chiark / gitweb /
Add initialization helper for file_handle_union
[elogind.git] / src / tmpfiles / tmpfiles.c
index 96adbff..332ddce 100644 (file)
 #include <sys/param.h>
 #include <glob.h>
 #include <fnmatch.h>
-#include <sys/capability.h>
+#include <sys/xattr.h>
 
 #include "log.h"
 #include "util.h"
 #include "macro.h"
+#include "missing.h"
 #include "mkdir.h"
 #include "path-util.h"
 #include "strv.h"
 #include "set.h"
 #include "conf-files.h"
 #include "capability.h"
+#include "specifier.h"
+#include "build.h"
+#include "copy.h"
+#include "selinux-util.h"
+#include "btrfs-util.h"
 
 /* This reads all files listed in /etc/tmpfiles.d/?*.conf and creates
  * them in the file system. This is intended to be used to create
@@ -60,21 +66,25 @@ typedef enum ItemType {
         /* These ones take file names */
         CREATE_FILE = 'f',
         TRUNCATE_FILE = 'F',
-        WRITE_FILE = 'w',
         CREATE_DIRECTORY = 'd',
         TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY = 'D',
+        CREATE_SUBVOLUME = 'v',
         CREATE_FIFO = 'p',
         CREATE_SYMLINK = 'L',
         CREATE_CHAR_DEVICE = 'c',
         CREATE_BLOCK_DEVICE = 'b',
+        COPY_FILES = 'C',
+        SET_XATTR = 't',
 
         /* These ones take globs */
+        WRITE_FILE = 'w',
         IGNORE_PATH = 'x',
         IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH = 'X',
         REMOVE_PATH = 'r',
         RECURSIVE_REMOVE_PATH = 'R',
+        ADJUST_MODE = 'm', /* legacy, 'z' is identical to this */
         RELABEL_PATH = 'z',
-        RECURSIVE_RELABEL_PATH = 'Z'
+        RECURSIVE_RELABEL_PATH = 'Z',
 } ItemType;
 
 typedef struct Item {
@@ -82,6 +92,7 @@ typedef struct Item {
 
         char *path;
         char *argument;
+        char **xattrs;
         uid_t uid;
         gid_t gid;
         mode_t mode;
@@ -93,34 +104,41 @@ typedef struct Item {
         bool gid_set:1;
         bool mode_set:1;
         bool age_set:1;
+        bool mask_perms:1;
 
         bool keep_first_level:1;
-} Item;
 
-static Hashmap *items = NULL, *globs = NULL;
-static Set *unix_sockets = NULL;
+        bool force:1;
+
+        bool done:1;
+} Item;
 
 static bool arg_create = false;
 static bool arg_clean = false;
 static bool arg_remove = false;
+static bool arg_boot = false;
 
-static const char *arg_prefix = NULL;
+static char **arg_include_prefixes = NULL;
+static char **arg_exclude_prefixes = NULL;
+static char *arg_root = NULL;
 
-static const char * const conf_file_dirs[] = {
-        "/etc/tmpfiles.d",
-        "/run/tmpfiles.d",
-        "/usr/local/lib/tmpfiles.d",
-        "/usr/lib/tmpfiles.d",
-#ifdef HAVE_SPLIT_USR
-        "/lib/tmpfiles.d",
-#endif
-        NULL
-};
+static const char conf_file_dirs[] = CONF_DIRS_NULSTR("tmpfiles");
 
 #define MAX_DEPTH 256
 
+static Hashmap *items = NULL, *globs = NULL;
+static Set *unix_sockets = NULL;
+
 static bool needs_glob(ItemType t) {
-        return t == IGNORE_PATH || t == IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH || t == REMOVE_PATH || t == RECURSIVE_REMOVE_PATH || t == RELABEL_PATH || t == RECURSIVE_RELABEL_PATH;
+        return IN_SET(t,
+                      WRITE_FILE,
+                      IGNORE_PATH,
+                      IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH,
+                      REMOVE_PATH,
+                      RECURSIVE_REMOVE_PATH,
+                      ADJUST_MODE,
+                      RELABEL_PATH,
+                      RECURSIVE_RELABEL_PATH);
 }
 
 static struct Item* find_glob(Hashmap *h, const char *match) {
@@ -135,7 +153,7 @@ static struct Item* find_glob(Hashmap *h, const char *match) {
 }
 
 static void load_unix_sockets(void) {
-        FILE *f = NULL;
+        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
         char line[LINE_MAX];
 
         if (unix_sockets)
@@ -144,7 +162,7 @@ static void load_unix_sockets(void) {
         /* We maintain a cache of the sockets we found in
          * /proc/net/unix to speed things up a little. */
 
-        unix_sockets = set_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        unix_sockets = set_new(&string_hash_ops);
         if (!unix_sockets)
                 return;
 
@@ -186,24 +204,16 @@ static void load_unix_sockets(void) {
 
                 path_kill_slashes(s);
 
-                k = set_put(unix_sockets, s);
-                if (k < 0) {
-                        free(s);
-
-                        if (k != -EEXIST)
-                                goto fail;
-                }
+                k = set_consume(unix_sockets, s);
+                if (k < 0 && k != -EEXIST)
+                        goto fail;
         }
 
-        fclose(f);
         return;
 
 fail:
         set_free_free(unix_sockets);
         unix_sockets = NULL;
-
-        if (f)
-                fclose(f);
 }
 
 static bool unix_socket_alive(const char *fn) {
@@ -218,6 +228,40 @@ static bool unix_socket_alive(const char *fn) {
         return true;
 }
 
+static int dir_is_mount_point(DIR *d, const char *subdir) {
+
+        union file_handle_union h = FILE_HANDLE_INIT;
+        int mount_id_parent, mount_id;
+        int r_p, r;
+
+        r_p = name_to_handle_at(dirfd(d), ".", &h.handle, &mount_id_parent, 0);
+        if (r_p < 0)
+                r_p = -errno;
+
+        h.handle.handle_bytes = MAX_HANDLE_SZ;
+        r = name_to_handle_at(dirfd(d), subdir, &h.handle, &mount_id, 0);
+        if (r < 0)
+                r = -errno;
+
+        /* got no handle; make no assumptions, return error */
+        if (r_p < 0 && r < 0)
+                return r_p;
+
+        /* got both handles; if they differ, it is a mount point */
+        if (r_p >= 0 && r >= 0)
+                return mount_id_parent != mount_id;
+
+        /* got only one handle; assume different mount points if one
+         * of both queries was not supported by the filesystem */
+        if (r_p == -ENOSYS || r_p == -EOPNOTSUPP || r == -ENOSYS || r == -EOPNOTSUPP)
+                return true;
+
+        /* return error */
+        if (r_p < 0)
+                return r_p;
+        return r;
+}
+
 static int dir_cleanup(
                 Item *i,
                 const char *p,
@@ -227,29 +271,32 @@ static int dir_cleanup(
                 dev_t rootdev,
                 bool mountpoint,
                 int maxdepth,
-                bool keep_this_level)
-{
+                bool keep_this_level) {
+
         struct dirent *dent;
         struct timespec times[2];
         bool deleted = false;
-        char *sub_path = NULL;
         int r = 0;
 
         while ((dent = readdir(d))) {
                 struct stat s;
                 usec_t age;
+                _cleanup_free_ char *sub_path = NULL;
 
                 if (streq(dent->d_name, ".") ||
                     streq(dent->d_name, ".."))
                         continue;
 
                 if (fstatat(dirfd(d), dent->d_name, &s, AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW) < 0) {
+                        if (errno == ENOENT)
+                                continue;
 
