chiark / gitweb /
Use enums to make it obvious what boolean params mean
[elogind.git] / src / core / manager.c
index 8e66732..f69ae07 100644 (file)
@@ -22,9 +22,7 @@
 #include <assert.h>
 #include <errno.h>
 #include <string.h>
-#include <sys/epoll.h>
 #include <signal.h>
-#include <sys/signalfd.h>
 #include <sys/wait.h>
 #include <unistd.h>
 #include <sys/poll.h>
@@ -42,9 +40,9 @@
 #include <libaudit.h>
 #endif
 
-#include "systemd/sd-daemon.h"
-#include "systemd/sd-id128.h"
-#include "systemd/sd-messages.h"
+#include "sd-daemon.h"
+#include "sd-id128.h"
+#include "sd-messages.h"
 
 #include "manager.h"
 #include "transaction.h"
 #include "util.h"
 #include "mkdir.h"
 #include "ratelimit.h"
-#include "cgroup.h"
+#include "locale-setup.h"
 #include "mount-setup.h"
 #include "unit-name.h"
-#include "dbus-unit.h"
-#include "dbus-job.h"
 #include "missing.h"
 #include "path-lookup.h"
 #include "special.h"
-#include "bus-errors.h"
 #include "exit-status.h"
 #include "virt.h"
 #include "watchdog.h"
 #include "cgroup-util.h"
 #include "path-util.h"
 #include "audit-fd.h"
-#include "efivars.h"
+#include "boot-timestamps.h"
 #include "env-util.h"
-
-/* As soon as 16 units are in our GC queue, make sure to run a gc sweep */
-#define GC_QUEUE_ENTRIES_MAX 16
+#include "bus-errors.h"
+#include "bus-error.h"
+#include "bus-util.h"
+#include "dbus.h"
+#include "dbus-unit.h"
+#include "dbus-job.h"
+#include "dbus-manager.h"
+#include "bus-kernel.h"
 
 /* As soon as 5s passed since a unit was added to our GC queue, make sure to run a gc sweep */
 #define GC_QUEUE_USEC_MAX (10*USEC_PER_SEC)
 
 #define TIME_T_MAX (time_t)((1UL << ((sizeof(time_t) << 3) - 1)) - 1)
 
-static int manager_setup_notify(Manager *m) {
-        union {
-                struct sockaddr sa;
-                struct sockaddr_un un;
-        } sa;
-        struct epoll_event ev;
-        int one = 1;
-
-        assert(m);
-
-        m->notify_watch.type = WATCH_NOTIFY;
-        m->notify_watch.fd = socket(AF_UNIX, SOCK_DGRAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC|SOCK_NONBLOCK, 0);
-        if (m->notify_watch.fd < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to allocate notification socket: %m");
-                return -errno;
-        }
-
-        zero(sa);
-        sa.sa.sa_family = AF_UNIX;
-
-        if (getpid() != 1 || detect_container(NULL) > 0)
-                snprintf(sa.un.sun_path, sizeof(sa.un.sun_path), NOTIFY_SOCKET "/%llu", random_ull());
-        else
-                strncpy(sa.un.sun_path, NOTIFY_SOCKET, sizeof(sa.un.sun_path));
-
-        sa.un.sun_path[0] = 0;
-
-        if (bind(m->notify_watch.fd, &sa.sa, offsetof(struct sockaddr_un, sun_path) + 1 + strlen(sa.un.sun_path+1)) < 0) {
-                log_error("bind() failed: %m");
-                return -errno;
-        }
-
-        if (setsockopt(m->notify_watch.fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_PASSCRED, &one, sizeof(one)) < 0) {
-                log_error("SO_PASSCRED failed: %m");
-                return -errno;
-        }
-
-        zero(ev);
-        ev.events = EPOLLIN;
-        ev.data.ptr = &m->notify_watch;
-
-        if (epoll_ctl(m->epoll_fd, EPOLL_CTL_ADD, m->notify_watch.fd, &ev) < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to add notification socket fd to epoll: %m");
-                return -errno;
-        }
-
-        sa.un.sun_path[0] = '@';
-        m->notify_socket = strdup(sa.un.sun_path);
-        if (!m->notify_socket)
-                return log_oom();
-
-        log_debug("Using notification socket %s", m->notify_socket);
-
-        return 0;
-}
-
-static int manager_jobs_in_progress_mod_timer(Manager *m) {
-        struct itimerspec its;
-
-        if (m->jobs_in_progress_watch.type != WATCH_JOBS_IN_PROGRESS)
-                return 0;
-
-        zero(its);
-
-        its.it_value.tv_sec = JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_WAIT_SEC;
-        its.it_interval.tv_sec = JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_SEC;
-
-        if (timerfd_settime(m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd, 0, &its, NULL) < 0)
-                return -errno;
-
-        return 0;
-}
+static int manager_dispatch_notify_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata);
+static int manager_dispatch_signal_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata);
+static int manager_dispatch_time_change_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata);
+static int manager_dispatch_idle_pipe_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata);
+static int manager_dispatch_jobs_in_progress(sd_event_source *source, usec_t usec, void *userdata);
+static int manager_dispatch_run_queue(sd_event_source *source, void *userdata);
 
 static int manager_watch_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
-        struct epoll_event ev;
-        int r;
-
         assert(m);
 
-        if (m->jobs_in_progress_watch.type != WATCH_INVALID)
+        if (m->jobs_in_progress_event_source)
                 return 0;
 
-        m->jobs_in_progress_watch.type = WATCH_JOBS_IN_PROGRESS;
-        m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd = timerfd_create(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, TFD_NONBLOCK|TFD_CLOEXEC);
-        if (m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to create timerfd: %m");
-                r = -errno;
-                goto err;
-        }
-
-        r = manager_jobs_in_progress_mod_timer(m);
-        if (r < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to set up timer for jobs progress watch: %s", strerror(-r));
-                goto err;
-        }
-
-        zero(ev);
-        ev.events = EPOLLIN;
-        ev.data.ptr = &m->jobs_in_progress_watch;
-
-        if (epoll_ctl(m->epoll_fd, EPOLL_CTL_ADD, m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd, &ev) < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to add jobs progress timer fd to epoll: %m");
-                r = -errno;
-                goto err;
-        }
-
-        log_debug("Set up jobs progress timerfd.");
-
-        return 0;
-
-err:
-        if (m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd);
-        watch_init(&m->jobs_in_progress_watch);
-        return r;
+        return sd_event_add_monotonic(m->event, JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_WAIT_SEC, 0, manager_dispatch_jobs_in_progress, m, &m->jobs_in_progress_event_source);
 }
 
-static void manager_unwatch_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
-        if (m->jobs_in_progress_watch.type != WATCH_JOBS_IN_PROGRESS)
-                return;
-
-        assert_se(epoll_ctl(m->epoll_fd, EPOLL_CTL_DEL, m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd, NULL) >= 0);
-        close_nointr_nofail(m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd);
-        watch_init(&m->jobs_in_progress_watch);
-        m->jobs_in_progress_iteration = 0;
-
-        log_debug("Closed jobs progress timerfd.");
-}
+#define CYLON_BUFFER_EXTRA (2*(sizeof(ANSI_RED_ON)-1) + sizeof(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_RED_ON)-1 + 2*(sizeof(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF)-1))
 
-#define CYLON_BUFFER_EXTRA (2*strlen(ANSI_RED_ON) + strlen(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_RED_ON) + 2*strlen(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF))
 static void draw_cylon(char buffer[], size_t buflen, unsigned width, unsigned pos) {
         char *p = buffer;
 
@@ -244,18 +132,20 @@ static void draw_cylon(char buffer[], size_t buflen, unsigned width, unsigned po
                 *p++ = '*';
                 if (pos < width-1)
                         p = mempset(p, ' ', width-1-pos);
-                p = stpcpy(p, ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF);
+                strcpy(p, ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF);
         }
 }
 
 static void manager_print_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
+        _cleanup_free_ char *job_of_n = NULL;
         Iterator i;
         Job *j;
-        char *job_of_n = NULL;
         unsigned counter = 0, print_nr;
         char cylon[6 + CYLON_BUFFER_EXTRA + 1];
         unsigned cylon_pos;
 
+        assert(m);
+
         print_nr = (m->jobs_in_progress_iteration / JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_DIVISOR) % m->n_running_jobs;
 
         HASHMAP_FOREACH(j, m->jobs, i)
@@ -265,6 +155,7 @@ static void manager_print_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
         /* m->n_running_jobs must be consistent with the contents of m->jobs,
          * so the above loop must have succeeded in finding j. */
         assert(counter == print_nr + 1);
+        assert(j);
 
         cylon_pos = m->jobs_in_progress_iteration % 14;
         if (cylon_pos >= 8)
@@ -277,49 +168,69 @@ static void manager_print_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
 
         manager_status_printf(m, true, cylon, "%sA %s job is running for %s",
                               strempty(job_of_n), job_type_to_string(j->type), unit_description(j->unit));
-        free(job_of_n);
 
         m->jobs_in_progress_iteration++;
 }
 
-static int manager_setup_time_change(Manager *m) {
-        struct epoll_event ev;
-        struct itimerspec its;
+static int manager_watch_idle_pipe(Manager *m) {
+        int r;
 
         assert(m);
-        assert(m->time_change_watch.type == WATCH_INVALID);
 
