chiark / gitweb /
util: when using basename() for creating temporary files, verify the resulting name...
[elogind.git] / src / shared / util.c
index 18d40f3..273552f 100644 (file)
@@ -174,26 +174,88 @@ char* first_word(const char *s, const char *word) {
         return (char*) p;
 }
 
-int close_nointr(int fd) {
-        int r;
+static size_t cescape_char(char c, char *buf) {
+        char * buf_old = buf;
+
+        switch (c) {
+
+                case '\a':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = 'a';
+                        break;
+                case '\b':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = 'b';
+                        break;
+                case '\f':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = 'f';
+                        break;
+                case '\n':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = 'n';
+                        break;
+                case '\r':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = 'r';
+                        break;
+                case '\t':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = 't';
+                        break;
+                case '\v':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = 'v';
+                        break;
+                case '\\':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        break;
+                case '"':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = '"';
+                        break;
+                case '\'':
+                        *(buf++) = '\\';
+                        *(buf++) = '\'';
+                        break;
+
+                default:
+                        /* For special chars we prefer octal over
+                         * hexadecimal encoding, simply because glib's
+                         * g_strescape() does the same */
+                        if ((c < ' ') || (c >= 127)) {
+                                *(buf++) = '\\';
+                                *(buf++) = octchar((unsigned char) c >> 6);
+                                *(buf++) = octchar((unsigned char) c >> 3);
+                                *(buf++) = octchar((unsigned char) c);
+                        } else
+                                *(buf++) = c;
+                        break;
+        }
 
+        return buf - buf_old;
+}
+
+int close_nointr(int fd) {
         assert(fd >= 0);
-        r = close(fd);
-        if (r >= 0)
-                return r;
-        else if (errno == EINTR)
-                /*
-                 * Just ignore EINTR; a retry loop is the wrong
-                 * thing to do on Linux.
-                 *
-                 * http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0509.1/0877.html
-                 * https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=682819
-                 * http://utcc.utoronto.ca/~cks/space/blog/unix/CloseEINTR
-                 * https://sites.google.com/site/michaelsafyan/software-engineering/checkforeintrwheninvokingclosethinkagain
-                 */
+
+        if (close(fd) >= 0)
                 return 0;
-        else
-                return -errno;
+
+        /*
+         * Just ignore EINTR; a retry loop is the wrong thing to do on
+         * Linux.
+         *
+         * http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0509.1/0877.html
+         * https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=682819
+         * http://utcc.utoronto.ca/~cks/space/blog/unix/CloseEINTR
+         * https://sites.google.com/site/michaelsafyan/software-engineering/checkforeintrwheninvokingclosethinkagain
+         */
+        if (errno == EINTR)
+                return 0;
+
+        return -errno;
 }
 
 int safe_close(int fd) {
@@ -292,7 +354,7 @@ int parse_uid(const char *s, uid_t* ret_uid) {
         if ((unsigned long) uid != ul)
                 return -ERANGE;
 
-        /* Some libc APIs use (uid_t) -1 as special placeholder */
+        /* Some libc APIs use UID_INVALID as special placeholder */
         if (uid == (uid_t) 0xFFFFFFFF)
                 return -ENXIO;
 
@@ -364,6 +426,46 @@ int safe_atou8(const char *s, uint8_t *ret) {
         return 0;
 }
 
+int safe_atou16(const char *s, uint16_t *ret) {
+        char *x = NULL;
+        unsigned long l;
+
+        assert(s);
+        assert(ret);
+
+        errno = 0;
+        l = strtoul(s, &x, 0);
+
+        if (!x || x == s || *x || errno)
+                return errno > 0 ? -errno : -EINVAL;
+
+        if ((unsigned long) (uint16_t) l != l)
+                return -ERANGE;
+
+        *ret = (uint16_t) l;
+        return 0;
+}
+
+int safe_atoi16(const char *s, int16_t *ret) {
+        char *x = NULL;
+        long l;
+
+        assert(s);
+        assert(ret);
+
+        errno = 0;
+        l = strtol(s, &x, 0);
+
+        if (!x || x == s || *x || errno)
+                return errno > 0 ? -errno : -EINVAL;
+
+        if ((long) (int16_t) l != l)
+                return -ERANGE;
+
+        *ret = (int16_t) l;
+        return 0;
+}
+
 int safe_atollu(const char *s, long long unsigned *ret_llu) {
         char *x = NULL;
         unsigned long long l;
@@ -456,7 +558,7 @@ const char* split(const char **state, size_t *l, const char *separator, bool quo
                 *l = strcspn_escaped(current + 1, quotechars);
                 if (current[*l + 1] == '\0' ||
                     (current[*l + 2] && !strchr(separator, current[*l + 2]))) {
-                        /* right quote missing or garbage at the end*/
+                        /* right quote missing or garbage at the end */
                         *state = current;
                         return NULL;
                 }
@@ -516,56 +618,6 @@ int get_parent_of_pid(pid_t pid, pid_t *_ppid) {
         return 0;
 }
 
-int get_starttime_of_pid(pid_t pid, unsigned long long *st) {
-        int r;
-        _cleanup_free_ char *line = NULL;
-        const char *p;
-
-        assert(pid >= 0);
-        assert(st);
-
-        p = procfs_file_alloca(pid, "stat");
-        r = read_one_line_file(p, &line);
-        if (r < 0)
-                return r;
-
-        /* Let's skip the pid and comm fields. The latter is enclosed
-         * in () but does not escape any () in its value, so let's
-         * skip over it manually */
-
-        p = strrchr(line, ')');
-        if (!p)
-                return -EIO;
-
-        p++;
-
-        if (sscanf(p, " "
-                   "%*c "  /* state */
-                   "%*d "  /* ppid */
-                   "%*d "  /* pgrp */
-                   "%*d "  /* session */
-                   "%*d "  /* tty_nr */
-                   "%*d "  /* tpgid */
-                   "%*u "  /* flags */
-                   "%*u "  /* minflt */
-                   "%*u "  /* cminflt */
-                   "%*u "  /* majflt */
-                   "%*u "  /* cmajflt */
-                   "%*u "  /* utime */
-                   "%*u "  /* stime */
-                   "%*d "  /* cutime */
-                   "%*d "  /* cstime */
-                   "%*d "  /* priority */
-                   "%*d "  /* nice */
-                   "%*d "  /* num_threads */
-                   "%*d "  /* itrealvalue */
-                   "%llu "  /* starttime */,
-                   st) != 1)
-                return -EIO;
-
-        return 0;
-}
-
 int fchmod_umask(int fd, mode_t m) {
         mode_t u;
         int r;
@@ -696,7 +748,7 @@ int get_process_cmdline(pid_t pid, size_t max_length, bool comm_fallback, char *
         }
 