-                        if (errno != ENOENT) {
-                                log_error("stat(%s/%s) failed: %m", p, dent->d_name);
-                                r = -errno;
-                        }
-
+                        /* FUSE, NFS mounts, SELinux might return EACCES */
+                        if (errno == EACCES)
+                                log_debug_errno(errno, "stat(%s/%s) failed: %m", p, dent->d_name);
+                        else
+                                log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s/%s) failed: %m", p, dent->d_name);
+                        r = -errno;
                         continue;
                 }
 
@@ -257,14 +304,18 @@ static int dir_cleanup(
                 if (s.st_dev != rootdev)
                         continue;
 
+                /* Try to detect bind mounts of the same filesystem instance; they
+                 * do not differ in device major/minors. This type of query is not
+                 * supported on all kernels or filesystem types though. */
+                if (S_ISDIR(s.st_mode) && dir_is_mount_point(d, dent->d_name) > 0)
+                        continue;
+
                 /* Do not delete read-only files owned by root */
                 if (s.st_uid == 0 && !(s.st_mode & S_IWUSR))
                         continue;
 
-                free(sub_path);
-                sub_path = NULL;
-
-                if (asprintf(&sub_path, "%s/%s", p, dent->d_name) < 0) {
+                sub_path = strjoin(p, "/", dent->d_name, NULL);
+                if (!sub_path) {
                         r = log_oom();
                         goto finish;
                 }
@@ -286,13 +337,13 @@ static int dir_cleanup(
                         if (maxdepth <= 0)
                                 log_warning("Reached max depth on %s.", sub_path);
                         else {
-                                DIR *sub_dir;
+                                _cleanup_closedir_ DIR *sub_dir;
                                 int q;
 
                                 sub_dir = xopendirat(dirfd(d), dent->d_name, O_NOFOLLOW|O_NOATIME);
-                                if (sub_dir == NULL) {
+                                if (!sub_dir) {
                                         if (errno != ENOENT) {
-                                                log_error("opendir(%s/%s) failed: %m", p, dent->d_name);
+                                                log_error_errno(errno, "opendir(%s/%s) failed: %m", p, dent->d_name);
                                                 r = -errno;
                                         }
 
@@ -300,8 +351,6 @@ static int dir_cleanup(
                                 }
 
                                 q = dir_cleanup(i, sub_path, sub_dir, &s, cutoff, rootdev, false, maxdepth-1, false);
-                                closedir(sub_dir);
-
                                 if (q < 0)
                                         r = q;
                         }
@@ -322,12 +371,12 @@ static int dir_cleanup(
                         if (age >= cutoff)
                                 continue;
 
-                        if (!i->type == IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH || !streq(dent->d_name, p)) {
-                                log_debug("rmdir '%s'\n", sub_path);
+                        if (i->type != IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH || !streq(dent->d_name, p)) {
+                                log_debug("rmdir '%s'", sub_path);
 
                                 if (unlinkat(dirfd(d), dent->d_name, AT_REMOVEDIR) < 0) {
                                         if (errno != ENOENT && errno != ENOTEMPTY) {
-                                                log_error("rmdir(%s): %m", sub_path);
+                                                log_error_errno(errno, "rmdir(%s): %m", sub_path);
                                                 r = -errno;
                                         }
                                 }
@@ -371,11 +420,11 @@ static int dir_cleanup(
                         if (age >= cutoff)
                                 continue;
 
-                        log_debug("unlink '%s'\n", sub_path);
+                        log_debug("unlink '%s'", sub_path);
 
                         if (unlinkat(dirfd(d), dent->d_name, 0) < 0) {
                                 if (errno != ENOENT) {
-                                        log_error("unlink(%s): %m", sub_path);
+                                        log_error_errno(errno, "unlink(%s): %m", sub_path);
                                         r = -errno;
                                 }
                         }
@@ -391,85 +440,163 @@ finish:
                 times[1] = ds->st_mtim;
 
                 if (futimens(dirfd(d), times) < 0)
-                        log_error("utimensat(%s): %m", p);
+                        log_error_errno(errno, "utimensat(%s): %m", p);
         }
 
-        free(sub_path);
-
         return r;
 }
 
 static int item_set_perms(Item *i, const char *path) {
+        struct stat st;
+        bool st_valid;
+
+        assert(i);
+        assert(path);
+
+        st_valid = stat(path, &st) == 0;
+
         /* not using i->path directly because it may be a glob */
-        if (i->mode_set)
-                if (chmod(path, i->mode) < 0) {
-                        log_error("chmod(%s) failed: %m", path);
-                        return -errno;
+        if (i->mode_set) {
+                mode_t m = i->mode;
+
+                if (i->mask_perms && st_valid) {
+                        if (!(st.st_mode & 0111))
+                                m &= ~0111;
+                        if (!(st.st_mode & 0222))
+                                m &= ~0222;
+                        if (!(st.st_mode & 0444))
+                                m &= ~0444;
+                        if (!S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
+                                m &= ~07000; /* remove sticky/sgid/suid bit, unless directory */
+                }
+
+                if (!st_valid || m != (st.st_mode & 07777)) {
+                        if (chmod(path, m) < 0)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "chmod(%s) failed: %m", path);
                 }
+        }
 
-        if (i->uid_set || i->gid_set)
+        if ((!st_valid || (i->uid != st.st_uid || i->gid != st.st_gid)) &&
+            (i->uid_set || i->gid_set))
                 if (chown(path,
-                          i->uid_set ? i->uid : (uid_t) -1,
-                          i->gid_set ? i->gid : (gid_t) -1) < 0) {
+                          i->uid_set ? i->uid : UID_INVALID,
+                          i->gid_set ? i->gid : GID_INVALID) < 0) {
 
-                        log_error("chown(%s) failed: %m", path);
+                        log_error_errno(errno, "chown(%s) failed: %m", path);
                         return -errno;
                 }
 
         return label_fix(path, false, false);
 }
 
+static int get_xattrs_from_arg(Item *i) {
+        char *xattr;
+        const char *p;
+        int r;
+
+        assert(i);
+
+        if (!i->argument) {
+                log_error("%s: Argument can't be empty!", i->path);
+                return -EBADMSG;
+        }
+        p = i->argument;
+
+        while ((r = unquote_first_word(&p, &xattr, false)) > 0) {
+                _cleanup_free_ char *tmp = NULL, *name = NULL, *value = NULL;
+                r = split_pair(xattr, "=", &name, &value);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_warning("Illegal xattr found: \"%s\" - ignoring.", xattr);
+                        free(xattr);
+                        continue;
+                }
+                free(xattr);
+                if (streq(name, "") || streq(value, "")) {
+                        log_warning("Malformed xattr found: \"%s=%s\" - ignoring.", name, value);
+                        continue;
+                }
+                tmp = unquote(value, "\"");
+                if (!tmp)
+                        return log_oom();
+                free(value);
+                value = cunescape(tmp);
+                if (!value)
+                        return log_oom();
+                if (strv_consume_pair(&i->xattrs, name, value) < 0)
+                        return log_oom();
+                name = value = NULL;
+        }
+
+        return r;
+}
+
+static int item_set_xattrs(Item *i, const char *path) {
+        char **name, **value;
+
+        assert(i);
+        assert(path);
+
+        if (strv_isempty(i->xattrs))
+                return 0;
+
+        STRV_FOREACH_PAIR(name, value, i->xattrs) {
+                int n;
+                n = strlen(*value);
+                if (lsetxattr(path, *name, *value, n, 0) < 0) {
+                        log_error("Setting extended attribute %s=%s on %s failed: %m", *name, *value, path);
+                        return -errno;
+                }
+        }
+        return 0;
+}
+
 static int write_one_file(Item *i, const char *path) {
-        int r, e, fd, flags;
+        _cleanup_close_ int fd = -1;
+        int flags, r = 0;
         struct stat st;
-        mode_t u;
 
