chiark / gitweb /
util: replace close_nointr_nofail() by a more useful safe_close()
[elogind.git] / src / journal / journalctl.c
index ec05c16..0196290 100644 (file)
   along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 ***/
 
+#include <locale.h>
 #include <fcntl.h>
+#include <fnmatch.h>
 #include <errno.h>
 #include <stddef.h>
 #include <string.h>
 #include <stdio.h>
 #include <unistd.h>
 #include <stdlib.h>
-#include <sys/poll.h>
 #include <time.h>
 #include <getopt.h>
 #include <signal.h>
 #include <sys/stat.h>
 #include <sys/ioctl.h>
 #include <linux/fs.h>
-#include <locale.h>
-#include <langinfo.h>
+
+#ifdef HAVE_ACL
+#include <sys/acl.h>
+#include "acl-util.h"
+#endif
 
 #include <systemd/sd-journal.h>
 
 #include "log.h"
+#include "logs-show.h"
 #include "util.h"
 #include "path-util.h"
+#include "fileio.h"
 #include "build.h"
 #include "pager.h"
-#include "logs-show.h"
 #include "strv.h"
+#include "set.h"
 #include "journal-internal.h"
 #include "journal-def.h"
 #include "journal-verify.h"
 #include "journal-authenticate.h"
 #include "journal-qrcode.h"
 #include "fsprg.h"
+#include "unit-name.h"
+#include "catalog.h"
 
 #define DEFAULT_FSS_INTERVAL_USEC (15*USEC_PER_MINUTE)
 
 static OutputMode arg_output = OUTPUT_SHORT;
+static bool arg_pager_end = false;
 static bool arg_follow = false;
-static bool arg_show_all = false;
+static bool arg_full = true;
+static bool arg_all = false;
 static bool arg_no_pager = false;
 static int arg_lines = -1;
 static bool arg_no_tail = false;
 static bool arg_quiet = false;
 static bool arg_merge = false;
-static bool arg_this_boot = false;
+static bool arg_boot = false;
+static sd_id128_t arg_boot_id = {};
+static int arg_boot_offset = 0;
+static bool arg_dmesg = false;
 static const char *arg_cursor = NULL;
+static const char *arg_after_cursor = NULL;
+static bool arg_show_cursor = false;
 static const char *arg_directory = NULL;
+static char **arg_file = NULL;
 static int arg_priorities = 0xFF;
 static const char *arg_verify_key = NULL;
 #ifdef HAVE_GCRYPT
 static usec_t arg_interval = DEFAULT_FSS_INTERVAL_USEC;
+static bool arg_force = false;
 #endif
+static usec_t arg_since, arg_until;
+static bool arg_since_set = false, arg_until_set = false;
+static char **arg_system_units = NULL;
+static char **arg_user_units = NULL;
+static const char *arg_field = NULL;
+static bool arg_catalog = false;
+static bool arg_reverse = false;
+static int arg_journal_type = 0;
+static const char *arg_root = NULL;
+static const char *arg_machine = NULL;
 
 static enum {
         ACTION_SHOW,
@@ -78,36 +105,117 @@ static enum {
         ACTION_SETUP_KEYS,
         ACTION_VERIFY,
         ACTION_DISK_USAGE,
+        ACTION_LIST_CATALOG,
+        ACTION_DUMP_CATALOG,
+        ACTION_UPDATE_CATALOG,
+        ACTION_LIST_BOOTS,
 } arg_action = ACTION_SHOW;
 
+typedef struct boot_id_t {
+        sd_id128_t id;
+        uint64_t first;
+        uint64_t last;
+} boot_id_t;
+
+static void pager_open_if_enabled(void) {
+
+        if (arg_no_pager)
+                return;
+
+        pager_open(arg_pager_end);
+}
+
+static int parse_boot_descriptor(const char *x, sd_id128_t *boot_id, int *offset) {
+        sd_id128_t id = SD_ID128_NULL;
+        int off = 0, r;
+
+        if (strlen(x) >= 32) {
+                char *t;
+
+                t = strndupa(x, 32);
+                r = sd_id128_from_string(t, &id);
+                if (r >= 0)
+                        x += 32;
+
+                if (*x != '-' && *x != '+' && *x != 0)
+                        return -EINVAL;
+
+                if (*x != 0) {
+                        r = safe_atoi(x, &off);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                }
+        } else {
+                r = safe_atoi(x, &off);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+        }
+
+        if (boot_id)
+                *boot_id = id;
+
+        if (offset)
+                *offset = off;
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
 static int help(void) {
 
-        printf("%s [OPTIONS...] [MATCH]\n\n"
-               "Send control commands to or query the journal.\n\n"
-               "  -h --help              Show this help\n"
-               "     --version           Show package version\n"
-               "     --no-pager          Do not pipe output into a pager\n"
-               "  -a --all               Show all fields, including long and unprintable\n"
-               "  -c --cursor=CURSOR     Jump to the specified cursor\n"
-               "  -f --follow            Follow journal\n"
-               "  -n --lines[=INTEGER]   Number of journal entries to show\n"
-               "     --no-tail           Show all lines, even in follow mode\n"
-               "  -o --output=STRING     Change journal output mode (short, short-monotonic,\n"
-               "                         verbose, export, json, json-pretty, cat)\n"
-               "  -q --quiet             Don't show privilege warning\n"
-               "  -m --merge             Show entries from all available journals\n"
-               "  -b --this-boot         Show data only from current boot\n"
-               "  -D --directory=PATH    Show journal files from directory\n"
-               "  -p --priority=RANGE    Show only messages within the specified priority range\n\n"
-               "Commands:\n"
-               "     --new-id128         Generate a new 128 Bit ID\n"
-               "     --header            Show journal header information\n"
-               "     --disk-usage        Show total disk usage\n"
+        pager_open_if_enabled();
+
+        printf("%s [OPTIONS...] [MATCHES...]\n\n"
+               "Query the journal.\n\n"
+               "Flags:\n"
+               "     --system              Show only the system journal\n"
+               "     --user                Show only the user journal for the current user\n"
+               "  -M --machine=CONTAINER   Operate on local container\n"
+               "     --since=DATE          Start showing entries on or newer than the specified date\n"
+               "     --until=DATE          Stop showing entries on or older than the specified date\n"
+               "  -c --cursor=CURSOR       Start showing entries from the specified cursor\n"
+               "     --after-cursor=CURSOR Start showing entries from after the specified cursor\n"
+               "     --show-cursor         Print the cursor after all the entries\n"
+               "  -b --boot[=ID]           Show data only from ID or, if unspecified, the current boot\n"
+               "     --list-boots          Show terse information about recorded boots\n"
+               "  -k --dmesg               Show kernel message log from the current boot\n"
+               "  -u --unit=UNIT           Show data only from the specified unit\n"
+               "     --user-unit=UNIT      Show data only from the specified user session unit\n"
+               "  -p --priority=RANGE      Show only messages within the specified priority range\n"
+               "  -e --pager-end           Immediately jump to end of the journal in the pager\n"
+               "  -f --follow              Follow the journal\n"
+               "  -n --lines[=INTEGER]     Number of journal entries to show\n"
+               "     --no-tail             Show all lines, even in follow mode\n"
+               "  -r --reverse             Show the newest entries first\n"
+               "  -o --output=STRING       Change journal output mode (short, short-iso,\n"
+               "                                   short-precise, short-monotonic, verbose,\n"
+               "                                   export, json, json-pretty, json-sse, cat)\n"
+               "  -x --catalog             Add message explanations where available\n"
+               "     --no-full             Ellipsize fields\n"
+               "  -a --all                 Show all fields, including long and unprintable\n"
+               "  -q --quiet               Do not show privilege warning\n"
+               "     --no-pager            Do not pipe output into a pager\n"
+               "  -m --merge               Show entries from all available journals\n"
+               "  -D --directory=PATH      Show journal files from directory\n"
+               "     --file=PATH           Show journal file\n"
+               "     --root=ROOT           Operate on catalog files underneath the root ROOT\n"
+#ifdef HAVE_GCRYPT
+               "     --interval=TIME       Time interval for changing the FSS sealing key\n"
+               "     --verify-key=KEY      Specify FSS verification key\n"
+               "     --force               Force overriding of the FSS key pair with --setup-keys\n"
+#endif
+               "\nCommands:\n"
+               "  -h --help                Show this help text\n"
+               "     --version             Show package version\n"
+               "     --new-id128           Generate a new 128-bit ID\n"
+               "     --header              Show journal header information\n"
+               "     --disk-usage          Show total disk usage of all journal files\n"
+               "  -F --field=FIELD         List all values that a specified field takes\n"
+               "     --list-catalog        Show message IDs of all entries in the message catalog\n"
+               "     --dump-catalog        Show entries in the message catalog\n"
+               "     --update-catalog      Update the message catalog database\n"
 #ifdef HAVE_GCRYPT
-               "     --setup-keys        Generate new FSS key pair\n"
-               "       --interval=TIME   Time interval for changing the FSS sealing key\n"
-               "     --verify            Verify journal file consistency\n"
-               "       --verify-key=KEY  Specify FSS verification key\n"
+               "     --setup-keys          Generate a new FSS key pair\n"
+               "     --verify              Verify journal file consistency\n"
 #endif
                , program_invocation_short_name);
 