-        /* Uses TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET to get notifications whenever
-         * CLOCK_REALTIME makes a jump relative to CLOCK_MONOTONIC */
+        if (m->idle_pipe_event_source)
+                return 0;
 
-        m->time_change_watch.type = WATCH_TIME_CHANGE;
-        m->time_change_watch.fd = timerfd_create(CLOCK_REALTIME, TFD_NONBLOCK|TFD_CLOEXEC);
-        if (m->time_change_watch.fd < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to create timerfd: %m");
-                return -errno;
+        if (m->idle_pipe[2] < 0)
+                return 0;
+
+        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, m->idle_pipe[2], EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_idle_pipe_fd, m, &m->idle_pipe_event_source);
+        if (r < 0) {
+                log_error("Failed to watch idle pipe: %s", strerror(-r));
+                return r;
         }
 
-        zero(its);
+        return 0;
+}
+
+static void manager_close_idle_pipe(Manager *m) {
+        assert(m);
+
+        close_pipe(m->idle_pipe);
+        close_pipe(m->idle_pipe + 2);
+}
+
+static int manager_setup_time_change(Manager *m) {
+        int r;
 
         /* We only care for the cancellation event, hence we set the
          * timeout to the latest possible value. */
+        struct itimerspec its = {
+                .it_value.tv_sec = TIME_T_MAX,
+        };
+
+        assert(m);
         assert_cc(sizeof(time_t) == sizeof(TIME_T_MAX));
-        its.it_value.tv_sec = TIME_T_MAX;
 
-        if (timerfd_settime(m->time_change_watch.fd, TFD_TIMER_ABSTIME|TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET, &its, NULL) < 0) {
+        /* Uses TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET to get notifications whenever
+         * CLOCK_REALTIME makes a jump relative to CLOCK_MONOTONIC */
+
+        m->time_change_fd = timerfd_create(CLOCK_REALTIME, TFD_NONBLOCK|TFD_CLOEXEC);
+        if (m->time_change_fd < 0) {
+                log_error("Failed to create timerfd: %m");
+                return -errno;
+        }
+
+        if (timerfd_settime(m->time_change_fd, TFD_TIMER_ABSTIME|TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET, &its, NULL) < 0) {
                 log_debug("Failed to set up TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET, ignoring: %m");
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_watch.fd);
-                watch_init(&m->time_change_watch);
+                close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_fd);
+                m->time_change_fd = -1;
                 return 0;
         }
 
-        zero(ev);
-        ev.events = EPOLLIN;
-        ev.data.ptr = &m->time_change_watch;
-
-        if (epoll_ctl(m->epoll_fd, EPOLL_CTL_ADD, m->time_change_watch.fd, &ev) < 0) {
-                log_error("Failed to add timer change fd to epoll: %m");
-                return -errno;
+        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, m->time_change_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_time_change_fd, m, &m->time_change_event_source);
+        if (r < 0) {
+                log_error("Failed to create time change event source: %s", strerror(-r));
+                return r;
         }
 
         log_debug("Set up TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET timerfd.");
@@ -328,7 +239,7 @@ static int manager_setup_time_change(Manager *m) {
 }
 
 static int enable_special_signals(Manager *m) {
-        int fd;
+        _cleanup_close_ int fd = -1;
 
         assert(m);
 
@@ -346,25 +257,23 @@ static int enable_special_signals(Manager *m) {
         } else {
                 /* Enable that we get SIGWINCH on kbrequest */
                 if (ioctl(fd, KDSIGACCEPT, SIGWINCH) < 0)
-                        log_warning("Failed to enable kbrequest handling: %s", strerror(errno));
-
-                close_nointr_nofail(fd);
+                        log_warning("Failed to enable kbrequest handling: %m");
         }
 
         return 0;
 }
 
 static int manager_setup_signals(Manager *m) {
+        struct sigaction sa = {
+                .sa_handler = SIG_DFL,
+                .sa_flags = SA_NOCLDSTOP|SA_RESTART,
+        };
         sigset_t mask;
-        struct epoll_event ev;
-        struct sigaction sa;
+        int r;
 
         assert(m);
 
         /* We are not interested in SIGSTOP and friends. */
-        zero(sa);
-        sa.sa_handler = SIG_DFL;
-        sa.sa_flags = SA_NOCLDSTOP|SA_RESTART;
         assert_se(sigaction(SIGCHLD, &sa, NULL) == 0);
 
         assert_se(sigemptyset(&mask) == 0);
@@ -401,17 +310,21 @@ static int manager_setup_signals(Manager *m) {
                         -1);
         assert_se(sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &mask, NULL) == 0);
 
-        m->signal_watch.type = WATCH_SIGNAL;
-        m->signal_watch.fd = signalfd(-1, &mask, SFD_NONBLOCK|SFD_CLOEXEC);
-        if (m->signal_watch.fd < 0)
+        m->signal_fd = signalfd(-1, &mask, SFD_NONBLOCK|SFD_CLOEXEC);
+        if (m->signal_fd < 0)
                 return -errno;
 
-        zero(ev);
-        ev.events = EPOLLIN;
-        ev.data.ptr = &m->signal_watch;
+        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, m->signal_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_signal_fd, m, &m->signal_event_source);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
 
-        if (epoll_ctl(m->epoll_fd, EPOLL_CTL_ADD, m->signal_watch.fd, &ev) < 0)
-                return -errno;
+        /* Process signals a bit earlier than the rest of things, but
+         * later that notify_fd processing, so that the notify
+         * processing can still figure out to which process/service a
+         * message belongs, before we reap the process. */
+        r = sd_event_source_set_priority(m->signal_event_source, -5);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
 
         if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
                 return enable_special_signals(m);
@@ -419,27 +332,38 @@ static int manager_setup_signals(Manager *m) {
         return 0;
 }
 
-static void manager_strip_environment(Manager *m) {
+static int manager_default_environment(Manager *m) {
         assert(m);
 
-        /* Remove variables from the inherited set that are part of
-         * the container interface:
-         * http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/ContainerInterface */
-        strv_remove_prefix(m->environment, "container=");
-        strv_remove_prefix(m->environment, "container_");
+        if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM) {
+                /* The system manager always starts with a clean
+                 * environment for its children. It does not import
+                 * the kernel or the parents exported variables.
+                 *
+                 * The initial passed environ is untouched to keep
+                 * /proc/self/environ valid; it is used for tagging
+                 * the init process inside containers. */
+                m->environment = strv_new("PATH=" DEFAULT_PATH,
+                                          NULL);
+
+                /* Import locale variables LC_*= from configuration */
+                locale_setup(&m->environment);
+        } else
+                /* The user manager passes its own environment
+                 * along to its children. */
+                m->environment = strv_copy(environ);
 
-        /* Remove variables from the inherited set that are part of
-         * the initrd interface:
-         * http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/InitrdInterface */
-        strv_remove_prefix(m->environment, "RD_");
+        if (!m->environment)
+                return -ENOMEM;
 
-        /* Drop invalid entries */
-        strv_env_clean(m->environment);
+        strv_sort(m->environment);
+
+        return 0;
 }
 
 int manager_new(SystemdRunningAs running_as, Manager **_m) {
         Manager *m;
-        int r = -ENOMEM;
+        int r;
 
         assert(_m);
         assert(running_as >= 0);
@@ -449,68 +373,64 @@ int manager_new(SystemdRunningAs running_as, Manager **_m) {
         if (!m)
                 return -ENOMEM;
 
-        dual_timestamp_get(&m->userspace_timestamp);
-        dual_timestamp_from_monotonic(&m->kernel_timestamp, 0);
 #ifdef ENABLE_EFI
-        efi_get_boot_timestamps(&m->userspace_timestamp, &m->firmware_timestamp, &m->loader_timestamp);
+        if (detect_container(NULL) <= 0)
+                boot_timestamps(&m->userspace_timestamp, &m->firmware_timestamp, &m->loader_timestamp);
 #endif
 
         m->running_as = running_as;
-        m->name_data_slot = m->conn_data_slot = m->subscribed_data_slot = -1;
         m->exit_code = _MANAGER_EXIT_CODE_INVALID;
-        m->pin_cgroupfs_fd = -1;
-        m->idle_pipe[0] = m->idle_pipe[1] = -1;
 
-        watch_init(&m->signal_watch);
-        watch_init(&m->mount_watch);
-        watch_init(&m->swap_watch);
-        watch_init(&m->udev_watch);
-        watch_init(&m->time_change_watch);
-        watch_init(&m->jobs_in_progress_watch);
+        m->idle_pipe[0] = m->idle_pipe[1] = m->idle_pipe[2] = m->idle_pipe[3] = -1;
 
-        m->epoll_fd = m->dev_autofs_fd = -1;
+        m->pin_cgroupfs_fd = m->notify_fd = m->signal_fd = m->time_change_fd = m->dev_autofs_fd = m->private_listen_fd = m->kdbus_fd = -1;
         m->current_job_id = 1; /* start as id #1, so that we can leave #0 around as "null-like" value */
 