         /* Kernel threads have no argv[] */
-        if (r == NULL || r[0] == 0) {
+        if (isempty(r)) {
                 _cleanup_free_ char *t = NULL;
                 int h;
 
@@ -758,19 +810,30 @@ int get_process_capeff(pid_t pid, char **capeff) {
         return get_status_field(p, "\nCapEff:", capeff);
 }
 
+static int get_process_link_contents(const char *proc_file, char **name) {
+        int r;
+
+        assert(proc_file);
+        assert(name);
+
+        r = readlink_malloc(proc_file, name);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r == -ENOENT ? -ESRCH : r;
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
 int get_process_exe(pid_t pid, char **name) {
         const char *p;
         char *d;
         int r;
 
         assert(pid >= 0);
-        assert(name);
 
         p = procfs_file_alloca(pid, "exe");
-
-        r = readlink_malloc(p, name);
+        r = get_process_link_contents(p, name);
         if (r < 0)
-                return r == -ENOENT ? -ESRCH : r;
+                return r;
 
         d = endswith(*name, " (deleted)");
         if (d)
@@ -822,6 +885,59 @@ int get_process_gid(pid_t pid, gid_t *gid) {
         return get_process_id(pid, "Gid:", gid);
 }
 
+int get_process_cwd(pid_t pid, char **cwd) {
+        const char *p;
+
+        assert(pid >= 0);
+
+        p = procfs_file_alloca(pid, "cwd");
+
+        return get_process_link_contents(p, cwd);
+}
+
+int get_process_root(pid_t pid, char **root) {
+        const char *p;
+
+        assert(pid >= 0);
+
+        p = procfs_file_alloca(pid, "root");
+
+        return get_process_link_contents(p, root);
+}
+
+int get_process_environ(pid_t pid, char **env) {
+        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
+        _cleanup_free_ char *outcome = NULL;
+        int c;
+        const char *p;
+        size_t allocated = 0, sz = 0;
+
+        assert(pid >= 0);
+        assert(env);
+
+        p = procfs_file_alloca(pid, "environ");
+
+        f = fopen(p, "re");
+        if (!f)
+                return -errno;
+
+        while ((c = fgetc(f)) != EOF) {
+                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(outcome, allocated, sz + 5))
+                        return -ENOMEM;
+
+                if (c == '\0')
+                        outcome[sz++] = '\n';
+                else
+                        sz += cescape_char(c, outcome + sz);
+        }
+
+        outcome[sz] = '\0';
+        *env = outcome;
+        outcome = NULL;
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
 char *strnappend(const char *s, const char *suffix, size_t b) {
         size_t a;
         char *r;
@@ -894,6 +1010,28 @@ int readlink_malloc(const char *p, char **ret) {
         return readlinkat_malloc(AT_FDCWD, p, ret);
 }
 
+int readlink_value(const char *p, char **ret) {
+        _cleanup_free_ char *link = NULL;
+        char *value;
+        int r;
+
+        r = readlink_malloc(p, &link);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
+        value = basename(link);
+        if (!value)
+                return -ENOENT;
+
+        value = strdup(value);
+        if (!value)
+                return -ENOMEM;
+
+        *ret = value;
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
 int readlink_and_make_absolute(const char *p, char **r) {
         _cleanup_free_ char *target = NULL;
         char *k;
@@ -938,7 +1076,7 @@ int readlink_and_canonicalize(const char *p, char **r) {
 }
 
 int reset_all_signal_handlers(void) {
-        int sig;
+        int sig, r = 0;
 
         for (sig = 1; sig < _NSIG; sig++) {
                 struct sigaction sa = {
@@ -946,16 +1084,29 @@ int reset_all_signal_handlers(void) {
                         .sa_flags = SA_RESTART,
                 };
 
+                /* These two cannot be caught... */
                 if (sig == SIGKILL || sig == SIGSTOP)
                         continue;
 
                 /* On Linux the first two RT signals are reserved by
                  * glibc, and sigaction() will return EINVAL for them. */
                 if ((sigaction(sig, &sa, NULL) < 0))
-                        if (errno != EINVAL)
-                                return -errno;
+                        if (errno != EINVAL && r == 0)
+                                r = -errno;
         }
 
+        return r;
+}
+
+int reset_signal_mask(void) {
+        sigset_t ss;
+
+        if (sigemptyset(&ss) < 0)
+                return -errno;
+
+        if (sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &ss, NULL) < 0)
+                return -errno;
+
         return 0;
 }
 
@@ -1166,63 +1317,7 @@ char *cescape(const char *s) {
                 return NULL;
 
         for (f = s, t = r; *f; f++)
-
-                switch (*f) {
-
-                case '\a':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = 'a';
-                        break;
-                case '\b':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = 'b';
-                        break;
-                case '\f':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = 'f';
-                        break;
-                case '\n':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = 'n';
-                        break;
-                case '\r':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = 'r';
-                        break;
-                case '\t':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = 't';
-                        break;
-                case '\v':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = 'v';
-                        break;
-                case '\\':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        break;
-                case '"':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = '"';
-                        break;
-                case '\'':
-                        *(t++) = '\\';
-                        *(t++) = '\'';
-                        break;
-
-                default:
-                        /* For special chars we prefer octal over
-                         * hexadecimal encoding, simply because glib's
-                         * g_strescape() does the same */
-                        if ((*f < ' ') || (*f >= 127)) {
-                                *(t++) = '\\';
-                                *(t++) = octchar((unsigned char) *f >> 6);
-                                *(t++) = octchar((unsigned char) *f >> 3);
-                                *(t++) = octchar((unsigned char) *f);
-                        } else
-                                *(t++) = *f;
-                        break;
-                }
+                t += cescape_char(*f, t);
 
         *t = 0;
 
@@ -1341,7 +1436,7 @@ char *cunescape_length_with_prefix(const char *s, size_t length, const char *pre
                 }
 
                 case 0:
-                        /* premature end of string.*/
+                        /* premature end of string. */
                         *(t++) = '\\';
                         goto finish;
 
@@ -1866,9 +1961,6 @@ int open_terminal(const char *name, int mode) {
                 c++;
         }
 
-        if (fd < 0)
-                return -errno;
-
         r = isatty(fd);
         if (r < 0) {
                 safe_close(fd);
@@ -2008,9 +2100,9 @@ int acquire_terminal(
                 assert(notify >= 0);
 
                 for (;;) {
-                        uint8_t inotify_buffer[sizeof(struct inotify_event) + FILENAME_MAX];
-                        ssize_t l;
+                        uint8_t buffer[INOTIFY_EVENT_MAX] _alignas_(struct inotify_event);
                         struct inotify_event *e;
+                        ssize_t l;
 