-        flags = i->type == CREATE_FILE ? O_CREAT|O_APPEND :
-                i->type == TRUNCATE_FILE ? O_CREAT|O_TRUNC : 0;
+        assert(i);
+        assert(path);
+
+        flags = i->type == CREATE_FILE ? O_CREAT|O_APPEND|O_NOFOLLOW :
+                i->type == TRUNCATE_FILE ? O_CREAT|O_TRUNC|O_NOFOLLOW : 0;
 
-        u = umask(0);
-        label_context_set(path, S_IFREG);
-        fd = open(path, flags|O_NDELAY|O_CLOEXEC|O_WRONLY|O_NOCTTY|O_NOFOLLOW, i->mode);
-        e = errno;
-        label_context_clear();
-        umask(u);
-        errno = e;
+        RUN_WITH_UMASK(0000) {
+                mac_selinux_create_file_prepare(path, S_IFREG);
+                fd = open(path, flags|O_NDELAY|O_CLOEXEC|O_WRONLY|O_NOCTTY, i->mode);
+                mac_selinux_create_file_clear();
+        }
 
         if (fd < 0) {
                 if (i->type == WRITE_FILE && errno == ENOENT)
                         return 0;
 
-                log_error("Failed to create file %s: %m", path);
+                log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to create file %s: %m", path);
                 return -errno;
         }
 
         if (i->argument) {
+                _cleanup_free_ char *unescaped;
                 ssize_t n;
                 size_t l;
-                _cleanup_free_ char *unescaped;
 
                 unescaped = cunescape(i->argument);
-                if (unescaped == NULL) {
-                        close_nointr_nofail(fd);
+                if (!unescaped)
                         return log_oom();
-                }
 
                 l = strlen(unescaped);
                 n = write(fd, unescaped, l);
 
                 if (n < 0 || (size_t) n < l) {
                         log_error("Failed to write file %s: %s", path, n < 0 ? strerror(-n) : "Short write");
-                        close_nointr_nofail(fd);
                         return n < 0 ? n : -EIO;
                 }
         }
 
-        close_nointr_nofail(fd);
+        fd = safe_close(fd);
 
-        if (stat(path, &st) < 0) {
-                log_error("stat(%s) failed: %m", path);
-                return -errno;
-        }
+        if (stat(path, &st) < 0)
+                return log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s) failed: %m", path);
 
         if (!S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) {
                 log_error("%s is not a file.", path);
@@ -480,131 +607,106 @@ static int write_one_file(Item *i, const char *path) {
         if (r < 0)
                 return r;
 
+        r = item_set_xattrs(i, i->path);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
         return 0;
 }
 
-static int recursive_relabel_children(Item *i, const char *path) {
-        DIR *d;
-        int ret = 0;
+static int item_set_perms_children(Item *i, const char *path) {
+        _cleanup_closedir_ DIR *d;
+        int r = 0;
+
+        assert(i);
+        assert(path);
 
         /* This returns the first error we run into, but nevertheless
          * tries to go on */
 
         d = opendir(path);
         if (!d)
-                return errno == ENOENT ? 0 : -errno;
+                return errno == ENOENT || errno == ENOTDIR ? 0 : -errno;
 
         for (;;) {
+                _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
                 struct dirent *de;
-                union dirent_storage buf;
-                bool is_dir;
-                int r;
-                char *entry_path;
-
-                r = readdir_r(d, &buf.de, &de);
-                if (r != 0) {
-                        if (ret == 0)
-                                ret = -r;
-                        break;
-                }
+                int q;
+
+                errno = 0;
+                de = readdir(d);
+                if (!de) {
+                        if (errno != 0 && r == 0)
+                                r = -errno;
 
-                if (!de)
                         break;
+                }
 
                 if (streq(de->d_name, ".") || streq(de->d_name, ".."))
                         continue;
 
-                if (asprintf(&entry_path, "%s/%s", path, de->d_name) < 0) {
-                        if (ret == 0)
-                                ret = -ENOMEM;
-                        continue;
-                }
-
-                if (de->d_type == DT_UNKNOWN) {
-                        struct stat st;
-
-                        if (lstat(entry_path, &st) < 0) {
-                                if (ret == 0 && errno != ENOENT)
-                                        ret = -errno;
-                                free(entry_path);
-                                continue;
-                        }
-
-                        is_dir = S_ISDIR(st.st_mode);
+                p = strjoin(path, "/", de->d_name, NULL);
+                if (!p)
+                        return -ENOMEM;
 
-                } else
-                        is_dir = de->d_type == DT_DIR;
+                q = item_set_perms(i, p);
+                if (q < 0 && q != -ENOENT && r == 0)
+                        r = q;
 
-                r = item_set_perms(i, entry_path);
-                if (r < 0) {
-                        if (ret == 0 && r != -ENOENT)
-                                ret = r;
-                        free(entry_path);
-                        continue;
-                }
-
-                if (is_dir) {
-                        r = recursive_relabel_children(i, entry_path);
-                        if (r < 0 && ret == 0)
-                                ret = r;
+                if (IN_SET(de->d_type, DT_UNKNOWN, DT_DIR)) {
+                        q = item_set_perms_children(i, p);
+                        if (q < 0 && r == 0)
+                                r = q;
                 }
-
-                free(entry_path);
         }
 
-        closedir(d);
-
-        return ret;
+        return r;
 }
 
-static int recursive_relabel(Item *i, const char *path) {
-        int r;
-        struct stat st;
+static int item_set_perms_recursive(Item *i, const char *path) {
+        int r, q;
+
+        assert(i);
+        assert(path);
 
         r = item_set_perms(i, path);
         if (r < 0)
                 return r;
 
-        if (lstat(path, &st) < 0)
-                return -errno;
-
-        if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
-                r = recursive_relabel_children(i, path);
+        q = item_set_perms_children(i, path);
+        if (q < 0 && r == 0)
+                r = q;
 
         return r;
 }
 
 static int glob_item(Item *i, int (*action)(Item *, const char *)) {
+        _cleanup_globfree_ glob_t g = {};
         int r = 0, k;
-        glob_t g;
         char **fn;
 
-        zero(g);
-
         errno = 0;
-        if ((k = glob(i->path, GLOB_NOSORT|GLOB_BRACE, NULL, &g)) != 0) {
-
-                if (k != GLOB_NOMATCH) {
-                        if (errno != 0)
-                                errno = EIO;
+        k = glob(i->path, GLOB_NOSORT|GLOB_BRACE, NULL, &g);
+        if (k != 0 && k != GLOB_NOMATCH) {
+                if (errno == 0)
+                        errno = EIO;
 
-                        log_error("glob(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
-                        return -errno;
-                }
+                log_error_errno(errno, "glob(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
+                return -errno;
         }
 
-        STRV_FOREACH(fn, g.gl_pathv)
-                if ((k = action(i, *fn)) < 0)
+        STRV_FOREACH(fn, g.gl_pathv) {
+                k = action(i, *fn);
+                if (k < 0 && r == 0)
                         r = k;
+        }
 