-        m->environment = strv_copy(environ);
-        if (!m->environment)
+        r = manager_default_environment(m);
+        if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        manager_strip_environment(m);
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->units, string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        if (r < 0)
+                goto fail;
 
-        if (running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM) {
-                m->default_controllers = strv_new("cpu", NULL);
-                if (!m->default_controllers)
-                        goto fail;
-        }
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->jobs, trivial_hash_func, trivial_compare_func);
+        if (r < 0)
+                goto fail;
 
-        if (!(m->units = hashmap_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func)))
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->cgroup_unit, string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        if (!(m->jobs = hashmap_new(trivial_hash_func, trivial_compare_func)))
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->watch_pids, trivial_hash_func, trivial_compare_func);
+        if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        if (!(m->watch_pids = hashmap_new(trivial_hash_func, trivial_compare_func)))
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->watch_bus, string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        if (!(m->cgroup_bondings = hashmap_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func)))
+        r = sd_event_default(&m->event);
+        if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        if (!(m->watch_bus = hashmap_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func)))
+        r = sd_event_add_defer(m->event, manager_dispatch_run_queue, m, &m->run_queue_event_source);
+        if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        m->epoll_fd = epoll_create1(EPOLL_CLOEXEC);
-        if (m->epoll_fd < 0)
+        r = sd_event_source_set_priority(m->run_queue_event_source, SD_EVENT_PRIORITY_IDLE);
+        if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = manager_setup_signals(m);
+        r = sd_event_source_set_enabled(m->run_queue_event_source, SD_EVENT_OFF);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = manager_setup_cgroup(m);
+        r = manager_setup_signals(m);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = manager_setup_notify(m);
+        r = manager_setup_cgroup(m);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
@@ -518,10 +438,15 @@ int manager_new(SystemdRunningAs running_as, Manager **_m) {
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        /* Try to connect to the busses, if possible. */
-        r = bus_init(m, running_as != SYSTEMD_SYSTEM);
-        if (r < 0)
+        m->udev = udev_new();
+        if (!m->udev) {
+                r = -ENOMEM;
                 goto fail;
+        }
+
+        /* Note that we set up neither kdbus, nor the notify fd
+         * here. We do that after deserialization, since they might
+         * have gotten serialized across the reexec. */
 
         m->taint_usr = dir_is_empty("/usr") > 0;
 
@@ -533,6 +458,122 @@ fail:
         return r;
 }
 
+static int manager_setup_notify(Manager *m) {
+        union {
+                struct sockaddr sa;
+                struct sockaddr_un un;
+        } sa = {
+                .sa.sa_family = AF_UNIX,
+        };
+        int one = 1, r;
+
+        if (m->notify_fd < 0) {
+                _cleanup_close_ int fd = -1;
+
+                /* First free all secondary fields */
+                free(m->notify_socket);
+                m->notify_socket = NULL;
+                m->notify_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->notify_event_source);
+
+                fd = socket(AF_UNIX, SOCK_DGRAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC|SOCK_NONBLOCK, 0);
+                if (fd < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to allocate notification socket: %m");
+                        return -errno;
+                }
+
+                if (getpid() != 1 || detect_container(NULL) > 0)
+                        snprintf(sa.un.sun_path, sizeof(sa.un.sun_path), NOTIFY_SOCKET "/%" PRIx64, random_u64());
+                else
+                        strncpy(sa.un.sun_path, NOTIFY_SOCKET, sizeof(sa.un.sun_path));
+                sa.un.sun_path[0] = 0;
+
+                r = bind(fd, &sa.sa, offsetof(struct sockaddr_un, sun_path) + 1 + strlen(sa.un.sun_path+1));
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("bind() failed: %m");
+                        return -errno;
+                }
+
+                r = setsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_PASSCRED, &one, sizeof(one));
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("SO_PASSCRED failed: %m");
+                        return -errno;
+                }
+
+                sa.un.sun_path[0] = '@';
+                m->notify_socket = strdup(sa.un.sun_path);
+                if (!m->notify_socket)
+                        return log_oom();
+
+                m->notify_fd = fd;
+                fd = -1;
+
+                log_debug("Using notification socket %s", m->notify_socket);
+        }
+
+        if (!m->notify_event_source) {
+                r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, m->notify_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_notify_fd, m, &m->notify_event_source);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to allocate notify event source: %s", strerror(-r));
+                        return -errno;
+                }
+
+                /* Process signals a bit earlier than SIGCHLD, so that we can
+                 * still identify to which service an exit message belongs */
+                r = sd_event_source_set_priority(m->notify_event_source, -7);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to set priority of notify event source: %s", strerror(-r));
+                        return r;
+                }
+        }
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
+static int manager_setup_kdbus(Manager *m) {
+        _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
+
+        assert(m);
+
+#ifdef ENABLE_KDBUS
+        if (m->kdbus_fd >= 0)
+                return 0;
+
+        /* If there's already a bus address set, don't set up kdbus */
+        if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_USER && getenv("DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS"))
+                return 0;
+
+        m->kdbus_fd = bus_kernel_create_bus(m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM ? "system" : "user", m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM, &p);
+        if (m->kdbus_fd < 0) {
+                log_debug("Failed to set up kdbus: %s", strerror(-m->kdbus_fd));
+                return m->kdbus_fd;
+        }
+
+        log_debug("Successfully set up kdbus on %s", p);
+
+        /* Create the namespace directory here, so that the contents
+         * of that directory is not visible to non-root users. This is
+         * necessary to ensure that users cannot get access to busses
+         * of virtualized users when no UID namespacing is used. */
+        mkdir_p_label("/dev/kdbus/ns", 0700);
+#endif
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
+static int manager_connect_bus(Manager *m, bool reexecuting) {
+        bool try_bus_connect;
+
+        assert(m);
+
+        try_bus_connect =
+                m->kdbus_fd >= 0 ||
+                reexecuting ||
+                (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_USER && getenv("DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS"));
+
+        /* Try to connect to the busses, if possible. */
+        return bus_init(m, try_bus_connect);
+}
+
 static unsigned manager_dispatch_cleanup_queue(Manager *m) {
         Unit *u;
         unsigned n = 0;
@@ -616,12 +657,7 @@ static unsigned manager_dispatch_gc_queue(Manager *m) {
 
         assert(m);
 
-        if ((m->n_in_gc_queue < GC_QUEUE_ENTRIES_MAX) &&
-            (m->gc_queue_timestamp <= 0 ||
-             (m->gc_queue_timestamp + GC_QUEUE_USEC_MAX) > now(CLOCK_MONOTONIC)))
-                return 0;
-
-        log_debug("Running GC...");
+        /* log_debug("Running GC..."); */
 
         m->gc_marker += _GC_OFFSET_MAX;
         if (m->gc_marker + _GC_OFFSET_MAX <= _GC_OFFSET_MAX)
@@ -634,7 +670,7 @@ static unsigned manager_dispatch_gc_queue(Manager *m) {
 
                 unit_gc_sweep(u, gc_marker);
 
-                LIST_REMOVE(Unit, gc_queue, m->gc_queue, u);
+                LIST_REMOVE(gc_queue, m->gc_queue, u);
                 u->in_gc_queue = false;
 
                 n++;
@@ -648,7 +684,6 @@ static unsigned manager_dispatch_gc_queue(Manager *m) {
         }
 
         m->n_in_gc_queue = 0;
-        m->gc_queue_timestamp = 0;
 
         return n;
 }
@@ -702,35 +737,44 @@ void manager_free(Manager *m) {
         hashmap_free(m->watch_pids);
         hashmap_free(m->watch_bus);
 
-        if (m->epoll_fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->epoll_fd);
-        if (m->signal_watch.fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->signal_watch.fd);
-        if (m->notify_watch.fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->notify_watch.fd);
-        if (m->time_change_watch.fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_watch.fd);
-        if (m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->jobs_in_progress_watch.fd);
+        sd_event_source_unref(m->signal_event_source);
+        sd_event_source_unref(m->notify_event_source);
+        sd_event_source_unref(m->time_change_event_source);
+        sd_event_source_unref(m->jobs_in_progress_event_source);
+        sd_event_source_unref(m->idle_pipe_event_source);
+        sd_event_source_unref(m->run_queue_event_source);
+
+        if (m->signal_fd >= 0)
+                close_nointr_nofail(m->signal_fd);
+        if (m->notify_fd >= 0)
+                close_nointr_nofail(m->notify_fd);
+        if (m->time_change_fd >= 0)
+                close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_fd);
+        if (m->kdbus_fd >= 0)
+                close_nointr_nofail(m->kdbus_fd);
+
+        manager_close_idle_pipe(m);
+
+        udev_unref(m->udev);
+        sd_event_unref(m->event);
 
         free(m->notify_socket);
 
         lookup_paths_free(&m->lookup_paths);
         strv_free(m->environment);
 
-        strv_free(m->default_controllers);
-
-        hashmap_free(m->cgroup_bondings);
+        hashmap_free(m->cgroup_unit);
         set_free_free(m->unit_path_cache);
 
-        close_pipe(m->idle_pipe);
-
         free(m->switch_root);
         free(m->switch_root_init);
 
         for (i = 0; i < RLIMIT_NLIMITS; i++)
                 free(m->rlimit[i]);
 