                         if (timeout != USEC_INFINITY) {
                                 usec_t n;
@@ -2031,9 +2123,8 @@ int acquire_terminal(
                                 }
                         }
 
-                        l = read(notify, inotify_buffer, sizeof(inotify_buffer));
+                        l = read(notify, buffer, sizeof(buffer));
                         if (l < 0) {
-
                                 if (errno == EINTR || errno == EAGAIN)
                                         continue;
 
@@ -2041,21 +2132,11 @@ int acquire_terminal(
                                 goto fail;
                         }
 
-                        e = (struct inotify_event*) inotify_buffer;
-
-                        while (l > 0) {
-                                size_t step;
-
+                        FOREACH_INOTIFY_EVENT(e, buffer, l) {
                                 if (e->wd != wd || !(e->mask & IN_CLOSE)) {
                                         r = -EIO;
                                         goto fail;
                                 }
-
-                                step = sizeof(struct inotify_event) + e->len;
-                                assert(step <= (size_t) l);
-
-                                e = (struct inotify_event*) ((uint8_t*) e + step);
-                                l -= step;
                         }
 
                         break;
@@ -2065,14 +2146,14 @@ int acquire_terminal(
                  * ended our handle will be dead. It's important that
                  * we do this after sleeping, so that we don't enter
                  * an endless loop. */
-                safe_close(fd);
+                fd = safe_close(fd);
         }
 
         safe_close(notify);
 
         r = reset_terminal_fd(fd, true);
         if (r < 0)
-                log_warning("Failed to reset terminal: %s", strerror(-r));
+                log_warning_errno(r, "Failed to reset terminal: %m");
 
         return fd;
 
@@ -2211,13 +2292,15 @@ ssize_t loop_read(int fd, void *buf, size_t nbytes, bool do_poll) {
         return n;
 }
 
-ssize_t loop_write(int fd, const void *buf, size_t nbytes, bool do_poll) {
+int loop_write(int fd, const void *buf, size_t nbytes, bool do_poll) {
         const uint8_t *p = buf;
         ssize_t n = 0;
 
         assert(fd >= 0);
         assert(buf);
 
+        errno = 0;
+
         while (nbytes > 0) {
                 ssize_t k;
 
@@ -2236,14 +2319,15 @@ ssize_t loop_write(int fd, const void *buf, size_t nbytes, bool do_poll) {
                 }
 
                 if (k <= 0)
-                        return n > 0 ? n : (k < 0 ? -errno : 0);
+                        /* We were not done yet, and a write error occured. */
+                        return errno ? -errno : -EIO;
 
                 p += k;
                 nbytes -= k;
                 n += k;
         }
 
-        return n;
+        return 0;
 }
 
 int parse_size(const char *t, off_t base, off_t *size) {
@@ -2457,14 +2541,53 @@ char* dirname_malloc(const char *path) {
 }
 
 int dev_urandom(void *p, size_t n) {
-        _cleanup_close_ int fd;
+        static int have_syscall = -1;
+        int r, fd;
         ssize_t k;
 
-        fd = open("/dev/urandom", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC|O_NOCTTY);
-        if (fd < 0)
-                return errno == ENOENT ? -ENOSYS : -errno;
+        /* Gathers some randomness from the kernel. This call will
+         * never block, and will always return some data from the
+         * kernel, regardless if the random pool is fully initialized
+         * or not. It thus makes no guarantee for the quality of the
+         * returned entropy, but is good enough for or usual usecases
+         * of seeding the hash functions for hashtable */
+
+        /* Use the getrandom() syscall unless we know we don't have
+         * it, or when the requested size is too large for it. */
+        if (have_syscall != 0 || (size_t) (int) n != n) {
+                r = getrandom(p, n, GRND_NONBLOCK);
+                if (r == (int) n) {
+                        have_syscall = true;
+                        return 0;
+                }
+
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        if (errno == ENOSYS)
+                                /* we lack the syscall, continue with
+                                 * reading from /dev/urandom */
+                                have_syscall = false;
+                        else if (errno == EAGAIN)
+                                /* not enough entropy for now. Let's
+                                 * remember to use the syscall the
+                                 * next time, again, but also read
+                                 * from /dev/urandom for now, which
+                                 * doesn't care about the current
+                                 * amount of entropy.  */
+                                have_syscall = true;
+                        else
+                                return -errno;
+                } else
+                        /* too short read? */
+                        return -EIO;
+        }
+
+        fd = open("/dev/urandom", O_RDONLY|O_CLOEXEC|O_NOCTTY);
+        if (fd < 0)
+                return errno == ENOENT ? -ENOSYS : -errno;
+
+        k = loop_read(fd, p, n, true);
+        safe_close(fd);
 
-        k = loop_read(fd, p, n, true);
         if (k < 0)
                 return (int) k;
         if ((size_t) k != n)
@@ -2473,8 +2596,36 @@ int dev_urandom(void *p, size_t n) {
         return 0;
 }
 
-void random_bytes(void *p, size_t n) {
+void initialize_srand(void) {
         static bool srand_called = false;
+        unsigned x;
+#ifdef HAVE_SYS_AUXV_H
+        void *auxv;
+#endif
+
+        if (srand_called)
+                return;
+
+        x = 0;
+
+#ifdef HAVE_SYS_AUXV_H
+        /* The kernel provides us with a bit of entropy in auxv, so
+         * let's try to make use of that to seed the pseudo-random
+         * generator. It's better than nothing... */
+
+        auxv = (void*) getauxval(AT_RANDOM);
+        if (auxv)
+                x ^= *(unsigned*) auxv;
+#endif
+
+        x ^= (unsigned) now(CLOCK_REALTIME);
+        x ^= (unsigned) gettid();
+
+        srand(x);
+        srand_called = true;
+}
+
+void random_bytes(void *p, size_t n) {
         uint8_t *q;
         int r;
 
@@ -2485,28 +2636,7 @@ void random_bytes(void *p, size_t n) {
         /* If some idiot made /dev/urandom unavailable to us, he'll
          * get a PRNG instead. */
 