@@ -119,39 +227,78 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
         enum {
                 ARG_VERSION = 0x100,
                 ARG_NO_PAGER,
+                ARG_NO_FULL,
                 ARG_NO_TAIL,
                 ARG_NEW_ID128,
+                ARG_LIST_BOOTS,
+                ARG_USER,
+                ARG_SYSTEM,
+                ARG_ROOT,
                 ARG_HEADER,
                 ARG_SETUP_KEYS,
+                ARG_FILE,
                 ARG_INTERVAL,
                 ARG_VERIFY,
                 ARG_VERIFY_KEY,
-                ARG_DISK_USAGE
+                ARG_DISK_USAGE,
+                ARG_SINCE,
+                ARG_UNTIL,
+                ARG_AFTER_CURSOR,
+                ARG_SHOW_CURSOR,
+                ARG_USER_UNIT,
+                ARG_LIST_CATALOG,
+                ARG_DUMP_CATALOG,
+                ARG_UPDATE_CATALOG,
+                ARG_FORCE,
         };
 
         static const struct option options[] = {
-                { "help",         no_argument,       NULL, 'h'              },
-                { "version" ,     no_argument,       NULL, ARG_VERSION      },
-                { "no-pager",     no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_PAGER     },
-                { "follow",       no_argument,       NULL, 'f'              },
-                { "output",       required_argument, NULL, 'o'              },
-                { "all",          no_argument,       NULL, 'a'              },
-                { "lines",        optional_argument, NULL, 'n'              },
-                { "no-tail",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_TAIL      },
-                { "new-id128",    no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NEW_ID128    },
-                { "quiet",        no_argument,       NULL, 'q'              },
-                { "merge",        no_argument,       NULL, 'm'              },
-                { "this-boot",    no_argument,       NULL, 'b'              },
-                { "directory",    required_argument, NULL, 'D'              },
-                { "header",       no_argument,       NULL, ARG_HEADER       },
-                { "priority",     no_argument,       NULL, 'p'              },
-                { "setup-keys",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_SETUP_KEYS   },
-                { "interval",     required_argument, NULL, ARG_INTERVAL     },
-                { "verify",       no_argument,       NULL, ARG_VERIFY       },
-                { "verify-key",   required_argument, NULL, ARG_VERIFY_KEY   },
-                { "disk-usage",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_DISK_USAGE   },
-                { "cursor",       required_argument, NULL, 'c'              },
-                { NULL,           0,                 NULL, 0                }
+                { "help",           no_argument,       NULL, 'h'                },
+                { "version" ,       no_argument,       NULL, ARG_VERSION        },
+                { "no-pager",       no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_PAGER       },
+                { "pager-end",      no_argument,       NULL, 'e'                },
+                { "follow",         no_argument,       NULL, 'f'                },
+                { "force",          no_argument,       NULL, ARG_FORCE          },
+                { "output",         required_argument, NULL, 'o'                },
+                { "all",            no_argument,       NULL, 'a'                },
+                { "full",           no_argument,       NULL, 'l'                },
+                { "no-full",        no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_FULL        },
+                { "lines",          optional_argument, NULL, 'n'                },
+                { "no-tail",        no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NO_TAIL        },
+                { "new-id128",      no_argument,       NULL, ARG_NEW_ID128      },
+                { "quiet",          no_argument,       NULL, 'q'                },
+                { "merge",          no_argument,       NULL, 'm'                },
+                { "boot",           optional_argument, NULL, 'b'                },
+                { "list-boots",     no_argument,       NULL, ARG_LIST_BOOTS     },
+                { "this-boot",      optional_argument, NULL, 'b'                }, /* deprecated */
+                { "dmesg",          no_argument,       NULL, 'k'                },
+                { "system",         no_argument,       NULL, ARG_SYSTEM         },
+                { "user",           no_argument,       NULL, ARG_USER           },
+                { "directory",      required_argument, NULL, 'D'                },
+                { "file",           required_argument, NULL, ARG_FILE           },
+                { "root",           required_argument, NULL, ARG_ROOT           },
+                { "header",         no_argument,       NULL, ARG_HEADER         },
+                { "priority",       required_argument, NULL, 'p'                },
+                { "setup-keys",     no_argument,       NULL, ARG_SETUP_KEYS     },
+                { "interval",       required_argument, NULL, ARG_INTERVAL       },
+                { "verify",         no_argument,       NULL, ARG_VERIFY         },
+                { "verify-key",     required_argument, NULL, ARG_VERIFY_KEY     },
+                { "disk-usage",     no_argument,       NULL, ARG_DISK_USAGE     },
+                { "cursor",         required_argument, NULL, 'c'                },
+                { "after-cursor",   required_argument, NULL, ARG_AFTER_CURSOR   },
+                { "show-cursor",    no_argument,       NULL, ARG_SHOW_CURSOR    },
+                { "since",          required_argument, NULL, ARG_SINCE          },
+                { "until",          required_argument, NULL, ARG_UNTIL          },
+                { "unit",           required_argument, NULL, 'u'                },
+                { "user-unit",      required_argument, NULL, ARG_USER_UNIT      },
+                { "field",          required_argument, NULL, 'F'                },
+                { "catalog",        no_argument,       NULL, 'x'                },
+                { "list-catalog",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_LIST_CATALOG   },
+                { "dump-catalog",   no_argument,       NULL, ARG_DUMP_CATALOG   },
+                { "update-catalog", no_argument,       NULL, ARG_UPDATE_CATALOG },
+                { "reverse",        no_argument,       NULL, 'r'                },
+                { "machine",        required_argument, NULL, 'M'                },
+                {}
         };
 
         int c, r;
@@ -159,17 +306,15 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
         assert(argc >= 0);
         assert(argv);
 
-        while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "hfo:an::qmbD:p:c:", options, NULL)) >= 0) {
+        while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "hefo:aln::qmb::kD:p:c:u:F:xrM:", options, NULL)) >= 0) {
 
                 switch (c) {
 
                 case 'h':
-                        help();
-                        return 0;
+                        return help();
 
                 case ARG_VERSION:
                         puts(PACKAGE_STRING);
-                        puts(DISTRIBUTION);
                         puts(SYSTEMD_FEATURES);
                         return 0;
 