+        assert(hashmap_isempty(m->units_requiring_mounts_for));
+        hashmap_free(m->units_requiring_mounts_for);
+
         free(m);
 }
 
@@ -743,15 +787,17 @@ int manager_enumerate(Manager *m) {
         /* Let's ask every type to load all units from disk/kernel
          * that it might know */
         for (c = 0; c < _UNIT_TYPE_MAX; c++)
-                if (unit_vtable[c]->enumerate)
-                        if ((q = unit_vtable[c]->enumerate(m)) < 0)
+                if (unit_vtable[c]->enumerate) {
+                        q = unit_vtable[c]->enumerate(m);
+                        if (q < 0)
                                 r = q;
+                }
 
         manager_dispatch_load_queue(m);
         return r;
 }
 
-int manager_coldplug(Manager *m) {
+static int manager_coldplug(Manager *m) {
         int r = 0, q;
         Iterator i;
         Unit *u;
@@ -775,7 +821,7 @@ int manager_coldplug(Manager *m) {
 
 static void manager_build_unit_path_cache(Manager *m) {
         char **i;
-        DIR _cleanup_free_ *d = NULL;
+        _cleanup_free_ DIR *d = NULL;
         int r;
 
         assert(m);
@@ -813,11 +859,9 @@ static void manager_build_unit_path_cache(Manager *m) {
                                 goto fail;
                         }
 
-                        r = set_put(m->unit_path_cache, p);
-                        if (r < 0) {
-                                free(p);
+                        r = set_consume(m->unit_path_cache, p);
+                        if (r < 0)
                                 goto fail;
-                        }
                 }
 
                 closedir(d);
@@ -833,12 +877,37 @@ fail:
         m->unit_path_cache = NULL;
 }
 
+
+static int manager_distribute_fds(Manager *m, FDSet *fds) {
+        Unit *u;
+        Iterator i;
+        int r;
+
+        assert(m);
+
+        HASHMAP_FOREACH(u, m->units, i) {
+
+                if (fdset_size(fds) <= 0)
+                        break;
+
+                if (UNIT_VTABLE(u)->distribute_fds) {
+                        r = UNIT_VTABLE(u)->distribute_fds(u, fds);
+                        if (r < 0)
+                                return r;
+                }
+        }
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
 int manager_startup(Manager *m, FILE *serialization, FDSet *fds) {
         int r, q;
 
         assert(m);
 
+        dual_timestamp_get(&m->generators_start_timestamp);
         manager_run_generators(m);
+        dual_timestamp_get(&m->generators_finish_timestamp);
 
         r = lookup_paths_init(
                         &m->lookup_paths, m->running_as, true,
@@ -857,7 +926,9 @@ int manager_startup(Manager *m, FILE *serialization, FDSet *fds) {
                 m->n_reloading ++;
 
         /* First, enumerate what we can from all config files */
+        dual_timestamp_get(&m->units_load_start_timestamp);
         r = manager_enumerate(m);
+        dual_timestamp_get(&m->units_load_finish_timestamp);
 
         /* Second, deserialize if there is something to deserialize */
         if (serialization) {
@@ -876,6 +947,15 @@ int manager_startup(Manager *m, FILE *serialization, FDSet *fds) {
                         r = q;
         }
 
+        /* We might have deserialized the notify fd, but if we didn't
+         * then let's create the bus now */
+        manager_setup_notify(m);
+
+        /* We might have deserialized the kdbus control fd, but if we
+         * didn't, then let's create the bus now. */
+        manager_setup_kdbus(m);
+        manager_connect_bus(m, !!serialization);
+
         /* Third, fire things up! */
         q = manager_coldplug(m);
         if (q < 0)
@@ -884,12 +964,17 @@ int manager_startup(Manager *m, FILE *serialization, FDSet *fds) {
         if (serialization) {
                 assert(m->n_reloading > 0);
                 m->n_reloading --;
+
+                /* Let's wait for the UnitNew/JobNew messages being
+                 * sent, before we notify that the reload is
+                 * finished */
+                m->send_reloading_done = true;
         }
 
         return r;
 }
 
-int manager_add_job(Manager *m, JobType type, Unit *unit, JobMode mode, bool override, DBusError *e, Job **_ret) {
+int manager_add_job(Manager *m, JobType type, Unit *unit, JobMode mode, bool override, sd_bus_error *e, Job **_ret) {
         int r;
         Transaction *tr;
 
@@ -899,12 +984,12 @@ int manager_add_job(Manager *m, JobType type, Unit *unit, JobMode mode, bool ove
         assert(mode < _JOB_MODE_MAX);
 
         if (mode == JOB_ISOLATE && type != JOB_START) {
-                dbus_set_error(e, BUS_ERROR_INVALID_JOB_MODE, "Isolate is only valid for start.");
+                sd_bus_error_setf(e, SD_BUS_ERROR_INVALID_ARGS, "Isolate is only valid for start.");
                 return -EINVAL;
         }
 
         if (mode == JOB_ISOLATE && !unit->allow_isolate) {
-                dbus_set_error(e, BUS_ERROR_NO_ISOLATION, "Operation refused, unit may not be isolated.");
+                sd_bus_error_setf(e, BUS_ERROR_NO_ISOLATION, "Operation refused, unit may not be isolated.");
                 return -EPERM;
         }
 
@@ -950,7 +1035,7 @@ tr_abort:
         return r;
 }
 
-int manager_add_job_by_name(Manager *m, JobType type, const char *name, JobMode mode, bool override, DBusError *e, Job **_ret) {
+int manager_add_job_by_name(Manager *m, JobType type, const char *name, JobMode mode, bool override, sd_bus_error *e, Job **_ret) {
         Unit *unit;
         int r;
 
@@ -1005,7 +1090,13 @@ unsigned manager_dispatch_load_queue(Manager *m) {
         return n;
 }
 
-int manager_load_unit_prepare(Manager *m, const char *name, const char *path, DBusError *e, Unit **_ret) {
+int manager_load_unit_prepare(
+                Manager *m,
+                const char *name,
+                const char *path,
+                sd_bus_error *e,
+                Unit **_ret) {
+
         Unit *ret;
         UnitType t;
         int r;
@@ -1016,20 +1107,16 @@ int manager_load_unit_prepare(Manager *m, const char *name, const char *path, DB
         /* This will prepare the unit for loading, but not actually
          * load anything from disk. */
 
-        if (path && !is_path(path)) {
-                dbus_set_error(e, BUS_ERROR_INVALID_PATH, "Path %s is not absolute.", path);
-                return -EINVAL;
-        }
+        if (path && !is_path(path))
+                return sd_bus_error_setf(e, SD_BUS_ERROR_INVALID_ARGS, "Path %s is not absolute.", path);
 
         if (!name)
-                name = path_get_file_name(path);
+                name = basename(path);
 
         t = unit_name_to_type(name);
 
-        if (t == _UNIT_TYPE_INVALID || !unit_name_is_valid(name, false)) {
-                dbus_set_error(e, BUS_ERROR_INVALID_NAME, "Unit name %s is not valid.", name);
-                return -EINVAL;
-        }
+        if (t == _UNIT_TYPE_INVALID || !unit_name_is_valid(name, TEMPLATE_INVALID))
+                return sd_bus_error_setf(e, SD_BUS_ERROR_INVALID_ARGS, "Unit name %s is not valid.", name);
 
         ret = manager_get_unit(m, name);
         if (ret) {
@@ -1049,7 +1136,8 @@ int manager_load_unit_prepare(Manager *m, const char *name, const char *path, DB
                 }
         }
 
-        if ((r = unit_add_name(ret, name)) < 0) {
+        r = unit_add_name(ret, name);
+        if (r < 0) {
                 unit_free(ret);
                 return r;
         }
@@ -1064,7 +1152,13 @@ int manager_load_unit_prepare(Manager *m, const char *name, const char *path, DB
         return 0;
 }
 
-int manager_load_unit(Manager *m, const char *name, const char *path, DBusError *e, Unit **_ret) {
+int manager_load_unit(
+                Manager *m,
+                const char *name,
+                const char *path,
+                sd_bus_error *e,
+                Unit **_ret) {
+
         int r;
 
         assert(m);
@@ -1118,32 +1212,30 @@ void manager_clear_jobs(Manager *m) {
                 job_finish_and_invalidate(j, JOB_CANCELED, false);
 }
 
-unsigned manager_dispatch_run_queue(Manager *m) {
+static int manager_dispatch_run_queue(sd_event_source *source, void *userdata) {
+        Manager *m = userdata;
         Job *j;
-        unsigned n = 0;
 
-        if (m->dispatching_run_queue)
-                return 0;
-
-        m->dispatching_run_queue = true;
+        assert(source);
+        assert(m);
 
         while ((j = m->run_queue)) {
                 assert(j->installed);
                 assert(j->in_run_queue);
 
                 job_run_and_invalidate(j);
-                n++;
         }
 
-        m->dispatching_run_queue = false;
-
         if (m->n_running_jobs > 0)
                 manager_watch_jobs_in_progress(m);
 
-        return n;
+        if (m->n_on_console > 0)
+                manager_watch_idle_pipe(m);
+
+        return 1;
 }
 