-        if (!srand_called) {
-                unsigned x = 0;
-
-#ifdef HAVE_SYS_AUXV_H
-                /* The kernel provides us with a bit of entropy in
-                 * auxv, so let's try to make use of that to seed the
-                 * pseudo-random generator. It's better than
-                 * nothing... */
-
-                void *auxv;
-
-                auxv = (void*) getauxval(AT_RANDOM);
-                if (auxv)
-                        x ^= *(unsigned*) auxv;
-#endif
-
-                x ^= (unsigned) now(CLOCK_REALTIME);
-                x ^= (unsigned) gettid();
-
-                srand(x);
-                srand_called = true;
-        }
+        initialize_srand();
 
         for (q = p; q < (uint8_t*) p + n; q ++)
                 *q = rand();
@@ -2592,7 +2722,7 @@ bool hostname_is_set(void) {
         return !isempty(u.nodename) && !streq(u.nodename, "(none)");
 }
 
-static char *lookup_uid(uid_t uid) {
+char *lookup_uid(uid_t uid) {
         long bufsize;
         char *name;
         _cleanup_free_ char *buf = NULL;
@@ -2728,7 +2858,7 @@ int get_ctty(pid_t pid, dev_t *_devnr, char **r) {
         if (k < 0)
                 return k;
 
-        snprintf(fn, sizeof(fn), "/dev/char/%u:%u", major(devnr), minor(devnr));
+        sprintf(fn, "/dev/char/%u:%u", major(devnr), minor(devnr));
 
         k = readlink_malloc(fn, &s);
         if (k < 0) {
@@ -2864,6 +2994,15 @@ _pure_ static int is_temporary_fs(struct statfs *s) {
                F_TYPE_EQUAL(s->f_type, RAMFS_MAGIC);
 }
 
+int is_fd_on_temporary_fs(int fd) {
+        struct statfs s;
+
+        if (fstatfs(fd, &s) < 0)
+                return -errno;
+
+        return is_temporary_fs(&s);
+}
+
 int rm_rf_children(int fd, bool only_dirs, bool honour_sticky, struct stat *root_dev) {
         struct statfs s;
 
@@ -2886,6 +3025,19 @@ int rm_rf_children(int fd, bool only_dirs, bool honour_sticky, struct stat *root
         return rm_rf_children_dangerous(fd, only_dirs, honour_sticky, root_dev);
 }
 
+static int file_is_priv_sticky(const char *p) {
+        struct stat st;
+
+        assert(p);
+
+        if (lstat(p, &st) < 0)
+                return -errno;
+
+        return
+                (st.st_uid == 0 || st.st_uid == getuid()) &&
+                (st.st_mode & S_ISVTX);
+}
+
 static int rm_rf_internal(const char *path, bool only_dirs, bool delete_root, bool honour_sticky, bool dangerous) {
         int fd, r;
         struct statfs s;
@@ -2966,11 +3118,11 @@ int chmod_and_chown(const char *path, mode_t mode, uid_t uid, gid_t gid) {
          * first change the access mode and only then hand out
          * ownership to avoid a window where access is too open. */
 
-        if (mode != (mode_t) -1)
+        if (mode != MODE_INVALID)
                 if (chmod(path, mode) < 0)
                         return -errno;
 
-        if (uid != (uid_t) -1 || gid != (gid_t) -1)
+        if (uid != UID_INVALID || gid != GID_INVALID)
                 if (chown(path, uid, gid) < 0)
                         return -errno;
 
@@ -2984,11 +3136,11 @@ int fchmod_and_fchown(int fd, mode_t mode, uid_t uid, gid_t gid) {
          * first change the access mode and only then hand out
          * ownership to avoid a window where access is too open. */
 
-        if (mode != (mode_t) -1)
+        if (mode != MODE_INVALID)
                 if (fchmod(fd, mode) < 0)
                         return -errno;
 
-        if (uid != (uid_t) -1 || gid != (gid_t) -1)
+        if (uid != UID_INVALID || gid != GID_INVALID)
                 if (fchown(fd, uid, gid) < 0)
                         return -errno;
 
@@ -3124,7 +3276,8 @@ char *replace_env(const char *format, char **env) {
 
                 case CURLY:
                         if (*e == '{') {
-                                if (!(k = strnappend(r, word, e-word-1)))
+                                k = strnappend(r, word, e-word-1);
+                                if (!k)
                                         goto fail;
 
                                 free(r);
@@ -3134,7 +3287,8 @@ char *replace_env(const char *format, char **env) {
                                 state = VARIABLE;
 
                         } else if (*e == '$') {
-                                if (!(k = strnappend(r, word, e-word)))
+                                k = strnappend(r, word, e-word);
+                                if (!k)
                                         goto fail;
 
                                 free(r);
@@ -3166,7 +3320,8 @@ char *replace_env(const char *format, char **env) {
                 }
         }
 
-        if (!(k = strnappend(r, word, e-word)))
+        k = strnappend(r, word, e-word);
+        if (!k)
                 goto fail;
 
         free(r);
@@ -3199,7 +3354,7 @@ char **replace_env_argv(char **argv, char **env) {
                         if (e) {
                                 int r;
 
-                                r = strv_split_quoted(&m, e);
+                                r = strv_split_quoted(&m, e, true);
                                 if (r < 0) {
                                         ret[k] = NULL;
                                         strv_free(ret);
@@ -3264,7 +3419,7 @@ unsigned columns(void) {
         c = 0;
         e = getenv("COLUMNS");
         if (e)
-                safe_atoi(e, &c);
+                (void) safe_atoi(e, &c);
 
         if (c <= 0)
                 c = fd_columns(STDOUT_FILENO);
@@ -3298,7 +3453,7 @@ unsigned lines(void) {
         l = 0;
         e = getenv("LINES");
         if (e)
-                safe_atou(e, &l);
+                (void) safe_atou(e, &l);
 
         if (l <= 0)
                 l = fd_lines(STDOUT_FILENO);
@@ -3476,7 +3631,7 @@ int touch_file(const char *path, bool parents, usec_t stamp, uid_t uid, gid_t gi
                         return -errno;
         }
 
-        if (uid != (uid_t) -1 || gid != (gid_t) -1) {
+        if (uid != UID_INVALID || gid != GID_INVALID) {
                 r = fchown(fd, uid, gid);
                 if (r < 0)
                         return -errno;
@@ -3497,7 +3652,7 @@ int touch_file(const char *path, bool parents, usec_t stamp, uid_t uid, gid_t gi
 }
 
 int touch(const char *path) {
-        return touch_file(path, false, USEC_INFINITY, (uid_t) -1, (gid_t) -1, 0);
+        return touch_file(path, false, USEC_INFINITY, UID_INVALID, GID_INVALID, 0);
 }
 
 char *unquote(const char *s, const char* quotes) {
@@ -3507,7 +3662,7 @@ char *unquote(const char *s, const char* quotes) {
         /* This is rather stupid, simply removes the heading and
          * trailing quotes if there is one. Doesn't care about
          * escaping or anything. We should make this smarter one
-         * day...*/
+         * day... */
 
         l = strlen(s);
         if (l < 2)
@@ -3520,41 +3675,33 @@ char *unquote(const char *s, const char* quotes) {
 }
 
 char *normalize_env_assignment(const char *s) {
-        _cleanup_free_ char *name = NULL, *value = NULL, *p = NULL;
-        char *eq, *r;
+        _cleanup_free_ char *value = NULL;
+        const char *eq;
+        char *p, *name;
 
         eq = strchr(s, '=');
         if (!eq) {
-                char *t;
+                char *r, *t;
 
                 r = strdup(s);
                 if (!r)
                         return NULL;
 
                 t = strstrip(r);
-                if (t == r)
-                        return r;
+                if (t != r)
+                        memmove(r, t, strlen(t) + 1);
 