@@ -177,22 +322,44 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                         arg_no_pager = true;
                         break;
 
+                case 'e':
+                        arg_pager_end = true;
+
+                        if (arg_lines < 0)
+                                arg_lines = 1000;
+
+                        break;
+
                 case 'f':
                         arg_follow = true;
-                        signal(SIGWINCH, columns_cache_reset);
                         break;
 
                 case 'o':
                         arg_output = output_mode_from_string(optarg);
                         if (arg_output < 0) {
-                                log_error("Unknown output '%s'.", optarg);
+                                log_error("Unknown output format '%s'.", optarg);
                                 return -EINVAL;
                         }
 
+                        if (arg_output == OUTPUT_EXPORT ||
+                            arg_output == OUTPUT_JSON ||
+                            arg_output == OUTPUT_JSON_PRETTY ||
+                            arg_output == OUTPUT_JSON_SSE ||
+                            arg_output == OUTPUT_CAT)
+                                arg_quiet = true;
+
+                        break;
+
+                case 'l':
+                        arg_full = true;
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_NO_FULL:
+                        arg_full = false;
                         break;
 
                 case 'a':
-                        arg_show_all = true;
+                        arg_all = true;
                         break;
 
                 case 'n':
@@ -202,8 +369,25 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                                         log_error("Failed to parse lines '%s'", optarg);
                                         return -EINVAL;
                                 }
-                        } else
-                                arg_lines = 10;
+                        } else {
+                                int n;
+
+                                /* Hmm, no argument? Maybe the next
+                                 * word on the command line is
+                                 * supposed to be the argument? Let's
+                                 * see if there is one, and is
+                                 * parsable as a positive
+                                 * integer... */
+
+                                if (optind < argc &&
+                                    safe_atoi(argv[optind], &n) >= 0 &&
+                                    n >= 0) {
+
+                                        arg_lines = n;
+                                        optind++;
+                                } else
+                                        arg_lines = 10;
+                        }
 
                         break;
 
@@ -224,17 +408,77 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                         break;
 
                 case 'b':
-                        arg_this_boot = true;
+                        arg_boot = true;
+
+                        if (optarg) {
+                                r =  parse_boot_descriptor(optarg, &arg_boot_id, &arg_boot_offset);
+                                if (r < 0) {
+                                        log_error("Failed to parse boot descriptor '%s'", optarg);
+                                        return -EINVAL;
+                                }
+                        } else {
+
+                                /* Hmm, no argument? Maybe the next
+                                 * word on the command line is
+                                 * supposed to be the argument? Let's
+                                 * see if there is one and is parsable
+                                 * as a boot descriptor... */
+
+                                if (optind < argc &&
+                                    parse_boot_descriptor(argv[optind], &arg_boot_id, &arg_boot_offset) >= 0)
+                                        optind++;
+                        }
+
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_LIST_BOOTS:
+                        arg_action = ACTION_LIST_BOOTS;
+                        break;
+
+                case 'k':
+                        arg_boot = arg_dmesg = true;
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_SYSTEM:
+                        arg_journal_type |= SD_JOURNAL_SYSTEM;
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_USER:
+                        arg_journal_type |= SD_JOURNAL_CURRENT_USER;
+                        break;
+
+                case 'M':
+                        arg_machine = optarg;
                         break;
 
                 case 'D':
                         arg_directory = optarg;
                         break;
 
+                case ARG_FILE:
+                        r = glob_extend(&arg_file, optarg);
+                        if (r < 0) {
+                                log_error("Failed to add paths: %s", strerror(-r));
+                                return r;
+                        };
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_ROOT:
+                        arg_root = optarg;
+                        break;
+
                 case 'c':
                         arg_cursor = optarg;
                         break;
 
+                case ARG_AFTER_CURSOR:
+                        arg_after_cursor = optarg;
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_SHOW_CURSOR:
+                        arg_show_cursor = true;
+                        break;
+
                 case ARG_HEADER:
                         arg_action = ACTION_PRINT_HEADER;
                         break;
@@ -248,6 +492,10 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                         break;
 
 #ifdef HAVE_GCRYPT
+                case ARG_FORCE:
+                        arg_force = true;
+                        break;
+
                 case ARG_SETUP_KEYS:
                         arg_action = ACTION_SETUP_KEYS;
                         break;
@@ -260,7 +508,7 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                         break;
 
                 case ARG_INTERVAL:
-                        r = parse_usec(optarg, &arg_interval);
+                        r = parse_sec(optarg, &arg_interval);
                         if (r < 0 || arg_interval <= 0) {
                                 log_error("Failed to parse sealing key change interval: %s", optarg);
                                 return -EINVAL;
@@ -270,6 +518,7 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                 case ARG_SETUP_KEYS:
                 case ARG_VERIFY_KEY:
                 case ARG_INTERVAL:
+                case ARG_FORCE:
                         log_error("Forward-secure sealing not available.");
                         return -ENOTSUP;
 #endif
@@ -324,34 +573,97 @@ static int parse_argv(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                         break;
                 }
 
+                case ARG_SINCE:
+                        r = parse_timestamp(optarg, &arg_since);
+                        if (r < 0) {
+                                log_error("Failed to parse timestamp: %s", optarg);
+                                return -EINVAL;
+                        }
+                        arg_since_set = true;
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_UNTIL:
+                        r = parse_timestamp(optarg, &arg_until);
+                        if (r < 0) {
+                                log_error("Failed to parse timestamp: %s", optarg);
+                                return -EINVAL;
+                        }
+                        arg_until_set = true;
+                        break;
+
+                case 'u':
+                        r = strv_extend(&arg_system_units, optarg);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return log_oom();
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_USER_UNIT:
+                        r = strv_extend(&arg_user_units, optarg);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return log_oom();
+                        break;
+
+                case 'F':
+                        arg_field = optarg;
+                        break;
+
+                case 'x':
+                        arg_catalog = true;
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_LIST_CATALOG:
+                        arg_action = ACTION_LIST_CATALOG;
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_DUMP_CATALOG:
+                        arg_action = ACTION_DUMP_CATALOG;
+                        break;
+
+                case ARG_UPDATE_CATALOG:
+                        arg_action = ACTION_UPDATE_CATALOG;
+                        break;
+
+                case 'r':
+                        arg_reverse = true;
+                        break;
+
                 case '?':
                         return -EINVAL;
 
                 default:
-                        log_error("Unknown option code %c", c);
-                        return -EINVAL;
+                        assert_not_reached("Unhandled option");
                 }
         }
 
         if (arg_follow && !arg_no_tail && arg_lines < 0)
                 arg_lines = 10;
 
-        return 1;
-}
+        if (!!arg_directory + !!arg_file + !!arg_machine > 1) {
+                log_error("Please specify either -D/--directory= or --file= or -M/--machine=, not more than one.");
+                return -EINVAL;
+        }
+
+        if (arg_since_set && arg_until_set && arg_since > arg_until) {
+                log_error("--since= must be before --until=.");
+                return -EINVAL;
+        }
 
-static bool on_tty(void) {
-        static int t = -1;
+        if (!!arg_cursor + !!arg_after_cursor + !!arg_since_set > 1) {
+                log_error("Please specify only one of --since=, --cursor=, and --after-cursor.");
+                return -EINVAL;
+        }
 
-        /* Note that this is invoked relatively early, before we start
-         * the pager. That means the value we return reflects whether
-         * we originally were started on a tty, not if we currently
-         * are. But this is intended, since we want colour and so on
-         * when run in our own pager. */
+        if (arg_follow && arg_reverse) {
+                log_error("Please specify either --reverse= or --follow=, not both.");
+                return -EINVAL;
+        }
 
