
2736                         return 0;
2737
2738                 case ARG_HALT:
2739                         arg_action = ACTION_HALT;
2740                         break;
2741
2742                 case 'p':
2743                         arg_action = ACTION_POWEROFF;
2744                         break;
2745
2746                 case ARG_REBOOT:
2747                         arg_action = ACTION_REBOOT;
2748                         break;
2749
2750                 case 'f':
2751                         arg_immediate = true;
2752                         break;
2753
2754                 case 'w':
2755                         arg_dry = true;
2756                         break;
2757
2758                 case 'd':
2759                         arg_no_wtmp = true;
2760                         break;
2761
2762                 case 'n':
2763                         arg_no_sync = true;
2764                         break;
2765
2766                 case ARG_NO_WALL:
2767                         arg_no_wall = true;
2768                         break;
2769
2770                 case 'i':
2771                 case 'h':
2772                         /* Compatibility nops */
2773                         break;
2774
2775                 case '?':
2776                         return -EINVAL;
2777
2778                 default:
2779                         log_error("Unknown option code %c", c);
2780                         return -EINVAL;
2781                 }
2782         }
2783
2784         if (optind < argc) {
2785                 log_error("Too many arguments.");
2786                 return -EINVAL;
2787         }
2788
2789         return 1;
2790 }
2791
2792 static int shutdown_parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
2793
2794         enum {
2795                 ARG_HELP = 0x100,
2796                 ARG_NO_WALL
2797         };
2798
2799         static const struct option options[] = {
2800                 { "help",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_HELP    },
2801                 { "halt",      no_argument,       NULL, 'H'         },
2802                 { "poweroff",  no_argument,       NULL, 'P'         },
2803                 { "reboot",    no_argument,       NULL, 'r'         },
2804                 { "no-wall",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_WALL },
2805                 { NULL,        0,                 NULL, 0           }
2806         };
2807
2808         int c;
2809
2810         assert(argc >= 0);
2811         assert(argv);
2812
2813         while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "HPrhkt:a", options, NULL)) >= 0) {
2814                 switch (c) {
2815
2816                 case ARG_HELP:
2817                         shutdown_help();
2818                         return 0;
2819
2820                 case 'H':
2821                         arg_action = ACTION_HALT;
2822                         break;
2823
2824                 case 'P':
2825                         arg_action = ACTION_POWEROFF;
2826                         break;
2827
2828                 case 'r':
2829                         arg_action = ACTION_REBOOT;
2830                         break;
2831
2832                 case 'h':
2833                         if (arg_action != ACTION_HALT)
2834                                 arg_action = ACTION_POWEROFF;
2835                         break;
2836
2837                 case 'k':
2838                         arg_dry = true;
2839                         break;
2840
2841                 case ARG_NO_WALL:
2842                         arg_no_wall = true;
2843                         break;
2844
2845                 case 't':
2846                 case 'a':
2847                         /* Compatibility nops */
2848                         break;
2849
2850                 case '?':
2851                         return -EINVAL;
2852
2853                 default:
2854                         log_error("Unknown option code %c", c);
2855                         return -EINVAL;
2856                 }
2857         }
2858
2859         if (argc > optind && !streq(argv[optind], "now"))
2860                 log_warning("First argument '%s' isn't 'now'. Ignoring.", argv[optind]);
2861
2862         /* We ignore the time argument */
2863         if (argc > optind + 1)
2864                 arg_wall = argv + optind + 1;
2865
2866         optind = argc;
2867
2868         return 1;
2869 }
2870
2871 static int telinit_parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
2872
2873         enum {
2874                 ARG_HELP = 0x100,
2875                 ARG_NO_WALL
2876         };
2877
2878         static const struct option options[] = {
2879                 { "help",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_HELP    },