-unsigned manager_dispatch_dbus_queue(Manager *m) {
+static unsigned manager_dispatch_dbus_queue(Manager *m) {
         Job *j;
         Unit *u;
         unsigned n = 0;
@@ -1170,40 +1262,56 @@ unsigned manager_dispatch_dbus_queue(Manager *m) {
         }
 
         m->dispatching_dbus_queue = false;
+
+        if (m->send_reloading_done) {
+                m->send_reloading_done = false;
+
+                bus_manager_send_reloading(m, false);
+        }
+
+        if (m->queued_message)
+                bus_send_queued_message(m);
+
         return n;
 }
 
-static int manager_process_notify_fd(Manager *m) {
+static int manager_dispatch_notify_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata) {
+        Manager *m = userdata;
         ssize_t n;
 
         assert(m);
+        assert(m->notify_fd == fd);
+
+        if (revents != EPOLLIN) {
+                log_warning("Got unexpected poll event for notify fd.");
+                return 0;
+        }
 
         for (;;) {
                 char buf[4096];
-                struct msghdr msghdr;
-                struct iovec iovec;
-                struct ucred *ucred;
+                struct iovec iovec = {
+                        .iov_base = buf,
+                        .iov_len = sizeof(buf)-1,
+                };
+
                 union {
                         struct cmsghdr cmsghdr;
                         uint8_t buf[CMSG_SPACE(sizeof(struct ucred))];
-                } control;
+                } control = {};
+
+                struct msghdr msghdr = {
+                        .msg_iov = &iovec,
+                        .msg_iovlen = 1,
+                        .msg_control = &control,
+                        .msg_controllen = sizeof(control),
+                };
+                struct ucred *ucred;
                 Unit *u;
-                char **tags;
+                _cleanup_strv_free_ char **tags = NULL;
 
-                zero(iovec);
-                iovec.iov_base = buf;
-                iovec.iov_len = sizeof(buf)-1;
-
-                zero(control);
-                zero(msghdr);
-                msghdr.msg_iov = &iovec;
-                msghdr.msg_iovlen = 1;
-                msghdr.msg_control = &control;
-                msghdr.msg_controllen = sizeof(control);
-
-                n = recvmsg(m->notify_watch.fd, &msghdr, MSG_DONTWAIT);
+                n = recvmsg(m->notify_fd, &msghdr, MSG_DONTWAIT);
                 if (n <= 0) {
-                        if (n >= 0)
+                        if (n == 0)
                                 return -EIO;
 
                         if (errno == EAGAIN || errno == EINTR)
@@ -1224,7 +1332,7 @@ static int manager_process_notify_fd(Manager *m) {
 
                 u = hashmap_get(m->watch_pids, LONG_TO_PTR(ucred->pid));
                 if (!u) {
-                        u = cgroup_unit_by_pid(m, ucred->pid);
+                        u = manager_get_unit_by_pid(m, ucred->pid);
                         if (!u) {
                                 log_warning("Cannot find unit for notify message of PID %lu.", (unsigned long) ucred->pid);
                                 continue;
@@ -1241,8 +1349,6 @@ static int manager_process_notify_fd(Manager *m) {
 
                 if (UNIT_VTABLE(u)->notify_message)
                         UNIT_VTABLE(u)->notify_message(u, ucred->pid, tags);
-
-                strv_free(tags);
         }
 
         return 0;
@@ -1252,11 +1358,8 @@ static int manager_dispatch_sigchld(Manager *m) {
         assert(m);
 
         for (;;) {
-                siginfo_t si;
+                siginfo_t si = {};
                 Unit *u;
-                int r;
-
-                zero(si);
 
                 /* First we call waitd() for a PID and do not reap the
                  * zombie. That way we can still access /proc/$PID for
@@ -1276,24 +1379,16 @@ static int manager_dispatch_sigchld(Manager *m) {
                         break;
 
                 if (si.si_code == CLD_EXITED || si.si_code == CLD_KILLED || si.si_code == CLD_DUMPED) {
-                        char _cleanup_free_ *name = NULL;
+                        _cleanup_free_ char *name = NULL;
 
                         get_process_comm(si.si_pid, &name);
                         log_debug("Got SIGCHLD for process %lu (%s)", (unsigned long) si.si_pid, strna(name));
                 }
 
-                /* Let's flush any message the dying child might still
-                 * have queued for us. This ensures that the process
-                 * still exists in /proc so that we can figure out
-                 * which cgroup and hence unit it belongs to. */
-                r = manager_process_notify_fd(m);
-                if (r < 0)
-                        return r;
-
                 /* And now figure out the unit this belongs to */
                 u = hashmap_get(m->watch_pids, LONG_TO_PTR(si.si_pid));
                 if (!u)
-                        u = cgroup_unit_by_pid(m, si.si_pid);
+                        u = manager_get_unit_by_pid(m, si.si_pid);
 
                 /* And now, we actually reap the zombie. */
                 if (waitid(P_PID, si.si_pid, &si, WEXITED) < 0) {
@@ -1328,32 +1423,34 @@ static int manager_dispatch_sigchld(Manager *m) {
 }
 
 static int manager_start_target(Manager *m, const char *name, JobMode mode) {
+        _cleanup_bus_error_free_ sd_bus_error error = SD_BUS_ERROR_NULL;
         int r;
-        DBusError error;
-
-        dbus_error_init(&error);
 
         log_debug_unit(name, "Activating special unit %s", name);
 
         r = manager_add_job_by_name(m, JOB_START, name, mode, true, &error, NULL);
         if (r < 0)
-                log_error_unit(name,
-                               "Failed to enqueue %s job: %s", name, bus_error(&error, r));
-
-        dbus_error_free(&error);
+                log_error_unit(name, "Failed to enqueue %s job: %s", name, bus_error_message(&error, r));
 
         return r;
 }
 
-static int manager_process_signal_fd(Manager *m) {
+static int manager_dispatch_signal_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata) {
+        Manager *m = userdata;
         ssize_t n;
         struct signalfd_siginfo sfsi;
         bool sigchld = false;
 
         assert(m);
+        assert(m->signal_fd == fd);
+
+        if (revents != EPOLLIN) {
+                log_warning("Got unexpected events from signal file descriptor.");
+                return 0;
+        }
 
         for (;;) {
-                n = read(m->signal_watch.fd, &sfsi, sizeof(sfsi));
+                n = read(m->signal_fd, &sfsi, sizeof(sfsi));
                 if (n != sizeof(sfsi)) {
 
                         if (n >= 0)
@@ -1395,7 +1492,7 @@ static int manager_process_signal_fd(Manager *m) {
 
                 case SIGINT:
                         if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM) {
-                                manager_start_target(m, SPECIAL_CTRL_ALT_DEL_TARGET, JOB_REPLACE);
+                                manager_start_target(m, SPECIAL_CTRL_ALT_DEL_TARGET, JOB_REPLACE_IRREVERSIBLY);
                                 break;
                         }
 
@@ -1440,11 +1537,12 @@ static int manager_process_signal_fd(Manager *m) {
                 }
 
                 case SIGUSR2: {
-                        FILE *f;
-                        char *dump = NULL;
+                        _cleanup_free_ char *dump = NULL;
+                        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
                         size_t size;
 
-                        if (!(f = open_memstream(&dump, &size))) {
+                        f = open_memstream(&dump, &size);
+                        if (!f) {
                                 log_warning("Failed to allocate memory stream.");
                                 break;
                         }
@@ -1453,16 +1551,11 @@ static int manager_process_signal_fd(Manager *m) {
                         manager_dump_jobs(m, f, "\t");
 
                         if (ferror(f)) {
-                                fclose(f);
-                                free(dump);
                                 log_warning("Failed to write status stream");
                                 break;
                         }
 
-                        fclose(f);
                         log_dump(LOG_INFO, dump);
-                        free(dump);
-
                         break;
                 }
 
@@ -1564,138 +1657,59 @@ static int manager_process_signal_fd(Manager *m) {
         }
 
         if (sigchld)
-                return manager_dispatch_sigchld(m);
+                manager_dispatch_sigchld(m);
 
         return 0;
 }
 
-static int process_event(Manager *m, struct epoll_event *ev) {
-        int r;
-        Watch *w;
+static int manager_dispatch_time_change_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata) {
+        Manager *m = userdata;
+        Iterator i;
+        Unit *u;
 
         assert(m);
-        assert(ev);
-
-        assert_se(w = ev->data.ptr);
-
-        if (w->type == WATCH_INVALID)
-                return 0;
-
-        switch (w->type) {
-
-        case WATCH_SIGNAL:
-
-                /* An incoming signal? */
-                if (ev->events != EPOLLIN)
-                        return -EINVAL;
-
-                if ((r = manager_process_signal_fd(m)) < 0)
-                        return r;
-
-                break;
-
-        case WATCH_NOTIFY:
-
-                /* An incoming daemon notification event? */
-                if (ev->events != EPOLLIN)
-                        return -EINVAL;
-
-                if ((r = manager_process_notify_fd(m)) < 0)
-                        return r;
-
-                break;
-
-        case WATCH_FD:
-
-                /* Some fd event, to be dispatched to the units */
-                UNIT_VTABLE(w->data.unit)->fd_event(w->data.unit, w->fd, ev->events, w);
-                break;
+        assert(m->time_change_fd == fd);
 