-        if (_unlikely_(t < 0))
-                t = isatty(STDOUT_FILENO) > 0;
+        if (arg_action != ACTION_SHOW && optind < argc) {
+                log_error("Extraneous arguments starting with '%s'", argv[optind]);
+                return -EINVAL;
+        }
 
-        return t;
+        return 1;
 }
 
 static int generate_new_id128(void) {
@@ -370,61 +682,80 @@ static int generate_new_id128(void) {
                "As UUID:\n"
                "%02x%02x%02x%02x-%02x%02x-%02x%02x-%02x%02x-%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x\n\n"
                "As macro:\n"
-              "#define MESSAGE_XYZ SD_ID128_MAKE(",
+               "#define MESSAGE_XYZ SD_ID128_MAKE(",
                SD_ID128_FORMAT_VAL(id),
                SD_ID128_FORMAT_VAL(id));
-
         for (i = 0; i < 16; i++)
                 printf("%02x%s", id.bytes[i], i != 15 ? "," : "");
+        fputs(")\n\n", stdout);
 
-        fputs(")\n", stdout);
+        printf("As Python constant:\n"
+               ">>> import uuid\n"
+               ">>> MESSAGE_XYZ = uuid.UUID('" SD_ID128_FORMAT_STR "')\n",
+               SD_ID128_FORMAT_VAL(id));
 
         return 0;
 }
 
 static int add_matches(sd_journal *j, char **args) {
         char **i;
-        int r;
 
         assert(j);
 
         STRV_FOREACH(i, args) {
+                int r;
 
                 if (streq(*i, "+"))
                         r = sd_journal_add_disjunction(j);
                 else if (path_is_absolute(*i)) {
-                        char *p, *t = NULL;
+                        _cleanup_free_ char *p, *t = NULL, *t2 = NULL;
                         const char *path;
+                        _cleanup_free_ char *interpreter = NULL;
                         struct stat st;
 
                         p = canonicalize_file_name(*i);
                         path = p ? p : *i;
 
                         if (stat(path, &st) < 0)  {
-                                free(p);
                                 log_error("Couldn't stat file: %m");
                                 return -errno;
                         }
 
-                        if (S_ISREG(st.st_mode) && (0111 & st.st_mode))
-                                t = strappend("_EXE=", path);
-                        else if (S_ISCHR(st.st_mode))
+                        if (S_ISREG(st.st_mode) && (0111 & st.st_mode)) {
+                                if (executable_is_script(path, &interpreter) > 0) {
+                                        _cleanup_free_ char *comm;
+
+                                        comm = strndup(basename(path), 15);
+                                        if (!comm)
+                                                return log_oom();
+
+                                        t = strappend("_COMM=", comm);
+
+                                        /* Append _EXE only if the interpreter is not a link.
+                                           Otherwise, it might be outdated often. */
+                                        if (lstat(interpreter, &st) == 0 &&
+                                            !S_ISLNK(st.st_mode)) {
+                                                t2 = strappend("_EXE=", interpreter);
+                                                if (!t2)
+                                                        return log_oom();
+                                        }
+                                } else
+                                        t = strappend("_EXE=", path);
+                        } else if (S_ISCHR(st.st_mode))
                                 asprintf(&t, "_KERNEL_DEVICE=c%u:%u", major(st.st_rdev), minor(st.st_rdev));
                         else if (S_ISBLK(st.st_mode))
                                 asprintf(&t, "_KERNEL_DEVICE=b%u:%u", major(st.st_rdev), minor(st.st_rdev));
                         else {
-                                free(p);
-                                log_error("File is not a device node, regular file or is not executable: %s", *i);
+                                log_error("File is neither a device node, nor regular file, nor executable: %s", *i);
                                 return -EINVAL;
                         }
 
-                        free(p);
-
                         if (!t)
                                 return log_oom();
 
                         r = sd_journal_add_match(j, t, 0);
-                        free(t);
+                        if (t2)
+                                r = sd_journal_add_match(j, t2, 0);
                 } else
                         r = sd_journal_add_match(j, *i, 0);
 
@@ -437,36 +768,409 @@ static int add_matches(sd_journal *j, char **args) {
         return 0;
 }
 
-static int add_this_boot(sd_journal *j) {
+static int boot_id_cmp(const void *a, const void *b) {
+        uint64_t _a, _b;
+
+        _a = ((const boot_id_t *)a)->first;
+        _b = ((const boot_id_t *)b)->first;
+
+        return _a < _b ? -1 : (_a > _b ? 1 : 0);
+}
+
+static int list_boots(sd_journal *j) {
+        int r;
+        const void *data;
+        unsigned int count = 0;
+        int w, i;
+        size_t length, allocated = 0;
+        boot_id_t *id;
+        _cleanup_free_ boot_id_t *all_ids = NULL;
+
+        r = sd_journal_query_unique(j, "_BOOT_ID");
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
+        SD_JOURNAL_FOREACH_UNIQUE(j, data, length) {
+                if (length < strlen("_BOOT_ID="))
+                        continue;
+
+                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(all_ids, allocated, count + 1))
+                        return log_oom();
+
+                id = &all_ids[count];
+
+                r = sd_id128_from_string(((const char *)data) + strlen("_BOOT_ID="), &id->id);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        continue;
+
+                r = sd_journal_add_match(j, data, length);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                r = sd_journal_seek_head(j);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                r = sd_journal_next(j);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+                else if (r == 0)
+                        goto flush;
+
+                r = sd_journal_get_realtime_usec(j, &id->first);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                r = sd_journal_seek_tail(j);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                r = sd_journal_previous(j);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+                else if (r == 0)
+                        goto flush;
+
+                r = sd_journal_get_realtime_usec(j, &id->last);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                count++;
+        flush:
+                sd_journal_flush_matches(j);
+        }
+
+        qsort_safe(all_ids, count, sizeof(boot_id_t), boot_id_cmp);
+
+        /* numbers are one less, but we need an extra char for the sign */
+        w = DECIMAL_STR_WIDTH(count - 1) + 1;
+
+        for (id = all_ids, i = 0; id < all_ids + count; id++, i++) {
+                char a[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX], b[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX];
+
+                printf("% *i " SD_ID128_FORMAT_STR " %s—%s\n",
+                       w, i - count + 1,
+                       SD_ID128_FORMAT_VAL(id->id),
+                       format_timestamp(a, sizeof(a), id->first),
+                       format_timestamp(b, sizeof(b), id->last));
+        }
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
+static int get_relative_boot_id(sd_journal *j, sd_id128_t *boot_id, int relative) {
+        int r;
+        const void *data;
+        unsigned int count = 0;
+        size_t length, allocated = 0;
+        boot_id_t ref_boot_id = {SD_ID128_NULL}, *id;
+        _cleanup_free_ boot_id_t *all_ids = NULL;
+
+        assert(j);
+        assert(boot_id);
+
+        r = sd_journal_query_unique(j, "_BOOT_ID");
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
+        SD_JOURNAL_FOREACH_UNIQUE(j, data, length) {
+                if (length < strlen("_BOOT_ID="))
+                        continue;
+
+                if (!GREEDY_REALLOC(all_ids, allocated, count + 1))
+                        return log_oom();
+
+                id = &all_ids[count];
+
+                r = sd_id128_from_string(((const char *)data) + strlen("_BOOT_ID="), &id->id);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        continue;
+
+                r = sd_journal_add_match(j, data, length);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                r = sd_journal_seek_head(j);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                r = sd_journal_next(j);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+                else if (r == 0)
+                        goto flush;
+
+                r = sd_journal_get_realtime_usec(j, &id->first);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                if (sd_id128_equal(id->id, *boot_id))
+                        ref_boot_id = *id;
+
+                count++;
+        flush:
+                sd_journal_flush_matches(j);
+        }
+
+        qsort_safe(all_ids, count, sizeof(boot_id_t), boot_id_cmp);
+
+        if (sd_id128_equal(*boot_id, SD_ID128_NULL)) {
+                if (relative > (int) count || relative <= -(int)count)
+                        return -EADDRNOTAVAIL;
+
+                *boot_id = all_ids[(relative <= 0)*count + relative - 1].id;
+        } else {
+                id = bsearch(&ref_boot_id, all_ids, count, sizeof(boot_id_t), boot_id_cmp);
+
+                if (!id ||
+                    relative <= 0 ? (id - all_ids) + relative < 0 :
+                                    (id - all_ids) + relative >= (int) count)
+                        return -EADDRNOTAVAIL;
+
+                *boot_id = (id + relative)->id;
+        }
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
+static int add_boot(sd_journal *j) {
         char match[9+32+1] = "_BOOT_ID=";
-        sd_id128_t boot_id;
         int r;
 
         assert(j);
 