-                memmove(r, t, strlen(t) + 1);
                 return r;
         }
 
-        name = strndup(s, eq - s);
-        if (!name)
-                return NULL;
-
-        p = strdup(eq + 1);
-        if (!p)
-                return NULL;
+        name = strndupa(s, eq - s);
+        p = strdupa(eq + 1);
 
         value = unquote(strstrip(p), QUOTES);
         if (!value)
                 return NULL;
 
-        if (asprintf(&r, "%s=%s", strstrip(name), value) < 0)
-                r = NULL;
-
-        return r;
+        return strjoin(strstrip(name), "=", value, NULL);
 }
 
 int wait_for_terminate(pid_t pid, siginfo_t *status) {
@@ -3590,8 +3737,11 @@ int wait_for_terminate(pid_t pid, siginfo_t *status) {
  *
  * That is, success is indicated by a return value of zero, and an
  * error is indicated by a non-zero value.
+ *
+ * A warning is emitted if the process terminates abnormally,
+ * and also if it returns non-zero unless check_exit_code is true.
  */
-int wait_for_terminate_and_warn(const char *name, pid_t pid) {
+int wait_for_terminate_and_warn(const char *name, pid_t pid, bool check_exit_code) {
         int r;
         siginfo_t status;
 
@@ -3599,20 +3749,17 @@ int wait_for_terminate_and_warn(const char *name, pid_t pid) {
         assert(pid > 1);
 
         r = wait_for_terminate(pid, &status);
-        if (r < 0) {
-                log_warning("Failed to wait for %s: %s", name, strerror(-r));
-                return r;
-        }
+        if (r < 0)
+                return log_warning_errno(r, "Failed to wait for %s: %m", name);
 
         if (status.si_code == CLD_EXITED) {
-                if (status.si_status != 0) {
-                        log_warning("%s failed with error code %i.", name, status.si_status);
-                        return status.si_status;
-                }
-
-                log_debug("%s succeeded.", name);
-                return 0;
+                if (status.si_status != 0)
+                        log_full(check_exit_code ? LOG_WARNING : LOG_DEBUG,
+                                 "%s failed with error code %i.", name, status.si_status);
+                else
+                        log_debug("%s succeeded.", name);
 
+                return status.si_status;
         } else if (status.si_code == CLD_KILLED ||
                    status.si_code == CLD_DUMPED) {
 
@@ -3871,23 +4018,20 @@ void execute_directory(const char *directory, DIR *d, usec_t timeout, char *argv
 
         executor_pid = fork();
         if (executor_pid < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to fork: %m");
+                log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to fork: %m");
                 return;
 
         } else if (executor_pid == 0) {
                 _cleanup_hashmap_free_free_ Hashmap *pids = NULL;
                 _cleanup_closedir_ DIR *_d = NULL;
                 struct dirent *de;
-                sigset_t ss;
 
                 /* We fork this all off from a child process so that
                  * we can somewhat cleanly make use of SIGALRM to set
                  * a time limit */
 
                 reset_all_signal_handlers();
-
-                assert_se(sigemptyset(&ss) == 0);
-                assert_se(sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &ss, NULL) == 0);
+                reset_signal_mask();
 
                 assert_se(prctl(PR_SET_PDEATHSIG, SIGTERM) == 0);
 
@@ -3897,12 +4041,12 @@ void execute_directory(const char *directory, DIR *d, usec_t timeout, char *argv
                                 if (errno == ENOENT)
                                         _exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
 
-                                log_error("Failed to enumerate directory %s: %m", directory);
+                                log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to enumerate directory %s: %m", directory);
                                 _exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                         }
                 }
 
-                pids = hashmap_new(NULL, NULL);
+                pids = hashmap_new(NULL);
                 if (!pids) {
                         log_oom();
                         _exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
@@ -3923,7 +4067,7 @@ void execute_directory(const char *directory, DIR *d, usec_t timeout, char *argv
 
                         pid = fork();
                         if (pid < 0) {
-                                log_error("Failed to fork: %m");
+                                log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to fork: %m");
                                 continue;
                         } else if (pid == 0) {
                                 char *_argv[2];
@@ -3938,11 +4082,10 @@ void execute_directory(const char *directory, DIR *d, usec_t timeout, char *argv
                                         argv[0] = path;
 
                                 execv(path, argv);
-                                log_error("Failed to execute %s: %m", path);
+                                log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to execute %s: %m", path);
                                 _exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                         }
 
-
                         log_debug("Spawned %s as " PID_FMT ".", path, pid);
 
                         r = hashmap_put(pids, UINT_TO_PTR(pid), path);
@@ -3971,13 +4114,13 @@ void execute_directory(const char *directory, DIR *d, usec_t timeout, char *argv
                         path = hashmap_remove(pids, UINT_TO_PTR(pid));
                         assert(path);
 
-                        wait_for_terminate_and_warn(path, pid);
+                        wait_for_terminate_and_warn(path, pid, true);
                 }
 
                 _exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
         }
 
-        wait_for_terminate_and_warn(directory, executor_pid);
+        wait_for_terminate_and_warn(directory, executor_pid, true);
 }
 
 int kill_and_sigcont(pid_t pid, int sig) {
@@ -4141,15 +4284,15 @@ int fd_wait_for_event(int fd, int event, usec_t t) {
 int fopen_temporary(const char *path, FILE **_f, char **_temp_path) {
         FILE *f;
         char *t;
-        int fd;
+        int r, fd;
 
         assert(path);
         assert(_f);
         assert(_temp_path);
 