-        case WATCH_UNIT_TIMER:
-        case WATCH_JOB_TIMER: {
-                uint64_t v;
-                ssize_t k;
+        log_struct(LOG_INFO,
+                   MESSAGE_ID(SD_MESSAGE_TIME_CHANGE),
+                   "MESSAGE=Time has been changed",
+                   NULL);
 
-                /* Some timer event, to be dispatched to the units */
-                k = read(w->fd, &v, sizeof(v));
-                if (k != sizeof(v)) {
+        /* Restart the watch */
+        m->time_change_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->time_change_event_source);
 
-                        if (k < 0 && (errno == EINTR || errno == EAGAIN))
-                                break;
+        close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_fd);
+        m->time_change_fd = -1;
 
-                        log_error("Failed to read timer event counter: %s", k < 0 ? strerror(-k) : "Short read");
-                        return k < 0 ? -errno : -EIO;
-                }
+        manager_setup_time_change(m);
 
-                if (w->type == WATCH_UNIT_TIMER)
-                        UNIT_VTABLE(w->data.unit)->timer_event(w->data.unit, v, w);
-                else
-                        job_timer_event(w->data.job, v, w);
-                break;
-        }
-
-        case WATCH_MOUNT:
-                /* Some mount table change, intended for the mount subsystem */
-                mount_fd_event(m, ev->events);
-                break;
-
-        case WATCH_SWAP:
-                /* Some swap table change, intended for the swap subsystem */
-                swap_fd_event(m, ev->events);
-                break;
-
-        case WATCH_UDEV:
-                /* Some notification from udev, intended for the device subsystem */
-                device_fd_event(m, ev->events);
-                break;
+        HASHMAP_FOREACH(u, m->units, i)
+                if (UNIT_VTABLE(u)->time_change)
+                        UNIT_VTABLE(u)->time_change(u);
 
-        case WATCH_DBUS_WATCH:
-                bus_watch_event(m, w, ev->events);
-                break;
+        return 0;
+}
 
-        case WATCH_DBUS_TIMEOUT:
-                bus_timeout_event(m, w, ev->events);
-                break;
+static int manager_dispatch_idle_pipe_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata) {
+        Manager *m = userdata;
 
-        case WATCH_TIME_CHANGE: {
-                Unit *u;
-                Iterator i;
-
-                log_struct(LOG_INFO,
-                           MESSAGE_ID(SD_MESSAGE_TIME_CHANGE),
-                           "MESSAGE=Time has been changed",
-                           NULL);
-
-                /* Restart the watch */
-                epoll_ctl(m->epoll_fd, EPOLL_CTL_DEL, m->time_change_watch.fd,
-                          NULL);
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_watch.fd);
-                watch_init(&m->time_change_watch);
-                manager_setup_time_change(m);
-
-                HASHMAP_FOREACH(u, m->units, i) {
-                        if (UNIT_VTABLE(u)->time_change)
-                                UNIT_VTABLE(u)->time_change(u);
-                }
+        assert(m);
+        assert(m->idle_pipe[2] == fd);
 
-                break;
-        }
+        m->no_console_output = m->n_on_console > 0;
 
-        case WATCH_JOBS_IN_PROGRESS: {
-                uint64_t v;
+        m->idle_pipe_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->idle_pipe_event_source);
+        manager_close_idle_pipe(m);
 
-                /* not interested in the data */
-                read(w->fd, &v, sizeof(v));
+        return 0;
+}
 
-                manager_print_jobs_in_progress(m);
-                break;
-        }
+static int manager_dispatch_jobs_in_progress(sd_event_source *source, usec_t usec, void *userdata) {
+        Manager *m = userdata;
 
-        default:
-                log_error("event type=%i", w->type);
-                assert_not_reached("Unknown epoll event type.");
-        }
+        assert(m);
 
+        manager_print_jobs_in_progress(m);
         return 0;
 }
 
@@ -1714,15 +1728,13 @@ int manager_loop(Manager *m) {
         manager_check_finished(m);
 
         /* There might still be some zombies hanging around from
-         * before we were exec()'ed. Leat's reap them */
+         * before we were exec()'ed. Let's reap them. */
         r = manager_dispatch_sigchld(m);
         if (r < 0)
                 return r;
 
         while (m->exit_code == MANAGER_RUNNING) {
-                struct epoll_event event;
-                int n;
-                int wait_msec = -1;
+                usec_t wait_usec;
 
                 if (m->runtime_watchdog > 0 && m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
                         watchdog_ping();
@@ -1737,54 +1749,38 @@ int manager_loop(Manager *m) {
                 if (manager_dispatch_load_queue(m) > 0)
                         continue;
 
-                if (manager_dispatch_run_queue(m) > 0)
-                        continue;
-
-                if (bus_dispatch(m) > 0)
+                if (manager_dispatch_gc_queue(m) > 0)
                         continue;
 
                 if (manager_dispatch_cleanup_queue(m) > 0)
                         continue;
 
-                if (manager_dispatch_gc_queue(m) > 0)
+                if (manager_dispatch_cgroup_queue(m) > 0)
                         continue;
 
                 if (manager_dispatch_dbus_queue(m) > 0)
                         continue;
 
-                if (swap_dispatch_reload(m) > 0)
-                        continue;
-
                 /* Sleep for half the watchdog time */
                 if (m->runtime_watchdog > 0 && m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM) {
-                        wait_msec = (int) (m->runtime_watchdog / 2 / USEC_PER_MSEC);
-                        if (wait_msec <= 0)
-                                wait_msec = 1;
+                        wait_usec = m->runtime_watchdog / 2;
+                        if (wait_usec <= 0)
+                                wait_usec = 1;
                 } else
-                        wait_msec = -1;
+                        wait_usec = (usec_t) -1;
 
-                n = epoll_wait(m->epoll_fd, &event, 1, wait_msec);
-                if (n < 0) {
-
-                        if (errno == EINTR)
-                                continue;
-
-                        return -errno;
-                } else if (n == 0)
-                        continue;
-
-                assert(n == 1);
-
-                r = process_event(m, &event);
-                if (r < 0)
+                r = sd_event_run(m->event, wait_usec);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to run event loop: %s", strerror(-r));
                         return r;
+                }
         }
 
         return m->exit_code;
 }
 
-int manager_load_unit_from_dbus_path(Manager *m, const char *s, DBusError *e, Unit **_u) {
-        char *n;
+int manager_load_unit_from_dbus_path(Manager *m, const char *s, sd_bus_error *e, Unit **_u) {
+        _cleanup_free_ char *n = NULL;
         Unit *u;
         int r;
 
@@ -1792,16 +1788,11 @@ int manager_load_unit_from_dbus_path(Manager *m, const char *s, DBusError *e, Un
         assert(s);
         assert(_u);
 
-        if (!startswith(s, "/org/freedesktop/systemd1/unit/"))
-                return -EINVAL;
-
-        n = bus_path_unescape(s+31);
-        if (!n)
-                return -ENOMEM;
+        r = unit_name_from_dbus_path(s, &n);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
 
         r = manager_load_unit(m, n, NULL, e, &u);
-        free(n);
-
         if (r < 0)
                 return r;
 
@@ -1811,18 +1802,20 @@ int manager_load_unit_from_dbus_path(Manager *m, const char *s, DBusError *e, Un
 }
 
 int manager_get_job_from_dbus_path(Manager *m, const char *s, Job **_j) {
-        Job *j;
+        const char *p;
         unsigned id;
+        Job *j;
         int r;
 
         assert(m);
         assert(s);
         assert(_j);
 
-        if (!startswith(s, "/org/freedesktop/systemd1/job/"))
+        p = startswith(s, "/org/freedesktop/systemd1/job/");
+        if (!p)
                 return -EINVAL;
 
-        r = safe_atou(s + 30, &id);
+        r = safe_atou(p, &id);
         if (r < 0)
                 return r;
 
@@ -1891,6 +1884,9 @@ void manager_send_unit_plymouth(Manager *m, Unit *u) {
         if (m->running_as != SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
                 return;
 
+        if (detect_container(NULL) > 0)
+                return;
+
         if (u->type != UNIT_SERVICE &&
             u->type != UNIT_MOUNT &&
             u->type != UNIT_SWAP)
@@ -1898,7 +1894,8 @@ void manager_send_unit_plymouth(Manager *m, Unit *u) {
 
         /* We set SOCK_NONBLOCK here so that we rather drop the
          * message then wait for plymouth */
-        if ((fd = socket(AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC|SOCK_NONBLOCK, 0)) < 0) {
+        fd = socket(AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM|SOCK_CLOEXEC|SOCK_NONBLOCK, 0);
+        if (fd < 0) {
                 log_error("socket() failed: %m");
                 return;
         }
@@ -1956,33 +1953,16 @@ void manager_dispatch_bus_name_owner_changed(
         assert(m);
         assert(name);
 
-        if (!(u = hashmap_get(m->watch_bus, name)))
+        u = hashmap_get(m->watch_bus, name);
+        if (!u)
                 return;
 