-        if (!arg_this_boot)
+        if (!arg_boot)
                 return 0;
 
-        r = sd_id128_get_boot(&boot_id);
+        if (arg_boot_offset == 0 && sd_id128_equal(arg_boot_id, SD_ID128_NULL))
+                return add_match_this_boot(j, arg_machine);
+
+        r = get_relative_boot_id(j, &arg_boot_id, arg_boot_offset);
         if (r < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to get boot id: %s", strerror(-r));
+                if (sd_id128_equal(arg_boot_id, SD_ID128_NULL))
+                        log_error("Failed to look up boot %+i: %s", arg_boot_offset, strerror(-r));
+                else
+                        log_error("Failed to look up boot ID "SD_ID128_FORMAT_STR"%+i: %s",
+                                  SD_ID128_FORMAT_VAL(arg_boot_id), arg_boot_offset, strerror(-r));
                 return r;
         }
 
-        sd_id128_to_string(boot_id, match + 9);
-        r = sd_journal_add_match(j, match, strlen(match));
+        sd_id128_to_string(arg_boot_id, match + 9);
+
+        r = sd_journal_add_match(j, match, sizeof(match) - 1);
         if (r < 0) {
                 log_error("Failed to add match: %s", strerror(-r));
                 return r;
         }
 
+        r = sd_journal_add_conjunction(j);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
+static int add_dmesg(sd_journal *j) {
+        int r;
+        assert(j);
+
+        if (!arg_dmesg)
+                return 0;
+
+        r = sd_journal_add_match(j, "_TRANSPORT=kernel", strlen("_TRANSPORT=kernel"));
+        if (r < 0) {
+                log_error("Failed to add match: %s", strerror(-r));
+                return r;
+        }
+
+        r = sd_journal_add_conjunction(j);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
+static int get_possible_units(sd_journal *j,
+                              const char *fields,
+                              char **patterns,
+                              Set **units) {
+        _cleanup_set_free_free_ Set *found;
+        const char *field;
+        int r;
+
+        found = set_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        if (!found)
+                return log_oom();
+
+        NULSTR_FOREACH(field, fields) {
+                const void *data;
+                size_t size;
+
+                r = sd_journal_query_unique(j, field);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                SD_JOURNAL_FOREACH_UNIQUE(j, data, size) {
+                        char **pattern, *eq;
+                        size_t prefix;
+                        _cleanup_free_ char *u = NULL;
+
+                        eq = memchr(data, '=', size);
+                        if (eq)
+                                prefix = eq - (char*) data + 1;
+                        else
+                                prefix = 0;
+
+                        u = strndup((char*) data + prefix, size - prefix);
+                        if (!u)
+                                return log_oom();
+
+                        STRV_FOREACH(pattern, patterns)
+                                if (fnmatch(*pattern, u, FNM_NOESCAPE) == 0) {
+                                        log_debug("Matched %s with pattern %s=%s", u, field, *pattern);
+
+                                        r = set_consume(found, u);
+                                        u = NULL;
+                                        if (r < 0 && r != -EEXIST)
+                                                return r;
+
+                                        break;
+                                }
+                }
+        }
+
+        *units = found;
+        found = NULL;
+        return 0;
+}
+
+/* This list is supposed to return the superset of unit names
+ * possibly matched by rules added with add_matches_for_unit... */
+#define SYSTEM_UNITS                 \
+        "_SYSTEMD_UNIT\0"            \
+        "COREDUMP_UNIT\0"            \
+        "UNIT\0"                     \
+        "OBJECT_SYSTEMD_UNIT\0"      \
+        "_SYSTEMD_SLICE\0"
+
+/* ... and add_matches_for_user_unit */
+#define USER_UNITS                   \
+        "_SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT\0"       \
+        "USER_UNIT\0"                \
+        "COREDUMP_USER_UNIT\0"       \
+        "OBJECT_SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT\0"
+
+static int add_units(sd_journal *j) {
+        _cleanup_strv_free_ char **patterns = NULL;
+        int r, count = 0;
+        char **i;
+
+        assert(j);
+
+        STRV_FOREACH(i, arg_system_units) {
+                _cleanup_free_ char *u = NULL;
+
+                u = unit_name_mangle(*i, MANGLE_GLOB);
+                if (!u)
+                        return log_oom();
+
+                if (string_is_glob(u)) {
+                        r = strv_push(&patterns, u);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        u = NULL;
+                } else {
+                        r = add_matches_for_unit(j, u);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        r = sd_journal_add_disjunction(j);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        count ++;
+                }
+        }
+
+        if (!strv_isempty(patterns)) {
+                _cleanup_set_free_free_ Set *units = NULL;
+                Iterator it;
+                char *u;
+
+                r = get_possible_units(j, SYSTEM_UNITS, patterns, &units);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                SET_FOREACH(u, units, it) {
+                        r = add_matches_for_unit(j, u);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        r = sd_journal_add_disjunction(j);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        count ++;
+                }
+        }
+
+        strv_free(patterns);
+        patterns = NULL;
+
+        STRV_FOREACH(i, arg_user_units) {
+                _cleanup_free_ char *u = NULL;
+
+                u = unit_name_mangle(*i, MANGLE_GLOB);
+                if (!u)
+                        return log_oom();
+
+                if (string_is_glob(u)) {
+                        r = strv_push(&patterns, u);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        u = NULL;
+                } else {
+                        r = add_matches_for_user_unit(j, u, getuid());
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        r = sd_journal_add_disjunction(j);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        count ++;
+                }
+        }
+
+        if (!strv_isempty(patterns)) {
+                _cleanup_set_free_free_ Set *units = NULL;
+                Iterator it;
+                char *u;
+
+                r = get_possible_units(j, USER_UNITS, patterns, &units);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+
+                SET_FOREACH(u, units, it) {
+                        r = add_matches_for_user_unit(j, u, getuid());
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        r = sd_journal_add_disjunction(j);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                        count ++;
+                }
+        }
+
+        /* Complain if the user request matches but nothing whatsoever was
+         * found, since otherwise everything would be matched. */
+        if (!(strv_isempty(arg_system_units) && strv_isempty(arg_user_units)) && count == 0)
+                return -ENODATA;
+
+        r = sd_journal_add_conjunction(j);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
         return 0;
 }
 
 static int add_priorities(sd_journal *j) {
         char match[] = "PRIORITY=0";
         int i, r;
-
         assert(j);
 
         if (arg_priorities == 0xFF)
@@ -476,8 +1180,6 @@ static int add_priorities(sd_journal *j) {
                 if (arg_priorities & (1 << i)) {
                         match[sizeof(match)-2] = '0' + i;
 