-        t = tempfn_xxxxxx(path);
-        if (!t)
-                return -ENOMEM;
+        r = tempfn_xxxxxx(path, &t);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
 
         fd = mkostemp_safe(t, O_WRONLY|O_CLOEXEC);
         if (fd < 0) {
@@ -4260,13 +4403,14 @@ int vt_disallocate(const char *name) {
 
 int symlink_atomic(const char *from, const char *to) {
         _cleanup_free_ char *t = NULL;
+        int r;
 
         assert(from);
         assert(to);
 
-        t = tempfn_random(to);
-        if (!t)
-                return -ENOMEM;
+        r = tempfn_random(to, &t);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
 
         if (symlink(from, t) < 0)
                 return -errno;
@@ -4281,12 +4425,13 @@ int symlink_atomic(const char *from, const char *to) {
 
 int mknod_atomic(const char *path, mode_t mode, dev_t dev) {
         _cleanup_free_ char *t = NULL;
+        int r;
 
         assert(path);
 
-        t = tempfn_random(path);
-        if (!t)
-                return -ENOMEM;
+        r = tempfn_random(path, &t);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
 
         if (mknod(t, mode, dev) < 0)
                 return -errno;
@@ -4301,12 +4446,13 @@ int mknod_atomic(const char *path, mode_t mode, dev_t dev) {
 
 int mkfifo_atomic(const char *path, mode_t mode) {
         _cleanup_free_ char *t = NULL;
+        int r;
 
         assert(path);
 
-        t = tempfn_random(path);
-        if (!t)
-                return -ENOMEM;
+        r = tempfn_random(path, &t);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
 
         if (mkfifo(t, mode) < 0)
                 return -errno;
@@ -4775,19 +4921,6 @@ int block_get_whole_disk(dev_t d, dev_t *ret) {
         return -ENOENT;
 }
 
-int file_is_priv_sticky(const char *p) {
-        struct stat st;
-
-        assert(p);
-
-        if (lstat(p, &st) < 0)
-                return -errno;
-
-        return
-                (st.st_uid == 0 || st.st_uid == getuid()) &&
-                (st.st_mode & S_ISVTX);
-}
-
 static const char *const ioprio_class_table[] = {
         [IOPRIO_CLASS_NONE] = "none",
         [IOPRIO_CLASS_RT] = "realtime",
@@ -4973,24 +5106,6 @@ bool kexec_loaded(void) {
        return loaded;
 }
 
-int strdup_or_null(const char *a, char **b) {
-        char *c;
-
-        assert(b);
-
-        if (!a) {
-                *b = NULL;
-                return 0;
-        }
-
-        c = strdup(a);
-        if (!c)
-                return -ENOMEM;
-
-        *b = c;
-        return 0;
-}
-
 int prot_from_flags(int flags) {
 
         switch (flags & O_ACCMODE) {
@@ -5094,9 +5209,9 @@ int fd_inc_rcvbuf(int fd, size_t n) {
 }
 
 int fork_agent(pid_t *pid, const int except[], unsigned n_except, const char *path, ...) {
-        pid_t parent_pid, agent_pid;
-        int fd;
         bool stdout_is_tty, stderr_is_tty;
+        pid_t parent_pid, agent_pid;
+        sigset_t ss, saved_ss;
         unsigned n, i;
         va_list ap;
         char **l;
@@ -5104,16 +5219,25 @@ int fork_agent(pid_t *pid, const int except[], unsigned n_except, const char *pa
         assert(pid);
         assert(path);
 
-        parent_pid = getpid();
-
         /* Spawns a temporary TTY agent, making sure it goes away when
          * we go away */
 
+        parent_pid = getpid();
+
+        /* First we temporarily block all signals, so that the new
+         * child has them blocked initially. This way, we can be sure
+         * that SIGTERMs are not lost we might send to the agent. */
+        assert_se(sigfillset(&ss) >= 0);
+        assert_se(sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &ss, &saved_ss) >= 0);
+
         agent_pid = fork();
-        if (agent_pid < 0)
+        if (agent_pid < 0) {
+                assert_se(sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &saved_ss, NULL) >= 0);
                 return -errno;
+        }
 
         if (agent_pid != 0) {
+                assert_se(sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &saved_ss, NULL) >= 0);
                 *pid = agent_pid;
                 return 0;
         }
@@ -5124,8 +5248,14 @@ int fork_agent(pid_t *pid, const int except[], unsigned n_except, const char *pa
         if (prctl(PR_SET_PDEATHSIG, SIGTERM) < 0)
                 _exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
 
+        /* Make sure we actually can kill the agent, if we need to, in
+         * case somebody invoked us from a shell script that trapped
+         * SIGTERM or so... */
+        reset_all_signal_handlers();
+        reset_signal_mask();
+
         /* Check whether our parent died before we were able
-         * to set the death signal */
+         * to set the death signal and unblock the signals */
         if (getppid() != parent_pid)
                 _exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
 
@@ -5136,6 +5266,8 @@ int fork_agent(pid_t *pid, const int except[], unsigned n_except, const char *pa
         stderr_is_tty = isatty(STDERR_FILENO);
 
         if (!stdout_is_tty || !stderr_is_tty) {
+                int fd;
+
                 /* Detach from stdout/stderr. and reopen
                  * /dev/tty for them. This is important to
                  * ensure that when systemctl is started via
@@ -5145,7 +5277,7 @@ int fork_agent(pid_t *pid, const int except[], unsigned n_except, const char *pa
                  * keep an unused copy of stdin around. */
                 fd = open("/dev/tty", O_WRONLY);
                 if (fd < 0) {
-                        log_error("Failed to open /dev/tty: %m");
+                        log_error_errno(errno, "Failed to open /dev/tty: %m");
                         _exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                 }
 
@@ -5328,16 +5460,12 @@ int make_console_stdio(void) {
         /* Make /dev/console the controlling terminal and stdin/stdout/stderr */
 
         fd = acquire_terminal("/dev/console", false, true, true, USEC_INFINITY);
-        if (fd < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to acquire terminal: %s", strerror(-fd));
-                return fd;
-        }
+        if (fd < 0)
+                return log_error_errno(fd, "Failed to acquire terminal: %m");
 
         r = make_stdio(fd);
-        if (r < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to duplicate terminal fd: %s", strerror(-r));
-                return r;
-        }
+        if (r < 0)
+                return log_error_errno(r, "Failed to duplicate terminal fd: %m");
 
         return 0;
 }
@@ -5436,7 +5564,7 @@ int get_shell(char **_s) {
         return 0;
 }
 
-bool filename_is_safe(const char *p) {
+bool filename_is_valid(const char *p) {
 
         if (isempty(p))
                 return false;
@@ -6092,85 +6220,48 @@ int split_pair(const char *s, const char *sep, char **l, char **r) {
 }
 
 int shall_restore_state(void) {
-        _cleanup_free_ char *line = NULL;
-        const char *word, *state;
-        size_t l;
+        _cleanup_free_ char *value = NULL;
         int r;
 