         UNIT_VTABLE(u)->bus_name_owner_change(u, name, old_owner, new_owner);
 }
 
-void manager_dispatch_bus_query_pid_done(
-                Manager *m,
-                const char *name,
-                pid_t pid) {
-
-        Unit *u;
-
-        assert(m);
-        assert(name);
-        assert(pid >= 1);
-
-        if (!(u = hashmap_get(m->watch_bus, name)))
-                return;
-
-        UNIT_VTABLE(u)->bus_query_pid_done(u, name, pid);
-}
-
 int manager_open_serialization(Manager *m, FILE **_f) {
-        char *path = NULL;
-        mode_t saved_umask;
-        int fd;
+        _cleanup_free_ char *path = NULL;
+        int fd = -1;
         FILE *f;
 
         assert(_f);
@@ -1995,30 +1975,28 @@ int manager_open_serialization(Manager *m, FILE **_f) {
         if (!path)
                 return -ENOMEM;
 
-        saved_umask = umask(0077);
-        fd = mkostemp(path, O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC);
-        umask(saved_umask);
+        RUN_WITH_UMASK(0077) {
+                fd = mkostemp(path, O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC);
+        }
 
-        if (fd < 0) {
-                free(path);
+        if (fd < 0)
                 return -errno;
-        }
 
         unlink(path);
-
         log_debug("Serializing state to %s", path);
-        free(path);
 
         f = fdopen(fd, "w+");
-        if (!f)
+        if (!f) {
+                close_nointr_nofail(fd);
                 return -errno;
+        }
 
         *_f = f;
 
         return 0;
 }
 
-int manager_serialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds, bool serialize_jobs) {
+int manager_serialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds, bool switching_root) {
         Iterator i;
         Unit *u;
         const char *t;
@@ -2037,23 +2015,56 @@ int manager_serialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds, bool serialize_jobs) {
         fprintf(f, "n-failed-jobs=%u\n", m->n_failed_jobs);
 
         dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "firmware-timestamp", &m->firmware_timestamp);
-        dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "kernel-timestamp", &m->kernel_timestamp);
         dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "loader-timestamp", &m->loader_timestamp);
+        dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "kernel-timestamp", &m->kernel_timestamp);
         dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "initrd-timestamp", &m->initrd_timestamp);
 
         if (!in_initrd()) {
                 dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "userspace-timestamp", &m->userspace_timestamp);
                 dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "finish-timestamp", &m->finish_timestamp);
+                dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "security-start-timestamp", &m->security_start_timestamp);
+                dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "security-finish-timestamp", &m->security_finish_timestamp);
+                dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "generators-start-timestamp", &m->generators_start_timestamp);
+                dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "generators-finish-timestamp", &m->generators_finish_timestamp);
+                dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "units-load-start-timestamp", &m->units_load_start_timestamp);
+                dual_timestamp_serialize(f, "units-load-finish-timestamp", &m->units_load_finish_timestamp);
         }
 
-        STRV_FOREACH(e, m->environment) {
-                _cleanup_free_ char *ce;
+        if (!switching_root) {
+                STRV_FOREACH(e, m->environment) {
+                        _cleanup_free_ char *ce;
+
+                        ce = cescape(*e);
+                        if (!ce)
+                                return -ENOMEM;
 
-                ce = cescape(*e);
-                if (ce)
                         fprintf(f, "env=%s\n", *e);
+                }
+        }
+
+        if (m->notify_fd >= 0) {
+                int copy;
+
+                copy = fdset_put_dup(fds, m->notify_fd);
+                if (copy < 0)
+                        return copy;
+
+                fprintf(f, "notify-fd=%i\n", copy);
+                fprintf(f, "notify-socket=%s\n", m->notify_socket);
+        }
+
+        if (m->kdbus_fd >= 0) {
+                int copy;
+
+                copy = fdset_put_dup(fds, m->kdbus_fd);
+                if (copy < 0)
+                        return copy;
+
+                fprintf(f, "kdbus-fd=%i\n", copy);
         }
 
+        bus_serialize(m, f);
+
         fputc('\n', f);
 
         HASHMAP_FOREACH_KEY(u, t, m->units, i) {
@@ -2067,7 +2078,8 @@ int manager_serialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds, bool serialize_jobs) {
                 fputs(u->id, f);
                 fputc('\n', f);
 
-                if ((r = unit_serialize(u, f, fds, serialize_jobs)) < 0) {
+                r = unit_serialize(u, f, fds, !switching_root);
+                if (r < 0) {
                         m->n_reloading --;
                         return r;
                 }
@@ -2121,6 +2133,7 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                                 log_debug("Failed to parse current job id value %s", l+15);
                         else
                                 m->current_job_id = MAX(m->current_job_id, id);
+
                 } else if (startswith(l, "n-installed-jobs=")) {
                         uint32_t n;
 
@@ -2128,6 +2141,7 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                                 log_debug("Failed to parse installed jobs counter %s", l+17);
                         else
                                 m->n_installed_jobs += n;
+
                 } else if (startswith(l, "n-failed-jobs=")) {
                         uint32_t n;
 
@@ -2135,13 +2149,16 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                                 log_debug("Failed to parse failed jobs counter %s", l+14);
                         else
                                 m->n_failed_jobs += n;
+
                 } else if (startswith(l, "taint-usr=")) {
                         int b;
 
-                        if ((b = parse_boolean(l+10)) < 0)
+                        b = parse_boolean(l+10);
+                        if (b < 0)
                                 log_debug("Failed to parse taint /usr flag %s", l+10);
                         else
                                 m->taint_usr = m->taint_usr || b;
+
                 } else if (startswith(l, "firmware-timestamp="))
                         dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+19, &m->firmware_timestamp);
                 else if (startswith(l, "loader-timestamp="))
@@ -2154,6 +2171,18 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                         dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+20, &m->userspace_timestamp);
                 else if (startswith(l, "finish-timestamp="))
                         dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+17, &m->finish_timestamp);
+                else if (startswith(l, "security-start-timestamp="))
+                        dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+25, &m->security_start_timestamp);
+                else if (startswith(l, "security-finish-timestamp="))
+                        dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+26, &m->security_finish_timestamp);
+                else if (startswith(l, "generators-start-timestamp="))
+                        dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+27, &m->generators_start_timestamp);
+                else if (startswith(l, "generators-finish-timestamp="))
+                        dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+28, &m->generators_finish_timestamp);
+                else if (startswith(l, "units-load-start-timestamp="))
+                        dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+27, &m->units_load_start_timestamp);
+                else if (startswith(l, "units-load-finish-timestamp="))
+                        dual_timestamp_deserialize(l+28, &m->units_load_finish_timestamp);
                 else if (startswith(l, "env=")) {
                         _cleanup_free_ char *uce = NULL;
                         char **e;
@@ -2172,7 +2201,46 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
 
                         strv_free(m->environment);
                         m->environment = e;
-                } else
+
+                } else if (startswith(l, "notify-fd=")) {
+                        int fd;
+
+                        if (safe_atoi(l + 10, &fd) < 0 || fd < 0 || !fdset_contains(fds, fd))
+                                log_debug("Failed to parse notify fd: %s", l + 10);
+                        else {
+                                if (m->notify_fd >= 0) {
+                                        m->notify_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->notify_event_source);
+                                        close_nointr_nofail(m->notify_fd);
+                                }
+
+                                m->notify_fd = fdset_remove(fds, fd);
+                        }
+
+                } else if (startswith(l, "notify-socket=")) {
+                        char *n;
+
+                        n = strdup(l+14);
+                        if (!n) {
+                                r = -ENOMEM;
+                                goto finish;
+                        }
+
+                        free(m->notify_socket);
+                        m->notify_socket = n;
+
+                } else if (startswith(l, "kdbus-fd=")) {
+                        int fd;
+
+                        if (safe_atoi(l + 9, &fd) < 0 || fd < 0 || !fdset_contains(fds, fd))
+                                log_debug("Failed to parse kdbus fd: %s", l + 9);
+                        else {
+                                if (m->kdbus_fd >= 0)
+                                        close_nointr_nofail(m->kdbus_fd);
+
+                                m->kdbus_fd = fdset_remove(fds, fd);
+                        }
+
+                } else if (bus_deserialize_item(m, l) == 0)
                         log_debug("Unknown serialization item '%s'", l);
         }
 
@@ -2202,10 +2270,8 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
         }
 
 finish:
-        if (ferror(f)) {
+        if (ferror(f))
                 r = -EIO;
-                goto finish;
-        }
 
         assert(m->n_reloading > 0);
         m->n_reloading --;
@@ -2213,32 +2279,10 @@ finish:
         return r;
 }
 
-int manager_distribute_fds(Manager *m, FDSet *fds) {
-        Unit *u;
-        Iterator i;
-        int r;
-
-        assert(m);
-
-        HASHMAP_FOREACH(u, m->units, i) {
-
-                if (fdset_size(fds) <= 0)
-                        break;
-
-                if (UNIT_VTABLE(u)->distribute_fds) {
-                        r = UNIT_VTABLE(u)->distribute_fds(u, fds);
-                        if (r < 0)
-                                return r;
-                }
-        }
-
-        return 0;
-}
-
 int manager_reload(Manager *m) {
         int r, q;
-        FILE *f;
-        FDSet *fds;
+        _cleanup_fclose_ FILE *f = NULL;
+        _cleanup_fdset_free_ FDSet *fds = NULL;
 
         assert(m);
 