-                        log_info("adding match %s", match);
-
                         r = sd_journal_add_match(j, match, strlen(match));
                         if (r < 0) {
                                 log_error("Failed to add match: %s", strerror(-r));
@@ -485,6 +1187,10 @@ static int add_priorities(sd_journal *j) {
                         }
                 }
 
+        r = sd_journal_add_conjunction(j);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
         return 0;
 }
 
@@ -498,6 +1204,19 @@ static int setup_keys(void) {
         char *p = NULL, *k = NULL;
         struct FSSHeader h;
         uint64_t n;
+        struct stat st;
+
+        r = stat("/var/log/journal", &st);
+        if (r < 0 && errno != ENOENT && errno != ENOTDIR) {
+                log_error("stat(\"%s\") failed: %m", "/var/log/journal");
+                return -errno;
+        }
+
+        if (r < 0 || !S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) {
+                log_error("%s is not a directory, must be using persistent logging for FSS.",
+                          "/var/log/journal");
+                return r < 0 ? -errno : -ENOTDIR;
+        }
 
         r = sd_id128_get_machine(&machine);
         if (r < 0) {
@@ -516,9 +1235,18 @@ static int setup_keys(void) {
                 return log_oom();
 
         if (access(p, F_OK) >= 0) {
-                log_error("Sealing key file %s exists already.", p);
-                r = -EEXIST;
-                goto finish;
+                if (arg_force) {
+                        r = unlink(p);
+                        if (r < 0) {
+                                log_error("unlink(\"%s\") failed: %m", p);
+                                r = -errno;
+                                goto finish;
+                        }
+                } else {
+                        log_error("Sealing key file %s exists already. (--force to recreate)", p);
+                        r = -EEXIST;
+                        goto finish;
+                }
         }
 
         if (asprintf(&k, "/var/log/journal/" SD_ID128_FORMAT_STR "/fss.tmp.XXXXXX",
@@ -562,8 +1290,8 @@ static int setup_keys(void) {
         n = now(CLOCK_REALTIME);
         n /= arg_interval;
 
-        close_nointr_nofail(fd);
-        fd = mkostemp(k, O_WRONLY|O_CLOEXEC|O_NOCTTY);
+        safe_close(fd);
+        fd = mkostemp_safe(k, O_WRONLY|O_CLOEXEC);
         if (fd < 0) {
                 log_error("Failed to open %s: %m", k);
                 r = -errno;
@@ -610,7 +1338,7 @@ static int setup_keys(void) {
                 goto finish;
         }
 
-        if (isatty(STDOUT_FILENO)) {
+        if (on_tty()) {
                 fprintf(stderr,
                         "\n"
                         "The new key pair has been generated. The " ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_ON "secret sealing key" ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF " has been written to\n"
@@ -632,27 +1360,25 @@ static int setup_keys(void) {
 
         printf("/%llx-%llx\n", (unsigned long long) n, (unsigned long long) arg_interval);
 
-        if (isatty(STDOUT_FILENO)) {
+        if (on_tty()) {
                 char tsb[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX], *hn;
 
                 fprintf(stderr,
                         ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF "\n"
                         "The sealing key is automatically changed every %s.\n",
-                        format_timespan(tsb, sizeof(tsb), arg_interval));
+                        format_timespan(tsb, sizeof(tsb), arg_interval, 0));
 
                 hn = gethostname_malloc();
 
                 if (hn) {
-                        hostname_cleanup(hn);
+                        hostname_cleanup(hn, false);
                         fprintf(stderr, "\nThe keys have been generated for host %s/" SD_ID128_FORMAT_STR ".\n", hn, SD_ID128_FORMAT_VAL(machine));
                 } else
                         fprintf(stderr, "\nThe keys have been generated for host " SD_ID128_FORMAT_STR ".\n", SD_ID128_FORMAT_VAL(machine));
 
 #ifdef HAVE_QRENCODE
                 /* If this is not an UTF-8 system don't print any QR codes */
-                setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");
-
-                if (streq_ptr(nl_langinfo(CODESET), "UTF-8")) {
+                if (is_locale_utf8()) {
                         fputs("\nTo transfer the verification key to your phone please scan the QR code below:\n\n", stderr);
                         print_qr_code(stderr, seed, seed_size, n, arg_interval, hn, machine);
                 }
@@ -663,8 +1389,7 @@ static int setup_keys(void) {
         r = 0;
 
 finish:
-        if (fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(fd);
+        safe_close(fd);
 
         if (k) {
                 unlink(k);
@@ -714,10 +1439,10 @@ static int verify(sd_journal *j) {
                                         log_info("=> Validated from %s to %s, final %s entries not sealed.",
                                                  format_timestamp(a, sizeof(a), first),
                                                  format_timestamp(b, sizeof(b), validated),
-                                                 format_timespan(c, sizeof(c), last > validated ? last - validated : 0));
+                                                 format_timespan(c, sizeof(c), last > validated ? last - validated : 0, 0));
                                 } else if (last > 0)
                                         log_info("=> No sealing yet, %s of entries not sealed.",
-                                                 format_timespan(c, sizeof(c), last - first));
+                                                 format_timespan(c, sizeof(c), last - first, 0));
                                 else
                                         log_info("=> No sealing yet, no entries in file.");
                         }
@@ -727,14 +1452,125 @@ static int verify(sd_journal *j) {
         return r;
 }
 
+#ifdef HAVE_ACL
+static int access_check_var_log_journal(sd_journal *j) {
+        _cleanup_strv_free_ char **g = NULL;
+        bool have_access;
+        int r;
+
+        assert(j);
+
+        have_access = in_group("systemd-journal") > 0;
+
+        if (!have_access) {
+                /* Let's enumerate all groups from the default ACL of
+                 * the directory, which generally should allow access
+                 * to most journal files too */
+                r = search_acl_groups(&g, "/var/log/journal/", &have_access);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return r;
+        }
+
+        if (!have_access) {
+
+                if (strv_isempty(g))
+                        log_notice("Hint: You are currently not seeing messages from other users and the system.\n"
+                                   "      Users in the 'systemd-journal' group can see all messages. Pass -q to\n"
+                                   "      turn off this notice.");
+                else {
+                        _cleanup_free_ char *s = NULL;
+
+                        r = strv_extend(&g, "systemd-journal");
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return log_oom();
+
+                        strv_sort(g);
+                        strv_uniq(g);
+
+                        s = strv_join(g, "', '");
+                        if (!s)
+                                return log_oom();
+
+                        log_notice("Hint: You are currently not seeing messages from other users and the system.\n"
+                                   "      Users in the groups '%s' can see all messages.\n"
+                                   "      Pass -q to turn off this notice.", s);
+                }
+        }
+
+        return 0;
+}
+#endif
+
+static int access_check(sd_journal *j) {
+        Iterator it;
+        void *code;
+        int r = 0;
+
+        assert(j);
+
+        if (set_isempty(j->errors)) {
+                if (hashmap_isempty(j->files))
+                        log_notice("No journal files were found.");
+                return 0;
+        }
+
+        if (set_contains(j->errors, INT_TO_PTR(-EACCES))) {
+#ifdef HAVE_ACL
+                /* If /var/log/journal doesn't even exist,
+                 * unprivileged users have no access at all */
+                if (access("/var/log/journal", F_OK) < 0 &&
+                    geteuid() != 0 &&
+                    in_group("systemd-journal") <= 0) {
+                        log_error("Unprivileged users cannot access messages, unless persistent log storage is\n"
+                                  "enabled. Users in the 'systemd-journal' group may always access messages.");
+                        return -EACCES;
+                }
+
+                /* If /var/log/journal exists, try to pring a nice
+                   notice if the user lacks access to it */
+                if (!arg_quiet && geteuid() != 0) {
+                        r = access_check_var_log_journal(j);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                }
+#else
+                if (geteuid() != 0 && in_group("systemd-journal") <= 0) {
+                        log_error("Unprivileged users cannot access messages. Users in the 'systemd-journal' group\n"
+                                  "group may access messages.");
+                        return -EACCES;
+                }
+#endif
+
+                if (hashmap_isempty(j->files)) {
+                        log_error("No journal files were opened due to insufficient permissions.");
+                        r = -EACCES;
+                }
+        }
+
+        SET_FOREACH(code, j->errors, it) {
+                int err;
+
+                err = -PTR_TO_INT(code);
+                assert(err > 0);
+
+                if (err != EACCES)
+                        log_warning("Error was encountered while opening journal files: %s",
+                                    strerror(err));
+        }
+
+        return r;
+}
+
 int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
         int r;
-        sd_journal *j = NULL;
+        _cleanup_journal_close_ sd_journal *j = NULL;
         bool need_seek = false;
         sd_id128_t previous_boot_id;
-        bool previous_boot_id_valid = false;
-        bool have_pager;
+        bool previous_boot_id_valid = false, first_line = true;
+        int n_shown = 0;
+        bool ellipsized = false;
 