-        r = proc_cmdline(&line);
+        r = get_proc_cmdline_key("systemd.restore_state=", &value);
         if (r < 0)
                 return r;
-        if (r == 0) /* Container ... */
-                return 1;
-
-        r = 1;
-
-        FOREACH_WORD_QUOTED(word, l, line, state) {
-                const char *e;
-                char n[l+1];
-                int k;
-
-                memcpy(n, word, l);
-                n[l] = 0;
-
-                e = startswith(n, "systemd.restore_state=");
-                if (!e)
-                        continue;
-
-                k = parse_boolean(e);
-                if (k >= 0)
-                        r = k;
-        }
+        if (r == 0)
+                return true;
 
-        return r;
+        return parse_boolean(value) != 0;
 }
 
 int proc_cmdline(char **ret) {
-        int r;
-
-        if (detect_container(NULL) > 0) {
-                char *buf = NULL, *p;
-                size_t sz = 0;
-
-                r = read_full_file("/proc/1/cmdline", &buf, &sz);
-                if (r < 0)
-                        return r;
-
-                for (p = buf; p + 1 < buf + sz; p++)
-                        if (*p == 0)
-                                *p = ' ';
-
-                *p = 0;
-                *ret = buf;
-                return 1;
-        }
-
-        r = read_one_line_file("/proc/cmdline", ret);
-        if (r < 0)
-                return r;
+        assert(ret);
 
-        return 1;
+        if (detect_container(NULL) > 0)
+                return get_process_cmdline(1, 0, false, ret);
+        else
+                return read_one_line_file("/proc/cmdline", ret);
 }
 
 int parse_proc_cmdline(int (*parse_item)(const char *key, const char *value)) {
         _cleanup_free_ char *line = NULL;
-        const char *w, *state;
-        size_t l;
+        const char *p;
         int r;
 
         assert(parse_item);
 
         r = proc_cmdline(&line);
         if (r < 0)
-                log_warning("Failed to read /proc/cmdline, ignoring: %s", strerror(-r));
-        if (r <= 0)
-                return 0;
+                return r;
 
-        FOREACH_WORD_QUOTED(w, l, line, state) {
-                char word[l+1], *value;
+        p = line;
+        for (;;) {
+                _cleanup_free_ char *word = NULL;
+                char *value = NULL;
 
-                memcpy(word, w, l);
-                word[l] = 0;
+                r = unquote_first_word(&p, &word, true);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+                if (r == 0)
+                        break;
 
                 /* Filter out arguments that are intended only for the
                  * initrd */
@@ -6189,6 +6280,59 @@ int parse_proc_cmdline(int (*parse_item)(const char *key, const char *value)) {
         return 0;
 }
 
+int get_proc_cmdline_key(const char *key, char **value) {
+        _cleanup_free_ char *line = NULL, *ret = NULL;
+        bool found = false;
+        const char *p;
+        int r;
+
+        assert(key);
+
+        r = proc_cmdline(&line);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
+        p = line;
+        for (;;) {
+                _cleanup_free_ char *word = NULL;
+                const char *e;
+
+                r = unquote_first_word(&p, &word, true);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+                if (r == 0)
+                        break;
+
+                /* Filter out arguments that are intended only for the
+                 * initrd */
+                if (!in_initrd() && startswith(word, "rd."))
+                        continue;
+
+                if (value) {
+                        e = startswith(word, key);
+                        if (!e)
+                                continue;
+
+                        r = free_and_strdup(&ret, e);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+
+                        found = true;
+                } else {
+                        if (streq(word, key))
+                                found = true;
+                }
+        }
+
+        if (value) {
+                *value = ret;
+                ret = NULL;
+        }
+
+        return found;
+
+}
+
 int container_get_leader(const char *machine, pid_t *pid) {
         _cleanup_free_ char *s = NULL, *class = NULL;
         const char *p;
@@ -6359,6 +6503,10 @@ int getpeercred(int fd, struct ucred *ucred) {
          * to namespacing issues */
         if (u.pid <= 0)
                 return -ENODATA;
+        if (u.uid == UID_INVALID)
+                return -ENODATA;
+        if (u.gid == GID_INVALID)
+                return -ENODATA;
 
         *ucred = u;
         return 0;
@@ -6687,7 +6835,7 @@ int bind_remount_recursive(const char *prefix, bool ro) {
 
         path_kill_slashes(cleaned);
 
-        done = set_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        done = set_new(&string_hash_ops);
         if (!done)
                 return -ENOMEM;
 
@@ -6697,7 +6845,7 @@ int bind_remount_recursive(const char *prefix, bool ro) {
                 bool top_autofs = false;
                 char *x;
 
-                todo = set_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+                todo = set_new(&string_hash_ops);
                 if (!todo)
                         return -ENOMEM;
 
@@ -6818,42 +6966,45 @@ int fflush_and_check(FILE *f) {
         return 0;
 }
 
-char *tempfn_xxxxxx(const char *p) {
+int tempfn_xxxxxx(const char *p, char **ret) {
         const char *fn;
         char *t;
-        size_t k;
 
         assert(p);
+        assert(ret);
+
+        fn = basename(p);
+        if (!filename_is_valid(fn))
+                return -EINVAL;
 
         t = new(char, strlen(p) + 1 + 6 + 1);
         if (!t)
-                return NULL;
-
-        fn = basename(p);
-        k = fn - p;
+                return -ENOMEM;
 
-        strcpy(stpcpy(stpcpy(mempcpy(t, p, k), "."), fn), "XXXXXX");
+        strcpy(stpcpy(stpcpy(mempcpy(t, p, fn - p), "."), fn), "XXXXXX");
 
-        return t;
+        *ret = t;
+        return 0;
 }
 
-char *tempfn_random(const char *p) {
+int tempfn_random(const char *p, char **ret) {
         const char *fn;
         char *t, *x;
         uint64_t u;
-        size_t k;
         unsigned i;
 
         assert(p);
+        assert(ret);
+
+        fn = basename(p);
+        if (!filename_is_valid(fn))
+                return -EINVAL;
 
         t = new(char, strlen(p) + 1 + 16 + 1);
         if (!t)
-                return NULL;
-
-        fn = basename(p);
-        k = fn - p;
+                return -ENOMEM;
 
-        x = stpcpy(stpcpy(mempcpy(t, p, k), "."), fn);
+        x = stpcpy(stpcpy(mempcpy(t, p, fn - p), "."), fn);
 
         u = random_u64();
         for (i = 0; i < 16; i++) {
@@ -6863,7 +7014,8 @@ char *tempfn_random(const char *p) {
 