-        globfree(&g);
         return r;
 }
 
 static int create_item(Item *i) {
-        int r, e;
-        mode_t u;
         struct stat st;
+        int r = 0;
 
         assert(i);
 
@@ -622,6 +724,33 @@ static int create_item(Item *i) {
                 if (r < 0)
                         return r;
                 break;
+
+        case COPY_FILES:
+                r = copy_tree(i->argument, i->path, false);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        struct stat a, b;
+
+                        if (r != -EEXIST)
+                                return log_error_errno(r, "Failed to copy files to %s: %m", i->path);
+
+                        if (stat(i->argument, &a) < 0)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s) failed: %m", i->argument);
+
+                        if (stat(i->path, &b) < 0)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
+
+                        if ((a.st_mode ^ b.st_mode) & S_IFMT) {
+                                log_debug("Can't copy to %s, file exists already and is of different type", i->path);
+                                return 0;
+                        }
+                }
+
+                r = item_set_perms(i, i->path);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                break;
+
         case WRITE_FILE:
                 r = glob_item(i, write_one_file);
                 if (r < 0)
@@ -629,91 +758,125 @@ static int create_item(Item *i) {
 
                 break;
 
-        case TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY:
         case CREATE_DIRECTORY:
+        case TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY:
+        case CREATE_SUBVOLUME:
 
-                u = umask(0);
-                mkdir_parents_label(i->path, 0755);
-                r = mkdir(i->path, i->mode);
-                umask(u);
+                RUN_WITH_UMASK(0000)
+                        mkdir_parents_label(i->path, 0755);
 
-                if (r < 0 && errno != EEXIST) {
-                        log_error("Failed to create directory %s: %m", i->path);
-                        return -errno;
-                }
+                if (i->type == CREATE_SUBVOLUME) {
+                        RUN_WITH_UMASK((~i->mode) & 0777)
+                                r = btrfs_subvol_make(i->path);
+                } else
+                        r = 0;
 
-                if (stat(i->path, &st) < 0) {
-                        log_error("stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
-                        return -errno;
+                if (i->type == CREATE_DIRECTORY || i->type == TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY || r == -ENOTTY) {
+                        RUN_WITH_UMASK(0000)
+                                r = mkdir_label(i->path, i->mode);
                 }
 
-                if (!S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) {
-                        log_error("%s is not a directory.", i->path);
-                        return -EEXIST;
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        if (r != -EEXIST)
+                                return log_error_errno(r, "Failed to create directory or subvolume %s: %m", i->path);
+
+                        if (stat(i->path, &st) < 0)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
+
+                        if (!S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) {
+                                log_debug("%s already exists and is not a directory.", i->path);
+                                return 0;
+                        }
                 }
 
                 r = item_set_perms(i, i->path);
                 if (r < 0)
                         return r;
 
+                r = item_set_xattrs(i, i->path);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
                 break;
 
         case CREATE_FIFO:
 
-                u = umask(0);
-                r = mkfifo(i->path, i->mode);
-                umask(u);
-
-                if (r < 0 && errno != EEXIST) {
-                        log_error("Failed to create fifo %s: %m", i->path);
-                        return -errno;
+                RUN_WITH_UMASK(0000) {
+                        mac_selinux_create_file_prepare(i->path, S_IFIFO);
+                        r = mkfifo(i->path, i->mode);
+                        mac_selinux_create_file_clear();
                 }
 
-                if (stat(i->path, &st) < 0) {
-                        log_error("stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
-                        return -errno;
-                }
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        if (errno != EEXIST)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to create fifo %s: %m", i->path);
+
+                        if (stat(i->path, &st) < 0)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
+
+                        if (!S_ISFIFO(st.st_mode)) {
 
-                if (!S_ISFIFO(st.st_mode)) {
-                        log_error("%s is not a fifo.", i->path);
-                        return -EEXIST;
+                                if (i->force) {
+
+                                        RUN_WITH_UMASK(0000) {
+                                                mac_selinux_create_file_prepare(i->path, S_IFIFO);
+                                                r = mkfifo_atomic(i->path, i->mode);
+                                                mac_selinux_create_file_clear();
+                                        }
+
+                                        if (r < 0)
+                                                return log_error_errno(r, "Failed to create fifo %s: %m", i->path);
+                                } else {
+                                        log_debug("%s is not a fifo.", i->path);
+                                        return 0;
+                                }
+                        }
                 }
 
                 r = item_set_perms(i, i->path);
                 if (r < 0)
                         return r;
 
+                r = item_set_xattrs(i, i->path);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
                 break;
 
-        case CREATE_SYMLINK: {
-                char *x;
+        case CREATE_SYMLINK:
 
-                label_context_set(i->path, S_IFLNK);
+                mac_selinux_create_file_prepare(i->path, S_IFLNK);
                 r = symlink(i->argument, i->path);
-                e = errno;
-                label_context_clear();
-                errno = e;
-
-                if (r < 0 && errno != EEXIST) {
-                        log_error("symlink(%s, %s) failed: %m", i->argument, i->path);
-                        return -errno;
-                }
+                mac_selinux_create_file_clear();
 
-                r = readlink_malloc(i->path, &x);
                 if (r < 0) {
-                        log_error("readlink(%s) failed: %s", i->path, strerror(-r));
-                        return -errno;
-                }
+                        _cleanup_free_ char *x = NULL;
+
+                        if (errno != EEXIST)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "symlink(%s, %s) failed: %m", i->argument, i->path);
 
-                if (!streq(i->argument, x)) {
-                        free(x);
-                        log_error("%s is not the right symlinks.", i->path);
-                        return -EEXIST;
+                        r = readlink_malloc(i->path, &x);
+                        if (r < 0 || !streq(i->argument, x)) {
+
+                                if (i->force) {
+                                        mac_selinux_create_file_prepare(i->path, S_IFLNK);
+                                        r = symlink_atomic(i->argument, i->path);
+                                        mac_selinux_create_file_clear();
+
+                                        if (r < 0)
+                                                return log_error_errno(r, "symlink(%s, %s) failed: %m", i->argument, i->path);
+                                } else {
+                                        log_debug("%s is not a symlink or does not point to the correct path.", i->path);
+                                        return 0;
+                                }
+                        }
                 }
 
-                free(x);
+                r = item_set_xattrs(i, i->path);
+                if (r < 0)
+                       return r;
+
                 break;
-        }
 
         case CREATE_BLOCK_DEVICE:
         case CREATE_CHAR_DEVICE: {
@@ -721,7 +884,7 @@ static int create_item(Item *i) {
 
                 if (have_effective_cap(CAP_MKNOD) == 0) {
                         /* In a container we lack CAP_MKNOD. We
-                        shouldnt attempt to create the device node in
+                        shouldn't attempt to create the device node in
                         that case to avoid noise, and we don't support
                         virtualized devices in containers anyway. */
 
@@ -729,50 +892,77 @@ static int create_item(Item *i) {
                         return 0;
                 }
 
-                file_type = (i->type == CREATE_BLOCK_DEVICE ? S_IFBLK : S_IFCHR);
-
-                u = umask(0);
-                label_context_set(i->path, file_type);
-                r = mknod(i->path, i->mode | file_type, i->major_minor);
-                e = errno;
-                label_context_clear();
-                umask(u);
-                errno = e;
+                file_type = i->type == CREATE_BLOCK_DEVICE ? S_IFBLK : S_IFCHR;
 