+        setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
         log_parse_environment();
         log_open();
 
@@ -742,6 +1578,8 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
         if (r <= 0)
                 goto finish;
 
+        signal(SIGWINCH, columns_lines_cache_reset);
+
         if (arg_action == ACTION_NEW_ID128) {
                 r = generate_new_id128();
                 goto finish;
@@ -752,16 +1590,60 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                 goto finish;
         }
 
+        if (arg_action == ACTION_UPDATE_CATALOG ||
+            arg_action == ACTION_LIST_CATALOG ||
+            arg_action == ACTION_DUMP_CATALOG) {
+
+                const char* database = CATALOG_DATABASE;
+                _cleanup_free_ char *copy = NULL;
+                if (arg_root) {
+                        copy = strjoin(arg_root, "/", CATALOG_DATABASE, NULL);
+                        if (!copy) {
+                                r = log_oom();
+                                goto finish;
+                        }
+                        path_kill_slashes(copy);
+                        database = copy;
+                }
+
+                if (arg_action == ACTION_UPDATE_CATALOG) {
+                        r = catalog_update(database, arg_root, catalog_file_dirs);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                log_error("Failed to list catalog: %s", strerror(-r));
+                } else {
+                        bool oneline = arg_action == ACTION_LIST_CATALOG;
+
+                        if (optind < argc)
+                                r = catalog_list_items(stdout, database,
+                                                       oneline, argv + optind);
+                        else
+                                r = catalog_list(stdout, database, oneline);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                log_error("Failed to list catalog: %s", strerror(-r));
+                }
+
+                goto finish;
+        }
+
         if (arg_directory)
-                r = sd_journal_open_directory(&j, arg_directory, 0);
+                r = sd_journal_open_directory(&j, arg_directory, arg_journal_type);
+        else if (arg_file)
+                r = sd_journal_open_files(&j, (const char**) arg_file, 0);
+        else if (arg_machine)
+                r = sd_journal_open_container(&j, arg_machine, 0);
         else
-                r = sd_journal_open(&j, arg_merge ? 0 : SD_JOURNAL_LOCAL_ONLY);
-
+                r = sd_journal_open(&j, !arg_merge*SD_JOURNAL_LOCAL_ONLY + arg_journal_type);
         if (r < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to open journal: %s", strerror(-r));
-                goto finish;
+                log_error("Failed to open %s: %s",
+                          arg_directory ? arg_directory : arg_file ? "files" : "journal",
+                          strerror(-r));
+                return EXIT_FAILURE;
         }
 
+        r = access_check(j);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return EXIT_FAILURE;
+
         if (arg_action == ACTION_VERIFY) {
                 r = verify(j);
                 goto finish;
@@ -769,95 +1651,160 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
 
         if (arg_action == ACTION_PRINT_HEADER) {
                 journal_print_header(j);
-                r = 0;
-                goto finish;
+                return EXIT_SUCCESS;
         }
 
         if (arg_action == ACTION_DISK_USAGE) {
-                uint64_t bytes;
+                uint64_t bytes = 0;
                 char sbytes[FORMAT_BYTES_MAX];
 
                 r = sd_journal_get_usage(j, &bytes);
                 if (r < 0)
-                        goto finish;
-
-                printf("Journals take up %s on disk.\n", format_bytes(sbytes, sizeof(sbytes), bytes));
-                r = 0;
-                goto finish;
-        }
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
 
-#ifdef HAVE_ACL
-        if (access("/var/log/journal", F_OK) < 0 && geteuid() != 0 && in_group("adm") <= 0) {
-                log_error("Unprivileged users can't see messages unless persistent log storage is enabled. Users in the group 'adm' can always see messages.");
-                r = -EACCES;
-                goto finish;
+                printf("Journals take up %s on disk.\n",
+                       format_bytes(sbytes, sizeof(sbytes), bytes));
+                return EXIT_SUCCESS;
         }
 
-        if (!arg_quiet && geteuid() != 0 && in_group("adm") <= 0)
-                log_warning("Showing user generated messages only. Users in the group 'adm' can see all messages. Pass -q to turn this notice off.");
-#else
-        if (geteuid() != 0 && in_group("adm") <= 0) {
-                log_error("No access to messages. Only users in the group 'adm' can see messages.");
-                r = -EACCES;
+        if (arg_action == ACTION_LIST_BOOTS) {
+                r = list_boots(j);
                 goto finish;
         }
-#endif
 
-        r = add_this_boot(j);
+        /* add_boot() must be called first!
+         * It may need to seek the journal to find parent boot IDs. */
+        r = add_boot(j);
         if (r < 0)
-                goto finish;
+                return EXIT_FAILURE;
 
-        r = add_matches(j, argv + optind);
+        r = add_dmesg(j);
         if (r < 0)
-                goto finish;
+                return EXIT_FAILURE;
+
+        r = add_units(j);
+        strv_free(arg_system_units);
+        strv_free(arg_user_units);
+
+        if (r < 0) {
+                log_error("Failed to add filter for units: %s", strerror(-r));
+                return EXIT_FAILURE;
+        }
 
         r = add_priorities(j);
-        if (r < 0)
-                goto finish;
+        if (r < 0) {
+                log_error("Failed to add filter for priorities: %s", strerror(-r));
+                return EXIT_FAILURE;
+        }
 
-        if (!arg_quiet) {
-                usec_t start, end;
-                char start_buf[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX], end_buf[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX];
+        r = add_matches(j, argv + optind);
+        if (r < 0) {
+                log_error("Failed to add filters: %s", strerror(-r));
+                return EXIT_FAILURE;
+        }
 
-                r = sd_journal_get_cutoff_realtime_usec(j, &start, &end);
+        if (_unlikely_(log_get_max_level() >= LOG_PRI(LOG_DEBUG))) {
+                _cleanup_free_ char *filter;
+
+                filter = journal_make_match_string(j);
+                log_debug("Journal filter: %s", filter);
+        }
+
+        if (arg_field) {
+                const void *data;
+                size_t size;
+
+                r = sd_journal_set_data_threshold(j, 0);
                 if (r < 0) {
-                        log_error("Failed to get cutoff: %s", strerror(-r));
-                        goto finish;
+                        log_error("Failed to unset data size threshold");
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
                 }
 