2880                 { "no-wall",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_WALL },
2881                 { NULL,        0,                 NULL, 0           }
2882         };
2883
2884         static const struct {
2885                 char from;
2886                 enum action to;
2887         } table[] = {
2888                 { '0', ACTION_POWEROFF },
2889                 { '6', ACTION_REBOOT },
2890                 { '1', ACTION_RESCUE },
2891                 { '2', ACTION_RUNLEVEL2 },
2892                 { '3', ACTION_RUNLEVEL3 },
2893                 { '4', ACTION_RUNLEVEL4 },
2894                 { '5', ACTION_RUNLEVEL5 },
2895                 { 's', ACTION_RESCUE },
2896                 { 'S', ACTION_RESCUE },
2897                 { 'q', ACTION_RELOAD },
2898                 { 'Q', ACTION_RELOAD },
2899                 { 'u', ACTION_REEXEC },
2900                 { 'U', ACTION_REEXEC }
2901         };
2902
2903         unsigned i;
2904         int c;
2905
2906         assert(argc >= 0);
2907         assert(argv);
2908
2909         while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "", options, NULL)) >= 0) {
2910                 switch (c) {
2911
2912                 case ARG_HELP:
2913                         telinit_help();
2914                         return 0;
2915
2916                 case ARG_NO_WALL:
2917                         arg_no_wall = true;
2918                         break;
2919
2920                 case '?':
2921                         return -EINVAL;
2922
2923                 default:
2924                         log_error("Unknown option code %c", c);
2925                         return -EINVAL;
2926                 }
2927         }
2928
2929         if (optind >= argc) {
2930                 telinit_help();
2931                 return -EINVAL;
2932         }
2933
2934         if (optind + 1 < argc) {
2935                 log_error("Too many arguments.");
2936                 return -EINVAL;
2937         }
2938
2939         if (strlen(argv[optind]) != 1) {
2940                 log_error("Expected single character argument.");
2941                 return -EINVAL;
2942         }
2943
2944         for (i = 0; i < ELEMENTSOF(table); i++)
2945                 if (table[i].from == argv[optind][0])
2946                         break;
2947
2948         if (i >= ELEMENTSOF(table)) {
2949                 log_error("Unknown command %s.", argv[optind]);
2950                 return -EINVAL;
2951         }
2952
2953         arg_action = table[i].to;
2954
2955         optind ++;
2956
2957         return 1;
2958 }
2959
2960 static int runlevel_parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
2961
2962         enum {
2963                 ARG_HELP = 0x100,
2964         };
2965
2966         static const struct option options[] = {
2967                 { "help",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_HELP    },
2968                 { NULL,        0,                 NULL, 0           }
2969         };
2970
2971         int c;
2972
2973         assert(argc >= 0);
2974         assert(argv);
2975
2976         while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "", options, NULL)) >= 0) {
2977                 switch (c) {
2978
2979                 case ARG_HELP:
2980                         runlevel_help();
2981                         return 0;
2982
2983                 case '?':
2984                         return -EINVAL;
2985
2986                 default:
2987                         log_error("Unknown option code %c", c);
2988                         return -EINVAL;
2989                 }
2990         }
2991
2992         if (optind < argc) {
2993                 log_error("Too many arguments.");
2994                 return -EINVAL;
2995         }
2996
2997         return 1;
2998 }
2999
3000 static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
3001         assert(argc >= 0);
3002         assert(argv);
3003
3004         if (program_invocation_short_name) {
3005
3006                 if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "halt")) {
3007                         arg_action = ACTION_HALT;
3008                         return halt_parse_argv(argc, argv);
3009                 } else if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "poweroff")) {
3010                         arg_action = ACTION_POWEROFF;
3011                         return halt_parse_argv(argc, argv);
3012                 } else if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "reboot")) {
3013                         arg_action = ACTION_REBOOT;
3014                         return halt_parse_argv(argc, argv);
3015                 } else if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "shutdown")) {
3016                         arg_action = ACTION_POWEROFF;