-                if (r < 0 && errno != EEXIST) {
-                        log_error("Failed to create device node %s: %m", i->path);
-                        return -errno;
+                RUN_WITH_UMASK(0000) {
+                        mac_selinux_create_file_prepare(i->path, file_type);
+                        r = mknod(i->path, i->mode | file_type, i->major_minor);
+                        mac_selinux_create_file_clear();
                 }
 
-                if (stat(i->path, &st) < 0) {
-                        log_error("stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
-                        return -errno;
-                }
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        if (errno == EPERM) {
+                                log_debug("We lack permissions, possibly because of cgroup configuration; "
+                                          "skipping creation of device node %s.", i->path);
+                                return 0;
+                        }
+
+                        if (errno != EEXIST)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to create device node %s: %m", i->path);
+
+                        if (stat(i->path, &st) < 0)
+                                return log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
 
-                if ((st.st_mode & S_IFMT) != file_type) {
-                        log_error("%s is not a device node.", i->path);
-                        return -EEXIST;
+                        if ((st.st_mode & S_IFMT) != file_type) {
+
+                                if (i->force) {
+
+                                        RUN_WITH_UMASK(0000) {
+                                                mac_selinux_create_file_prepare(i->path, file_type);
+                                                r = mknod_atomic(i->path, i->mode | file_type, i->major_minor);
+                                                mac_selinux_create_file_clear();
+                                        }
+
+                                        if (r < 0)
+                                                return log_error_errno(r, "Failed to create device node %s: %m", i->path);
+                                } else {
+                                        log_debug("%s is not a device node.", i->path);
+                                        return 0;
+                                }
+                        }
                 }
 
                 r = item_set_perms(i, i->path);
                 if (r < 0)
                         return r;
 
+                r = item_set_xattrs(i, i->path);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
                 break;
         }
 
+        case ADJUST_MODE:
         case RELABEL_PATH:
 
                 r = glob_item(i, item_set_perms);
                 if (r < 0)
-                        return 0;
+                        return r;
                 break;
 
         case RECURSIVE_RELABEL_PATH:
 
-                r = glob_item(i, recursive_relabel);
+                r = glob_item(i, item_set_perms_recursive);
                 if (r < 0)
                         return r;
+                break;
+
+        case SET_XATTR:
+                r = item_set_xattrs(i, i->path);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+                break;
         }
 
         log_debug("%s created successfully.", i->path);
@@ -790,22 +980,24 @@ static int remove_item_instance(Item *i, const char *instance) {
         case CREATE_FILE:
         case TRUNCATE_FILE:
         case CREATE_DIRECTORY:
+        case CREATE_SUBVOLUME:
         case CREATE_FIFO:
         case CREATE_SYMLINK:
         case CREATE_BLOCK_DEVICE:
         case CREATE_CHAR_DEVICE:
         case IGNORE_PATH:
         case IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH:
+        case ADJUST_MODE:
         case RELABEL_PATH:
         case RECURSIVE_RELABEL_PATH:
         case WRITE_FILE:
+        case COPY_FILES:
+        case SET_XATTR:
                 break;
 
         case REMOVE_PATH:
-                if (remove(instance) < 0 && errno != ENOENT) {
-                        log_error("remove(%s): %m", instance);
-                        return -errno;
-                }
+                if (remove(instance) < 0 && errno != ENOENT)
+                        return log_error_errno(errno, "remove(%s): %m", instance);
 
                 break;
 
@@ -814,10 +1006,8 @@ static int remove_item_instance(Item *i, const char *instance) {
                 /* FIXME: we probably should use dir_cleanup() here
                  * instead of rm_rf() so that 'x' is honoured. */
                 r = rm_rf_dangerous(instance, false, i->type == RECURSIVE_REMOVE_PATH, false);
-                if (r < 0 && r != -ENOENT) {
-                        log_error("rm_rf(%s): %s", instance, strerror(-r));
-                        return r;
-                }
+                if (r < 0 && r != -ENOENT)
+                        return log_error_errno(r, "rm_rf(%s): %m", instance);
 
                 break;
         }
@@ -835,15 +1025,19 @@ static int remove_item(Item *i) {
         case CREATE_FILE:
         case TRUNCATE_FILE:
         case CREATE_DIRECTORY:
+        case CREATE_SUBVOLUME:
         case CREATE_FIFO:
         case CREATE_SYMLINK:
         case CREATE_CHAR_DEVICE:
         case CREATE_BLOCK_DEVICE:
         case IGNORE_PATH:
         case IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH:
+        case ADJUST_MODE:
         case RELABEL_PATH:
         case RECURSIVE_RELABEL_PATH:
         case WRITE_FILE:
+        case COPY_FILES:
+        case SET_XATTR:
                 break;
 
         case REMOVE_PATH:
@@ -857,7 +1051,7 @@ static int remove_item(Item *i) {
 }
 
 static int clean_item_instance(Item *i, const char* instance) {
-        DIR *d;
+        _cleanup_closedir_ DIR *d = NULL;
         struct stat s, ps;
         bool mountpoint;
         int r;
@@ -879,37 +1073,26 @@ static int clean_item_instance(Item *i, const char* instance) {
                 if (errno == ENOENT || errno == ENOTDIR)
                         return 0;
 
-                log_error("Failed to open directory %s: %m", i->path);
+                log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to open directory %s: %m", i->path);
                 return -errno;
         }
 
-        if (fstat(dirfd(d), &s) < 0) {
-                log_error("stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
-                r = -errno;
-                goto finish;
-        }
+        if (fstat(dirfd(d), &s) < 0)
+                return log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s) failed: %m", i->path);
 
         if (!S_ISDIR(s.st_mode)) {
                 log_error("%s is not a directory.", i->path);
-                r = -ENOTDIR;
-                goto finish;
+                return -ENOTDIR;
         }
 
-        if (fstatat(dirfd(d), "..", &ps, AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW) != 0) {
-                log_error("stat(%s/..) failed: %m", i->path);
-                r = -errno;
-                goto finish;
-        }
+        if (fstatat(dirfd(d), "..", &ps, AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW) != 0)
+                return log_error_errno(errno, "stat(%s/..) failed: %m", i->path);
 
         mountpoint = s.st_dev != ps.st_dev ||
                      (s.st_dev == ps.st_dev && s.st_ino == ps.st_ino);
 
-        r = dir_cleanup(i, instance, d, &s, cutoff, s.st_dev, mountpoint, MAX_DEPTH, i->keep_first_level);
-
-finish:
-        if (d)
-                closedir(d);
-
+        r = dir_cleanup(i, instance, d, &s, cutoff, s.st_dev, mountpoint,
+                        MAX_DEPTH, i->keep_first_level);
         return r;
 }
 
@@ -920,8 +1103,10 @@ static int clean_item(Item *i) {
 
         switch (i->type) {
         case CREATE_DIRECTORY:
+        case CREATE_SUBVOLUME:
         case TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY:
         case IGNORE_PATH:
+        case COPY_FILES:
                 clean_item_instance(i, i->path);
                 break;
         case IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH:
@@ -935,31 +1120,56 @@ static int clean_item(Item *i) {
 }
 
 static int process_item(Item *i) {
-        int r, q, p;
+        int r, q, p, t = 0;
+        _cleanup_free_ char *prefix = NULL;
 
         assert(i);
 