-                if (r > 0) {
-                        if (arg_follow)
-                                printf("Logs begin at %s.\n", format_timestamp(start_buf, sizeof(start_buf), start));
+                r = sd_journal_query_unique(j, arg_field);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to query unique data objects: %s", strerror(-r));
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+                }
+
+                SD_JOURNAL_FOREACH_UNIQUE(j, data, size) {
+                        const void *eq;
+
+                        if (arg_lines >= 0 && n_shown >= arg_lines)
+                                break;
+
+                        eq = memchr(data, '=', size);
+                        if (eq)
+                                printf("%.*s\n", (int) (size - ((const uint8_t*) eq - (const uint8_t*) data + 1)), (const char*) eq + 1);
                         else
-                                printf("Logs begin at %s, end at %s.\n",
-                                       format_timestamp(start_buf, sizeof(start_buf), start),
-                                       format_timestamp(end_buf, sizeof(end_buf), end));
+                                printf("%.*s\n", (int) size, (const char*) data);
+
+                        n_shown ++;
                 }
+
+                return EXIT_SUCCESS;
         }
 
-        if (arg_cursor) {
-                r = sd_journal_seek_cursor(j, arg_cursor);
+        /* Opening the fd now means the first sd_journal_wait() will actually wait */
+        if (arg_follow) {
+                r = sd_journal_get_fd(j);
+                if (r < 0)
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+        }
+
+        if (arg_cursor || arg_after_cursor) {
+                r = sd_journal_seek_cursor(j, arg_cursor ? arg_cursor : arg_after_cursor);
                 if (r < 0) {
                         log_error("Failed to seek to cursor: %s", strerror(-r));
-                        goto finish;
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
                 }
+                if (!arg_reverse)
+                        r = sd_journal_next_skip(j, 1 + !!arg_after_cursor);
+                else
+                        r = sd_journal_previous_skip(j, 1 + !!arg_after_cursor);
 
+                if (arg_after_cursor && r < 2 && !arg_follow)
+                        /* We couldn't find the next entry after the cursor. */
+                        arg_lines = 0;
+
+        } else if (arg_since_set && !arg_reverse) {
+                r = sd_journal_seek_realtime_usec(j, arg_since);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to seek to date: %s", strerror(-r));
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+                }
                 r = sd_journal_next(j);
 
+        } else if (arg_until_set && arg_reverse) {
+                r = sd_journal_seek_realtime_usec(j, arg_until);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to seek to date: %s", strerror(-r));
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+                }
+                r = sd_journal_previous(j);
+
         } else if (arg_lines >= 0) {
                 r = sd_journal_seek_tail(j);
                 if (r < 0) {
                         log_error("Failed to seek to tail: %s", strerror(-r));
-                        goto finish;
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
                 }
 
                 r = sd_journal_previous_skip(j, arg_lines);
 
+        } else if (arg_reverse) {
+                r = sd_journal_seek_tail(j);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to seek to tail: %s", strerror(-r));
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+                }
+
+                r = sd_journal_previous(j);
+
         } else {
                 r = sd_journal_seek_head(j);
                 if (r < 0) {
                         log_error("Failed to seek to head: %s", strerror(-r));
-                        goto finish;
+                        return EXIT_FAILURE;
                 }
 
                 r = sd_journal_next(j);
@@ -865,29 +1812,73 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
 
         if (r < 0) {
                 log_error("Failed to iterate through journal: %s", strerror(-r));
-                goto finish;
+                return EXIT_FAILURE;
         }
 
-        on_tty();
-        have_pager = !arg_no_pager && !arg_follow && pager_open();
+        if (!arg_follow)
+                pager_open_if_enabled();
+
+        if (!arg_quiet) {
+                usec_t start, end;
+                char start_buf[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX], end_buf[FORMAT_TIMESTAMP_MAX];
+
+                r = sd_journal_get_cutoff_realtime_usec(j, &start, &end);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to get cutoff: %s", strerror(-r));
+                        goto finish;
+                }
+
+                if (r > 0) {
+                        if (arg_follow)
+                                printf("-- Logs begin at %s. --\n",
+                                       format_timestamp(start_buf, sizeof(start_buf), start));
+                        else
+                                printf("-- Logs begin at %s, end at %s. --\n",
+                                       format_timestamp(start_buf, sizeof(start_buf), start),
+                                       format_timestamp(end_buf, sizeof(end_buf), end));
+                }
+        }
 
         for (;;) {
-                for (;;) {
-                        int flags =
-                                arg_show_all * OUTPUT_SHOW_ALL |
-                                have_pager * OUTPUT_FULL_WIDTH |
-                                on_tty() * OUTPUT_COLOR;
+                while (arg_lines < 0 || n_shown < arg_lines || (arg_follow && !first_line)) {
+                        int flags;
 
                         if (need_seek) {
-                                r = sd_journal_next(j);
+                                if (!arg_reverse)
+                                        r = sd_journal_next(j);
+                                else
+                                        r = sd_journal_previous(j);
                                 if (r < 0) {
                                         log_error("Failed to iterate through journal: %s", strerror(-r));
                                         goto finish;
                                 }
+                                if (r == 0)
+                                        break;
                         }
 
-                        if (r == 0)
-                                break;
+                        if (arg_until_set && !arg_reverse) {
+                                usec_t usec;
+
+                                r = sd_journal_get_realtime_usec(j, &usec);
+                                if (r < 0) {
+                                        log_error("Failed to determine timestamp: %s", strerror(-r));
+                                        goto finish;
+                                }
+                                if (usec > arg_until)
+                                        goto finish;
+                        }
+
+                        if (arg_since_set && arg_reverse) {
+                                usec_t usec;
+
+                                r = sd_journal_get_realtime_usec(j, &usec);
+                                if (r < 0) {
+                                        log_error("Failed to determine timestamp: %s", strerror(-r));
+                                        goto finish;
+                                }
+                                if (usec < arg_since)
+                                        goto finish;
+                        }
 
                         if (!arg_merge) {
                                 sd_id128_t boot_id;
@@ -896,34 +1887,54 @@ int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
                                 if (r >= 0) {
                                         if (previous_boot_id_valid &&
                                             !sd_id128_equal(boot_id, previous_boot_id))
-                                                printf(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_ON "----- Reboot -----" ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF "\n");
+                                                printf("%s-- Reboot --%s\n",
+                                                       ansi_highlight(), ansi_highlight_off());
 
                                         previous_boot_id = boot_id;
                                         previous_boot_id_valid = true;
                                 }
                         }
 
-                        r = output_journal(stdout, j, arg_output, 0, flags);
-                        if (r < 0)
-                                goto finish;
+                        flags =
+                                arg_all * OUTPUT_SHOW_ALL |
+                                arg_full * OUTPUT_FULL_WIDTH |
+                                on_tty() * OUTPUT_COLOR |
+                                arg_catalog * OUTPUT_CATALOG;
 
+                        r = output_journal(stdout, j, arg_output, 0, flags, &ellipsized);
                         need_seek = true;
+                        if (r == -EADDRNOTAVAIL)
+                                break;
+                        else if (r < 0 || ferror(stdout))
+                                goto finish;
+
+                        n_shown++;
                 }
 
-                if (!arg_follow)
+                if (!arg_follow) {
+                        if (arg_show_cursor) {
+                                _cleanup_free_ char *cursor = NULL;
+
+                                r = sd_journal_get_cursor(j, &cursor);
+                                if (r < 0 && r != -EADDRNOTAVAIL)
+                                        log_error("Failed to get cursor: %s", strerror(-r));
+                                else if (r >= 0)
+                                        printf("-- cursor: %s\n", cursor);
+                        }
+
                         break;
+                }
 
                 r = sd_journal_wait(j, (uint64_t) -1);
                 if (r < 0) {
                         log_error("Couldn't wait for journal event: %s", strerror(-r));
                         goto finish;
                 }
+
+                first_line = false;
         }
 
 finish:
-        if (j)
-                sd_journal_close(j);
-
         pager_close();
 
         return r < 0 ? EXIT_FAILURE : EXIT_SUCCESS;