         *x = 0;
 
-        return t;
+        *ret = t;
+        return 0;
 }
 
 /* make sure the hostname is not "localhost" */
@@ -6929,8 +7081,276 @@ int is_symlink(const char *path) {
         if (lstat(path, &info) < 0)
                 return -errno;
 
-        if (S_ISLNK(info.st_mode))
-                return 1;
+        return !!S_ISLNK(info.st_mode);
+}
+
+int is_dir(const char* path, bool follow) {
+        struct stat st;
+        int r;
+
+        if (follow)
+                r = stat(path, &st);
+        else
+                r = lstat(path, &st);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return -errno;
+
+        return !!S_ISDIR(st.st_mode);
+}
+
+int unquote_first_word(const char **p, char **ret, bool relax) {
+        _cleanup_free_ char *s = NULL;
+        size_t allocated = 0, sz = 0;
+
+        enum {
+                START,
+                VALUE,
+                VALUE_ESCAPE,
+                SINGLE_QUOTE,
+                SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE,
+                DOUBLE_QUOTE,
+                DOUBLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE,
+                SPACE,
+        } state = START;
+
+        assert(p);
+        assert(*p);
+        assert(ret);
+
+        /* Parses the first word of a string, and returns it in
+         * *ret. Removes all quotes in the process. When parsing fails
+         * (because of an uneven number of quotes or similar), leaves
+         * the pointer *p at the first invalid character. */
+
+        for (;;) {
+                char c = **p;
+
+                switch (state) {
+
+                case START:
+                        if (c == 0)
+                                goto finish;
+                        else if (strchr(WHITESPACE, c))
+                                break;
+
+                        state = VALUE;
+                        /* fallthrough */
+
+                case VALUE:
+                        if (c == 0)
+                                goto finish;
+                        else if (c == '\'')
+                                state = SINGLE_QUOTE;
+                        else if (c == '\\')
+                                state = VALUE_ESCAPE;
+                        else if (c == '\"')
+                                state = DOUBLE_QUOTE;
+                        else if (strchr(WHITESPACE, c))
+                                state = SPACE;
+                        else {
+                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(s, allocated, sz+2))
+                                        return -ENOMEM;
+
+                                s[sz++] = c;
+                        }
+
+                        break;
+
+                case VALUE_ESCAPE:
+                        if (c == 0) {
+                                if (relax)
+                                        goto finish;
+                                return -EINVAL;
+                        }
+
+                        if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(s, allocated, sz+2))
+                                return -ENOMEM;
+
+                        s[sz++] = c;
+                        state = VALUE;
+
+                        break;
+
+                case SINGLE_QUOTE:
+                        if (c == 0) {
+                                if (relax)
+                                        goto finish;
+                                return -EINVAL;
+                        } else if (c == '\'')
+                                state = VALUE;
+                        else if (c == '\\')
+                                state = SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE;
+                        else {
+                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(s, allocated, sz+2))
+                                        return -ENOMEM;
+
+                                s[sz++] = c;
+                        }
+
+                        break;
+
+                case SINGLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE:
+                        if (c == 0) {
+                                if (relax)
+                                        goto finish;
+                                return -EINVAL;
+                        }
+
+                        if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(s, allocated, sz+2))
+                                return -ENOMEM;
+
+                        s[sz++] = c;
+                        state = SINGLE_QUOTE;
+                        break;
+
+                case DOUBLE_QUOTE:
+                        if (c == 0)
+                                return -EINVAL;
+                        else if (c == '\"')
+                                state = VALUE;
+                        else if (c == '\\')
+                                state = DOUBLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE;
+                        else {
+                                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(s, allocated, sz+2))
+                                        return -ENOMEM;
+
+                                s[sz++] = c;
+                        }
+
+                        break;
+
+                case DOUBLE_QUOTE_ESCAPE:
+                        if (c == 0) {
+                                if (relax)
+                                        goto finish;
+                                return -EINVAL;
+                        }
+
+                        if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(s, allocated, sz+2))
+                                return -ENOMEM;
+
+                        s[sz++] = c;
+                        state = DOUBLE_QUOTE;
+                        break;
+
+                case SPACE:
+                        if (c == 0)
+                                goto finish;
+                        if (!strchr(WHITESPACE, c))
+                                goto finish;
+
+                        break;
+                }
+
+                (*p) ++;
+        }
+
+finish:
+        if (!s) {
+                *ret = NULL;
+                return 0;
+        }
+
+        s[sz] = 0;
+        *ret = s;
+        s = NULL;
+
+        return 1;
+}
+
+int unquote_many_words(const char **p, ...) {
+        va_list ap;
+        char **l;
+        int n = 0, i, c, r;
+
+        /* Parses a number of words from a string, stripping any
+         * quotes if necessary. */
+
+        assert(p);
+
+        /* Count how many words are expected */
+        va_start(ap, p);
+        for (;;) {
+                if (!va_arg(ap, char **))
+                        break;
+                n++;
+        }
+        va_end(ap);
+
+        if (n <= 0)
+                return 0;
+
+        /* Read all words into a temporary array */
+        l = newa0(char*, n);
+        for (c = 0; c < n; c++) {
+
+                r = unquote_first_word(p, &l[c], false);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        int j;
+
+                        for (j = 0; j < c; j++)
+                                free(l[j]);
+
+                        return r;
+                }
+
+                if (r == 0)
+                        break;
+        }
+
+        /* If we managed to parse all words, return them in the passed
+         * in parameters */
+        va_start(ap, p);
+        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
+                char **v;
+
+                v = va_arg(ap, char **);
+                assert(v);
+
+                *v = l[i];
+        }
+        va_end(ap);
+
+        return c;
+}
+
+int free_and_strdup(char **p, const char *s) {
+        char *t;
+
+        assert(p);
+
+        /* Replaces a string pointer with an strdup()ed new string,
+         * possibly freeing the old one. */
+
+        if (s) {
+                t = strdup(s);
+                if (!t)
+                        return -ENOMEM;
+        } else
+                t = NULL;
+
+        free(*p);
+        *p = t;
 
         return 0;
 }
+
+int sethostname_idempotent(const char *s) {
+        int r;
+        char buf[HOST_NAME_MAX + 1] = {};
+
+        assert(s);
+
+        r = gethostname(buf, sizeof(buf));
+        if (r < 0)
+                return -errno;
+
+        if (streq(buf, s))
+                return 0;
+
+        r = sethostname(s, strlen(s));
+        if (r < 0)
+                return -errno;
+
+        return 1;
+}