+        if (i->done)
+                return 0;
+
+        i->done = true;
+
+        prefix = malloc(strlen(i->path) + 1);
+        if (!prefix)
+                return log_oom();
+
+        PATH_FOREACH_PREFIX(prefix, i->path) {
+                Item *j;
+
+                j = hashmap_get(items, prefix);
+                if (j) {
+                        int s;
+
+                        s = process_item(j);
+                        if (s < 0 && t == 0)
+                                t = s;
+                }
+        }
+
         r = arg_create ? create_item(i) : 0;
         q = arg_remove ? remove_item(i) : 0;
         p = arg_clean ? clean_item(i) : 0;
 
-        if (r < 0)
-                return r;
-
-        if (q < 0)
-                return q;
-
-        return p;
+        return t < 0 ? t :
+                r < 0 ? r :
+                q < 0 ? q :
+                p;
 }
 
 static void item_free(Item *i) {
-        assert(i);
+
+        if (!i)
+                return;
 
         free(i->path);
         free(i->argument);
+        strv_free(i->xattrs);
         free(i);
 }
 
+DEFINE_TRIVIAL_CLEANUP_FUNC(Item*, item_free);
+
 static bool item_equal(Item *a, Item *b) {
         assert(a);
         assert(b);
@@ -989,7 +1199,8 @@ static bool item_equal(Item *a, Item *b) {
         if ((a->type == CREATE_FILE ||
              a->type == TRUNCATE_FILE ||
              a->type == WRITE_FILE ||
-             a->type == CREATE_SYMLINK) &&
+             a->type == CREATE_SYMLINK ||
+             a->type == COPY_FILES) &&
             !streq_ptr(a->argument, b->argument))
                 return false;
 
@@ -1001,9 +1212,35 @@ static bool item_equal(Item *a, Item *b) {
         return true;
 }
 
+static bool should_include_path(const char *path) {
+        char **prefix;
+
+        STRV_FOREACH(prefix, arg_exclude_prefixes)
+                if (path_startswith(path, *prefix))
+                        return false;
+
+        STRV_FOREACH(prefix, arg_include_prefixes)
+                if (path_startswith(path, *prefix))
+                        return true;
+
+        /* no matches, so we should include this path only if we
+         * have no whitelist at all */
+        return strv_length(arg_include_prefixes) == 0;
+}
+
 static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
-        Item *i, *existing;
-        char *mode = NULL, *user = NULL, *group = NULL, *age = NULL;
+
+        static const Specifier specifier_table[] = {
+                { 'm', specifier_machine_id, NULL },
+                { 'b', specifier_boot_id, NULL },
+                { 'H', specifier_host_name, NULL },
+                { 'v', specifier_kernel_release, NULL },
+                {}
+        };
+
+        _cleanup_free_ char *action = NULL, *mode = NULL, *user = NULL, *group = NULL, *age = NULL, *path = NULL;
+        _cleanup_(item_freep) Item *i = NULL;
+        Item *existing;
         char type;
         Hashmap *h;
         int r, n = -1;
@@ -1012,28 +1249,45 @@ static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
         assert(line >= 1);
         assert(buffer);
 
-        i = new0(Item, 1);
-        if (!i)
-                return log_oom();
-
-        if (sscanf(buffer,
-                   "%c "
-                   "%ms "
-                   "%ms "
-                   "%ms "
-                   "%ms "
-                   "%ms "
-                   "%n",
-                   &type,
-                   &i->path,
+        r = sscanf(buffer,
+                   "%ms %ms %ms %ms %ms %ms %n",
+                   &action,
+                   &path,
                    &mode,
                    &user,
                    &group,
                    &age,
-                   &n) < 2) {
+                   &n);
+        if (r < 2) {
                 log_error("[%s:%u] Syntax error.", fname, line);
-                r = -EIO;
-                goto finish;
+                return -EIO;
+        }
+
+        if (isempty(action)) {
+                log_error("[%s:%u] Command too short '%s'.", fname, line, action);
+                return -EINVAL;
+        }
+
+        if (strlen(action) > 1 && !in_charset(action+1, "!+")) {
+                log_error("[%s:%u] Unknown modifiers in command '%s'", fname, line, action);
+                return -EINVAL;
+        }
+
+        if (strchr(action+1, '!') && !arg_boot)
+                return 0;
+
+        type = action[0];
+
+        i = new0(Item, 1);
+        if (!i)
+                return log_oom();
+
+        i->force = !!strchr(action+1, '+');
+
+        r = specifier_printf(path, specifier_table, NULL, &i->path);
+        if (r < 0) {
+                log_error("[%s:%u] Failed to replace specifiers: %s", fname, line, path);
+                return r;
         }
 
         if (n >= 0)  {
@@ -1045,35 +1299,51 @@ static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
                 }
         }
 
-        switch(type) {
+        switch (type) {
 
         case CREATE_FILE:
         case TRUNCATE_FILE:
         case CREATE_DIRECTORY:
+        case CREATE_SUBVOLUME:
         case TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY:
         case CREATE_FIFO:
         case IGNORE_PATH:
         case IGNORE_DIRECTORY_PATH:
         case REMOVE_PATH:
         case RECURSIVE_REMOVE_PATH:
+        case ADJUST_MODE:
         case RELABEL_PATH:
         case RECURSIVE_RELABEL_PATH:
                 break;
 
         case CREATE_SYMLINK:
                 if (!i->argument) {
-                        log_error("[%s:%u] Symlink file requires argument.", fname, line);
-                        r = -EBADMSG;
-                        goto finish;
+                        i->argument = strappend("/usr/share/factory", i->path);
+                        if (!i->argument)
+                                return log_oom();
                 }
                 break;
 
         case WRITE_FILE:
                 if (!i->argument) {
                         log_error("[%s:%u] Write file requires argument.", fname, line);
-                        r = -EBADMSG;
-                        goto finish;
+                        return -EBADMSG;
+                }
+                break;
+
+        case COPY_FILES:
+                if (!i->argument) {
+                        i->argument = strappend("/usr/share/factory", i->path);
+                        if (!i->argument)
+                                return log_oom();
+                }
+
+                if (!path_is_absolute(i->argument)) {
+                        log_error("[%s:%u] Source path is not absolute.", fname, line);
+                        return -EBADMSG;
                 }
+
+                path_kill_slashes(i->argument);
                 break;
 
         case CREATE_CHAR_DEVICE:
@@ -1082,39 +1352,54 @@ static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
 
                 if (!i->argument) {
                         log_error("[%s:%u] Device file requires argument.", fname, line);
-                        r = -EBADMSG;
-                        goto finish;
+                        return -EBADMSG;
                 }
 
                 if (sscanf(i->argument, "%u:%u", &major, &minor) != 2) {
                         log_error("[%s:%u] Can't parse device file major/minor '%s'.", fname, line, i->argument);
-                        r = -EBADMSG;
-                        goto finish;
+                        return -EBADMSG;
                 }
 
                 i->major_minor = makedev(major, minor);
                 break;
         }
 
+        case SET_XATTR:
+                if (!i->argument) {
+                        log_error("[%s:%u] Set extended attribute requires argument.", fname, line);
+                        return -EBADMSG;
+                }
+                r = get_xattrs_from_arg(i);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+                break;
+
         default:
-                log_error("[%s:%u] Unknown file type '%c'.", fname, line, type);
-                r = -EBADMSG;
-                goto finish;
+                log_error("[%s:%u] Unknown command type '%c'.", fname, line, type);
+                return -EBADMSG;
         }
 
         i->type = type;
 
         if (!path_is_absolute(i->path)) {
                 log_error("[%s:%u] Path '%s' not absolute.", fname, line, i->path);
-                r = -EBADMSG;
-                goto finish;
+                return -EBADMSG;
         }
 
         path_kill_slashes(i->path);
 