@@ -2247,24 +2291,23 @@ int manager_reload(Manager *m) {
                 return r;
 
         m->n_reloading ++;
+        bus_manager_send_reloading(m, true);
 
         fds = fdset_new();
         if (!fds) {
                 m->n_reloading --;
-                r = -ENOMEM;
-                goto finish;
+                return -ENOMEM;
         }
 
-        r = manager_serialize(m, f, fds, true);
+        r = manager_serialize(m, f, fds, false);
         if (r < 0) {
                 m->n_reloading --;
-                goto finish;
+                return r;
         }
 
         if (fseeko(f, 0, SEEK_SET) < 0) {
                 m->n_reloading --;
-                r = -errno;
-                goto finish;
+                return -errno;
         }
 
         /* From here on there is no way back. */
@@ -2306,12 +2349,7 @@ int manager_reload(Manager *m) {
         assert(m->n_reloading > 0);
         m->n_reloading--;
 
-finish:
-        if (f)
-                fclose(f);
-
-        if (fds)
-                fdset_free(fds);
+        m->send_reloading_done = true;
 
         return r;
 }
@@ -2333,6 +2371,12 @@ static bool manager_is_booting_or_shutting_down(Manager *m) {
         return false;
 }
 
+bool manager_is_reloading_or_reexecuting(Manager *m) {
+        assert(m);
+
+        return m->n_reloading != 0;
+}
+
 void manager_reset_failed(Manager *m) {
         Unit *u;
         Iterator i;
@@ -2343,7 +2387,7 @@ void manager_reset_failed(Manager *m) {
                 unit_reset_failed(u);
 }
 
-bool manager_unit_pending_inactive(Manager *m, const char *name) {
+bool manager_unit_inactive_or_pending(Manager *m, const char *name) {
         Unit *u;
 
         assert(m);
@@ -2354,7 +2398,7 @@ bool manager_unit_pending_inactive(Manager *m, const char *name) {
         if (!u)
                 return true;
 
-        return unit_pending_inactive(u);
+        return unit_inactive_or_pending(u);
 }
 
 void manager_check_finished(Manager *m) {
@@ -2364,15 +2408,17 @@ void manager_check_finished(Manager *m) {
         assert(m);
 
         if (m->n_running_jobs == 0)
-                manager_unwatch_jobs_in_progress(m);
+                m->jobs_in_progress_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->jobs_in_progress_event_source);
 
         if (hashmap_size(m->jobs) > 0) {
-                manager_jobs_in_progress_mod_timer(m);
+                if (m->jobs_in_progress_event_source)
+                        sd_event_source_set_time(m->jobs_in_progress_event_source, JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_SEC);
                 return;
         }
 
         /* Notify Type=idle units that we are done now */
-        close_pipe(m->idle_pipe);
+        m->idle_pipe_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->idle_pipe_event_source);
+        manager_close_idle_pipe(m);
 
         /* Turn off confirm spawn now */
         m->confirm_spawn = false;
@@ -2406,10 +2452,10 @@ void manager_check_finished(Manager *m) {
                                            "INITRD_USEC=%llu", (unsigned long long) initrd_usec,
                                            "USERSPACE_USEC=%llu", (unsigned long long) userspace_usec,
                                            "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s (kernel) + %s (initrd) + %s (userspace) = %s.",
-                                           format_timespan(kernel, sizeof(kernel), kernel_usec),
-                                           format_timespan(initrd, sizeof(initrd), initrd_usec),
-                                           format_timespan(userspace, sizeof(userspace), userspace_usec),
-                                           format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec),
+                                           format_timespan(kernel, sizeof(kernel), kernel_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                           format_timespan(initrd, sizeof(initrd), initrd_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                           format_timespan(userspace, sizeof(userspace), userspace_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                           format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
                                            NULL);
                 } else {
                         kernel_usec = m->userspace_timestamp.monotonic - m->kernel_timestamp.monotonic;
@@ -2421,9 +2467,9 @@ void manager_check_finished(Manager *m) {
                                            "KERNEL_USEC=%llu", (unsigned long long) kernel_usec,
                                            "USERSPACE_USEC=%llu", (unsigned long long) userspace_usec,
                                            "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s (kernel) + %s (userspace) = %s.",
-                                           format_timespan(kernel, sizeof(kernel), kernel_usec),
-                                           format_timespan(userspace, sizeof(userspace), userspace_usec),
-                                           format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec),
+                                           format_timespan(kernel, sizeof(kernel), kernel_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                           format_timespan(userspace, sizeof(userspace), userspace_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                           format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
                                            NULL);
                 }
         } else {
@@ -2435,15 +2481,15 @@ void manager_check_finished(Manager *m) {
                                    MESSAGE_ID(SD_MESSAGE_STARTUP_FINISHED),
                                    "USERSPACE_USEC=%llu", (unsigned long long) userspace_usec,
                                    "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s.",
-                                   format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec),
+                                   format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
                                    NULL);
         }
 
-        bus_broadcast_finished(m, firmware_usec, loader_usec, kernel_usec, initrd_usec, userspace_usec, total_usec);
+        bus_manager_send_finished(m, firmware_usec, loader_usec, kernel_usec, initrd_usec, userspace_usec, total_usec);
 
         sd_notifyf(false,
                    "READY=1\nSTATUS=Startup finished in %s.",
-                   format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec));
+                   format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC));
 }
 
 static int create_generator_dir(Manager *m, char **generator, const char *name) {
@@ -2503,10 +2549,9 @@ static void trim_generator_dir(Manager *m, char **generator) {
 }
 
 void manager_run_generators(Manager *m) {
-        DIR *d = NULL;
+        _cleanup_closedir_ DIR *d = NULL;
         const char *generator_path;
         const char *argv[5];
-        mode_t u;
         int r;
 
         assert(m);
@@ -2540,17 +2585,13 @@ void manager_run_generators(Manager *m) {
         argv[3] = m->generator_unit_path_late;
         argv[4] = NULL;
 
-        u = umask(0022);
-        execute_directory(generator_path, d, (char**) argv);
-        umask(u);
+        RUN_WITH_UMASK(0022)
+                execute_directory(generator_path, d, (char**) argv);
 
+finish:
         trim_generator_dir(m, &m->generator_unit_path);
         trim_generator_dir(m, &m->generator_unit_path_early);
         trim_generator_dir(m, &m->generator_unit_path_late);
-
-finish:
-        if (d)
-                closedir(d);
 }
 
 static void remove_generator_dir(Manager *m, char **generator) {
@@ -2575,20 +2616,36 @@ void manager_undo_generators(Manager *m) {
         remove_generator_dir(m, &m->generator_unit_path_late);
 }
 
-int manager_set_default_controllers(Manager *m, char **controllers) {
-        char **l;
-
+int manager_environment_add(Manager *m, char **minus, char **plus) {
+        char **a = NULL, **b = NULL, **l;
         assert(m);
 
-        l = strv_copy(controllers);
-        if (!l)
-                return -ENOMEM;
+        l = m->environment;
+
+        if (!strv_isempty(minus)) {
+                a = strv_env_delete(l, 1, minus);
+                if (!a)
+                        return -ENOMEM;
 
-        strv_free(m->default_controllers);
-        m->default_controllers = l;
+                l = a;
+        }
 
-        cg_shorten_controllers(m->default_controllers);
+        if (!strv_isempty(plus)) {
+                b = strv_env_merge(2, l, plus);
+                if (!b)
+                        return -ENOMEM;
 
+                l = b;
+        }
+
+        if (m->environment != l)
+                strv_free(m->environment);
+        if (a != l)
+                strv_free(a);
+        if (b != l)
+                strv_free(b);
+
+        m->environment = strv_sort(l);
         return 0;
 }
 
@@ -2654,6 +2711,9 @@ static bool manager_get_show_status(Manager *m) {
         if (m->running_as != SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
                 return false;
 
+        if (m->no_console_output)
+                return false;
+
         if (m->show_status)
                 return true;
 
@@ -2682,9 +2742,37 @@ void manager_status_printf(Manager *m, bool ephemeral, const char *status, const
         va_end(ap);
 }
 
-void watch_init(Watch *w) {
-        assert(w);
+int manager_get_unit_by_path(Manager *m, const char *path, const char *suffix, Unit **_found) {
+        _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
+        Unit *found;
+
+        assert(m);
+        assert(path);
+        assert(suffix);
+        assert(_found);
+
+        p = unit_name_from_path(path, suffix);
+        if (!p)
+                return -ENOMEM;
+
+        found = manager_get_unit(m, p);
+        if (!found) {
+                *_found = NULL;
+                return 0;
+        }
+
+        *_found = found;
+        return 1;
+}
+
+Set *manager_get_units_requiring_mounts_for(Manager *m, const char *path) {
+        char p[strlen(path)+1];
+
+        assert(m);
+        assert(path);
+
+        strcpy(p, path);
+        path_kill_slashes(p);
 
-        w->type = WATCH_INVALID;
-        w->fd = -1;
+        return hashmap_get(m->units_requiring_mounts_for, streq(p, "/") ? "" : p);
 }