3017                         return shutdown_parse_argv(argc, argv);
3018                 } else if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "init")) {
3019                         arg_action = ACTION_INVALID;
3020                         return telinit_parse_argv(argc, argv);
3021                 } else if (strstr(program_invocation_short_name, "runlevel")) {
3022                         arg_action = ACTION_RUNLEVEL;
3023                         return runlevel_parse_argv(argc, argv);
3024                 }
3025         }
3026
3027         arg_action = ACTION_SYSTEMCTL;
3028         return systemctl_parse_argv(argc, argv);
3029 }
3030
3031 static int action_to_runlevel(void) {
3032
3033         static const char table[_ACTION_MAX] = {
3034                 [ACTION_HALT] =      '0',
3035                 [ACTION_POWEROFF] =  '0',
3036                 [ACTION_REBOOT] =    '6',
3037                 [ACTION_RUNLEVEL2] = '2',
3038                 [ACTION_RUNLEVEL3] = '3',
3039                 [ACTION_RUNLEVEL4] = '4',
3040                 [ACTION_RUNLEVEL5] = '5',
3041                 [ACTION_RESCUE] =    '1'
3042         };
3043
3044         assert(arg_action < _ACTION_MAX);
3045
3046         return table[arg_action];
3047 }
3048
3049 static int talk_upstart(void) {
3050         DBusMessage *m = NULL, *reply = NULL;
3051         DBusError error;
3052         int previous, rl, r;
3053         char
3054                 env1_buf[] = "RUNLEVEL=X",
3055                 env2_buf[] = "PREVLEVEL=X";
3056         char *env1 = env1_buf, *env2 = env2_buf;
3057         const char *emit = "runlevel";
3058         dbus_bool_t b_false = FALSE;
3059         DBusMessageIter iter, sub;
3060         DBusConnection *bus;
3061
3062         dbus_error_init(&error);
3063
3064         if (!(rl = action_to_runlevel()))
3065                 return 0;
3066
3067         if (utmp_get_runlevel(&previous, NULL) < 0)
3068                 previous = 'N';
3069
3070         if (!(bus = dbus_connection_open_private("unix:abstract=/com/ubuntu/upstart", &error))) {
3071                 if (dbus_error_has_name(&error, DBUS_ERROR_NO_SERVER)) {
3072                         r = 0;
3073                         goto finish;
3074                 }
3075
3076                 log_error("Failed to connect to Upstart bus: %s", error.message);
3077                 r = -EIO;
3078                 goto finish;
3079         }
3080
3081         if ((r = bus_check_peercred(bus)) < 0) {
3082                 log_error("Failed to verify owner of bus.");
3083                 goto finish;
3084         }
3085
3086         if (!(m = dbus_message_new_method_call(
3087                               "com.ubuntu.Upstart",
3088                               "/com/ubuntu/Upstart",
3089                               "com.ubuntu.Upstart0_6",
3090                               "EmitEvent"))) {
3091
3092                 log_error("Could not allocate message.");
3093                 r = -ENOMEM;
3094                 goto finish;
3095         }
3096
3097         dbus_message_iter_init_append(m, &iter);
3098
3099         env1_buf[sizeof(env1_buf)-2] = rl;
3100         env2_buf[sizeof(env2_buf)-2] = previous;
3101
3102         if (!dbus_message_iter_append_basic(&iter, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &emit) ||
3103             !dbus_message_iter_open_container(&iter, DBUS_TYPE_ARRAY, "s", &sub) ||
3104             !dbus_message_iter_append_basic(&sub, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &env1) ||
3105             !dbus_message_iter_append_basic(&sub, DBUS_TYPE_STRING, &env2) ||
3106             !dbus_message_iter_close_container(&iter, &sub) ||
3107             !dbus_message_iter_append_basic(&iter, DBUS_TYPE_BOOLEAN, &b_false)) {
3108                 log_error("Could not append arguments to message.");
3109                 r = -ENOMEM;
3110                 goto finish;
3111         }
3112
3113         if (!(reply = dbus_connection_send_with_reply_and_block(bus, m, -1, &error))) {
3114
3115                 if (error_is_no_service(&error)) {
3116                         r = 0;
3117                         goto finish;
3118                 }
3119
3120                 log_error("Failed to issue method call: %s", error.message);
3121                 r = -EIO;
3122                 goto finish;
3123         }
3124
3125         r = 1;
3126
3127 finish:
3128         if (m)
3129                 dbus_message_unref(m);
3130
3131         if (reply)
3132                 dbus_message_unref(reply);
3133
3134         if (bus) {
3135                 dbus_connection_close(bus);
3136                 dbus_connection_unref(bus);
3137         }
3138
3139         dbus_error_free(&error);
3140
3141         return r;