-        if (arg_prefix && !path_startswith(i->path, arg_prefix)) {
-                r = 0;
-                goto finish;
+        if (!should_include_path(i->path))
+                return 0;
+
+        if (arg_root) {
+                char *p;
+
+                p = strappend(arg_root, i->path);
+                if (!p)
+                        return log_oom();
+
+                free(i->path);
+                i->path = p;
         }
 
         if (user && !streq(user, "-")) {
@@ -1123,7 +1408,7 @@ static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
                 r = get_user_creds(&u, &i->uid, NULL, NULL, NULL);
                 if (r < 0) {
                         log_error("[%s:%u] Unknown user '%s'.", fname, line, user);
-                        goto finish;
+                        return r;
                 }
 
                 i->uid_set = true;
@@ -1135,19 +1420,24 @@ static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
                 r = get_group_creds(&g, &i->gid);
                 if (r < 0) {
                         log_error("[%s:%u] Unknown group '%s'.", fname, line, group);
-                        goto finish;
+                        return r;
                 }
 
                 i->gid_set = true;
         }
 
         if (mode && !streq(mode, "-")) {
+                const char *mm = mode;
                 unsigned m;
 
-                if (sscanf(mode, "%o", &m) != 1) {
+                if (*mm == '~') {
+                        i->mask_perms = true;
+                        mm++;
+                }
+
+                if (sscanf(mm, "%o", &m) != 1) {
                         log_error("[%s:%u] Invalid mode '%s'.", fname, line, mode);
-                        r = -ENOENT;
-                        goto finish;
+                        return -ENOENT;
                 }
 
                 i->mode = m;
@@ -1155,6 +1445,7 @@ static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
         } else
                 i->mode =
                         i->type == CREATE_DIRECTORY ||
+                        i->type == CREATE_SUBVOLUME ||
                         i->type == TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY ? 0755 : 0644;
 
         if (age && !streq(age, "-")) {
@@ -1165,10 +1456,9 @@ static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
                         a++;
                 }
 
-                if (parse_usec(a, &i->age) < 0) {
+                if (parse_sec(a, &i->age) < 0) {
                         log_error("[%s:%u] Invalid age '%s'.", fname, line, age);
-                        r = -EBADMSG;
-                        goto finish;
+                        return -EBADMSG;
                 }
 
                 i->age_set = true;
@@ -1178,66 +1468,79 @@ static int parse_line(const char *fname, unsigned line, const char *buffer) {
 
         existing = hashmap_get(h, i->path);
         if (existing) {
-
-                /* Two identical items are fine */
-                if (!item_equal(existing, i))
-                        log_warning("Two or more conflicting lines for %s configured, ignoring.", i->path);
-
-                r = 0;
-                goto finish;
-        }
-
-        r = hashmap_put(h, i->path, i);
-        if (r < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to insert item %s: %s", i->path, strerror(-r));
-                goto finish;
+                if (i->type == SET_XATTR) {
+                        r = strv_extend_strv(&existing->xattrs, i->xattrs);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return log_oom();
+                        return 0;
+                } else if (existing->type == SET_XATTR) {
+                        r = strv_extend_strv(&i->xattrs, existing->xattrs);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return log_oom();
+                        r = hashmap_replace(h, i->path, i);
+                        if (r < 0) {
+                                log_error("Failed to replace item for %s.", i->path);
+                                return r;
+                        }
+                        item_free(existing);
+                } else {
+                        /* Two identical items are fine */
+                        if (!item_equal(existing, i))
+                                log_warning("Two or more conflicting lines for %s configured, ignoring.", i->path);
+                        return 0;
+                }
+        } else {
+                r = hashmap_put(h, i->path, i);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to insert item %s: %s", i->path, strerror(-r));
+                        return r;
+                }
         }
 
-        i = NULL;
-        r = 0;
-
-finish:
-        free(user);
-        free(group);
-        free(mode);
-        free(age);
-
-        if (i)
-                item_free(i);
+        i = NULL; /* avoid cleanup */
 
-        return r;
+        return 0;
 }
 
-static int help(void) {
-
+static void help(void) {
         printf("%s [OPTIONS...] [CONFIGURATION FILE...]\n\n"
                "Creates, deletes and cleans up volatile and temporary files and directories.\n\n"
-               "  -h --help             Show this help\n"
-               "     --create           Create marked files/directories\n"
-               "     --clean            Clean up marked directories\n"
-               "     --remove           Remove marked files/directories\n"
-               "     --prefix=PATH      Only apply rules that apply to paths with the specified prefix\n",
+               "  -h --help                 Show this help\n"
+               "     --version              Show package version\n"
+               "     --create               Create marked files/directories\n"
+               "     --clean                Clean up marked directories\n"
+               "     --remove               Remove marked files/directories\n"
+               "     --boot                 Execute actions only safe at boot\n"
+               "     --prefix=PATH          Only apply rules that apply to paths with the specified prefix\n"
+               "     --exclude-prefix=PATH  Ignore rules that apply to paths with the specified prefix\n"
+               "     --root=PATH            Operate on an alternate filesystem root\n",
                program_invocation_short_name);
-
-        return 0;
 }
 
 static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
 
         enum {
+                ARG_VERSION = 0x100,
                 ARG_CREATE,
                 ARG_CLEAN,
                 ARG_REMOVE,
-                ARG_PREFIX
+                ARG_BOOT,
+                ARG_PREFIX,
+                ARG_EXCLUDE_PREFIX,
+                ARG_ROOT,
         };
 
         static const struct option options[] = {
-                { "help",      no_argument,       NULL, 'h'           },
-                { "create",    no_argument,       NULL, ARG_CREATE    },
-                { "clean",     no_argument,       NULL, ARG_CLEAN     },
-                { "remove",    no_argument,       NULL, ARG_REMOVE    },
-                { "prefix",    required_argument, NULL, ARG_PREFIX    },
-                { NULL,        0,                 NULL, 0             }
+                { "help",           no_argument,         NULL, 'h'                },
+                { "version",        no_argument,         NULL, ARG_VERSION        },
+                { "create",         no_argument,         NULL, ARG_CREATE         },
+                { "clean",          no_argument,         NULL, ARG_CLEAN          },
+                { "remove",         no_argument,         NULL, ARG_REMOVE         },
+                { "boot",           no_argument,         NULL, ARG_BOOT           },
+                { "prefix",         required_argument,   NULL, ARG_PREFIX         },
+                { "exclude-prefix", required_argument,   NULL, ARG_EXCLUDE_PREFIX },
+                { "root",           required_argument,   NULL, ARG_ROOT           },
+                {}
         };
 
         int c;
@@ -1245,7 +1548,7 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
         assert(argc >= 0);
         assert(argv);
 
-        while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "h", options, NULL)) >= 0) {
+        while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "h", options, NULL)) >= 0)
 
                 switch (c) {
 
@@ -1253,6 +1556,11 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                         help();
                         return 0;
 
+                case ARG_VERSION:
+                        puts(PACKAGE_STRING);
+                        puts(SYSTEMD_FEATURES);
+                        return 0;
+
                 case ARG_CREATE:
                         arg_create = true;
                         break;
@@ -1265,18 +1573,35 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                         arg_remove = true;
                         break;
 
+                case ARG_BOOT:
+                        arg_boot = true;
+                        break;
+
                 case ARG_PREFIX:
-                        arg_prefix = optarg;
+                        if (strv_push(&arg_include_prefixes, optarg) < 0)
+                                return log_oom();
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_EXCLUDE_PREFIX:
+                        if (strv_push(&arg_exclude_prefixes, optarg) < 0)
+                                return log_oom();
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_ROOT:
+                        free(arg_root);
+                        arg_root = path_make_absolute_cwd(optarg);
+                        if (!arg_root)
+                                return log_oom();
+
+                        path_kill_slashes(arg_root);
                         break;
 
                 case '?':
                         return -EINVAL;
 
                 default:
-                        log_error("Unknown option code %c", c);
-                        return -EINVAL;
+                        assert_not_reached("Unhandled option");
                 }
-        }
 
         if (!arg_clean && !arg_create && !arg_remove) {
                 log_error("You need to specify at least one of --clean, --create or --remove.");
@@ -1287,41 +1612,36 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
 }
 
 static int read_config_file(const char *fn, bool ignore_enoent) {
-        FILE *f;
-        unsigned v = 0;
-        int r = 0;
+        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
+        char line[LINE_MAX];
         Iterator iterator;
+        unsigned v = 0;
         Item *i;
+        int r;
 
         assert(fn);
 
-        f = fopen(fn, "re");
-        if (!f) {
-
-                if (ignore_enoent && errno == ENOENT)
+        r = search_and_fopen_nulstr(fn, "re", arg_root, conf_file_dirs, &f);
+        if (r < 0) {
+                if (ignore_enoent && r == -ENOENT)
                         return 0;
 
-                log_error("Failed to open %s: %m", fn);
-                return -errno;
+                return log_error_errno(r, "Failed to open '%s', ignoring: %m", fn);
         }
 
-        log_debug("apply: %s\n", fn);
-        for (;;) {
-                char line[LINE_MAX], *l;
+        FOREACH_LINE(line, f, break) {
+                char *l;
                 int k;
 
-                if (!(fgets(line, sizeof(line), f)))
-                        break;
-
                 v++;
 
                 l = strstrip(line);
                 if (*l == '#' || *l == 0)
                         continue;
 
-                if ((k = parse_line(fn, v, l)) < 0)
-                        if (r == 0)
-                                r = k;
+                k = parse_line(fn, v, l);
+                if (k < 0 && r == 0)
+                        r = k;
         }
 
         /* we have to determine age parameter for each entry of type X */
@@ -1333,7 +1653,7 @@ static int read_config_file(const char *fn, bool ignore_enoent) {
                         continue;
 
                 HASHMAP_FOREACH(j, items, iter) {
-                        if (j->type != CREATE_DIRECTORY && j->type != TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY)
+                        if (j->type != CREATE_DIRECTORY && j->type != TRUNCATE_DIRECTORY && j->type != CREATE_SUBVOLUME)
                                 continue;
 
                         if (path_equal(j->path, i->path)) {
@@ -1346,55 +1666,29 @@ static int read_config_file(const char *fn, bool ignore_enoent) {
                                 candidate_item = j;
                 }
 
-                if (candidate_item) {
+                if (candidate_item && candidate_item->age_set) {
                         i->age = candidate_item->age;
                         i->age_set = true;
                 }
         }
 
         if (ferror(f)) {
-                log_error("Failed to read from file %s: %m", fn);
+                log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to read from file %s: %m", fn);
                 if (r == 0)
                         r = -EIO;
         }
 
-        fclose(f);
-
         return r;
 }
 
-static char *resolve_fragment(const char *fragment, const char **search_paths) {
-        const char **p;
-        char *resolved_path;
-
-        if (is_path(fragment))
-                return strdup(fragment);
-
-        STRV_FOREACH(p, search_paths) {
-                resolved_path = strjoin(*p, "/", fragment, NULL);
-                if (resolved_path == NULL) {
-                        log_oom();
-                        return NULL;
-                }
-
-                if (access(resolved_path, F_OK) == 0)
-                        return resolved_path;
-
-                free(resolved_path);
-        }
-
-        errno = ENOENT;
-        return NULL;
-}
-
 int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
-        int r;
+        int r, k;
         Item *i;
         Iterator iterator;
 
         r = parse_argv(argc, argv);
         if (r <= 0)
-                return r < 0 ? EXIT_FAILURE : EXIT_SUCCESS;
+                goto finish;
 
         log_set_target(LOG_TARGET_AUTO);
         log_parse_environment();
@@ -1402,59 +1696,55 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
 
         umask(0022);
 
-        label_init(NULL);
+        mac_selinux_init(NULL);
 
-        items = hashmap_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
-        globs = hashmap_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        items = hashmap_new(&string_hash_ops);
+        globs = hashmap_new(&string_hash_ops);
 
         if (!items || !globs) {
-                log_oom();
-                r = EXIT_FAILURE;
+                r = log_oom();
                 goto finish;
         }
 
-        r = EXIT_SUCCESS;
+        r = 0;
 
         if (optind < argc) {
                 int j;
 
                 for (j = optind; j < argc; j++) {
-                        char *fragment;
-
-                        fragment = resolve_fragment(argv[j], (const char **)conf_file_dirs);
-                        if (!fragment) {
-                                log_error("Failed to find a %s file: %m", argv[j]);
-                                r = EXIT_FAILURE;
-                                goto finish;
-                        }
-                        if (read_config_file(fragment, false) < 0)
-                                r = EXIT_FAILURE;
-                        free(fragment);
+                        k = read_config_file(argv[j], false);
+                        if (k < 0 && r == 0)
+                                r = k;
                 }
 
         } else {
-                char **files, **f;
+                _cleanup_strv_free_ char **files = NULL;
+                char **f;
 
-                r = conf_files_list_strv(&files, ".conf", NULL, (const char **)conf_file_dirs);
+                r = conf_files_list_nulstr(&files, ".conf", arg_root, conf_file_dirs);
                 if (r < 0) {
-                        log_error("Failed to enumerate tmpfiles.d files: %s", strerror(-r));
-                        r = EXIT_FAILURE;
+                        log_error_errno(r, "Failed to enumerate tmpfiles.d files: %m");
                         goto finish;
                 }
 
                 STRV_FOREACH(f, files) {
-                        if (read_config_file(*f, true) < 0)
-                                r = EXIT_FAILURE;
+                        k = read_config_file(*f, true);
+                        if (k < 0 && r == 0)
+                                r = k;
                 }
-
-                strv_free(files);
         }
 
-        HASHMAP_FOREACH(i, globs, iterator)
-                process_item(i);
+        HASHMAP_FOREACH(i, globs, iterator) {
+                k = process_item(i);
+                if (k < 0 && r == 0)
+                        r = k;
+        }
 
-        HASHMAP_FOREACH(i, items, iterator)
-                process_item(i);
+        HASHMAP_FOREACH(i, items, iterator) {
+                k = process_item(i);
+                if (k < 0 && r == 0)
+                        r = k;
+        }
 
 finish:
         while ((i = hashmap_steal_first(items)))
@@ -1466,9 +1756,13 @@ finish:
         hashmap_free(items);
         hashmap_free(globs);
 
+        free(arg_include_prefixes);
+        free(arg_exclude_prefixes);
+        free(arg_root);
+
         set_free_free(unix_sockets);
 
-        label_finish();
+        mac_selinux_finish();
 
-        return r;
+        return r < 0 ? EXIT_FAILURE : EXIT_SUCCESS;
 }