chiark / gitweb /
log: rearrange log function naming
[elogind.git] / src / core / manager.c
index bbe5efa..7af502a 100644 (file)
@@ -25,6 +25,8 @@
 #include <signal.h>
 #include <sys/wait.h>
 #include <unistd.h>
+#include <sys/inotify.h>
+#include <sys/epoll.h>
 #include <sys/poll.h>
 #include <sys/reboot.h>
 #include <sys/ioctl.h>
 #include "dbus-job.h"
 #include "dbus-manager.h"
 #include "bus-kernel.h"
-
-/* As soon as 5s passed since a unit was added to our GC queue, make sure to run a gc sweep */
-#define GC_QUEUE_USEC_MAX (10*USEC_PER_SEC)
+#include "time-util.h"
 
 /* Initial delay and the interval for printing status messages about running jobs */
-#define JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_WAIT_SEC 5
-#define JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_SEC 1
+#define JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_WAIT_USEC (5*USEC_PER_SEC)
+#define JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_USEC (USEC_PER_SEC / 3)
 #define JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_DIVISOR 3
 
-/* Where clients shall send notification messages to */
-#define NOTIFY_SOCKET "@/org/freedesktop/systemd1/notify"
-
-#define TIME_T_MAX (time_t)((1UL << ((sizeof(time_t) << 3) - 1)) - 1)
-
 static int manager_dispatch_notify_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata);
 static int manager_dispatch_signal_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata);
 static int manager_dispatch_time_change_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata);
@@ -97,12 +92,20 @@ static int manager_dispatch_jobs_in_progress(sd_event_source *source, usec_t use
 static int manager_dispatch_run_queue(sd_event_source *source, void *userdata);
 
 static int manager_watch_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
+        usec_t next;
+
         assert(m);
 
         if (m->jobs_in_progress_event_source)
                 return 0;
 
-        return sd_event_add_monotonic(m->event, JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_WAIT_SEC, 0, manager_dispatch_jobs_in_progress, m, &m->jobs_in_progress_event_source);
+        next = now(CLOCK_MONOTONIC) + JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_WAIT_USEC;
+        return sd_event_add_time(
+                        m->event,
+                        &m->jobs_in_progress_event_source,
+                        CLOCK_MONOTONIC,
+                        next, 0,
+                        manager_dispatch_jobs_in_progress, m);
 }
 
 #define CYLON_BUFFER_EXTRA (2*(sizeof(ANSI_RED_ON)-1) + sizeof(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_RED_ON)-1 + 2*(sizeof(ANSI_HIGHLIGHT_OFF)-1))
@@ -136,6 +139,18 @@ static void draw_cylon(char buffer[], size_t buflen, unsigned width, unsigned po
         }
 }
 
+void manager_flip_auto_status(Manager *m, bool enable) {
+        assert(m);
+
+        if (enable) {
+                if (m->show_status == SHOW_STATUS_AUTO)
+                        manager_set_show_status(m, SHOW_STATUS_TEMPORARY);
+        } else {
+                if (m->show_status == SHOW_STATUS_TEMPORARY)
+                        manager_set_show_status(m, SHOW_STATUS_AUTO);
+        }
+}
+
 static void manager_print_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
         _cleanup_free_ char *job_of_n = NULL;
         Iterator i;
@@ -143,9 +158,13 @@ static void manager_print_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
         unsigned counter = 0, print_nr;
         char cylon[6 + CYLON_BUFFER_EXTRA + 1];
         unsigned cylon_pos;
+        char time[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX], limit[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX] = "no limit";
+        uint64_t x;
 
         assert(m);
 
+        manager_flip_auto_status(m, true);
+
         print_nr = (m->jobs_in_progress_iteration / JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_DIVISOR) % m->n_running_jobs;
 
         HASHMAP_FOREACH(j, m->jobs, i)
@@ -162,14 +181,113 @@ static void manager_print_jobs_in_progress(Manager *m) {
                 cylon_pos = 14 - cylon_pos;
         draw_cylon(cylon, sizeof(cylon), 6, cylon_pos);
 
+        m->jobs_in_progress_iteration++;
+
         if (m->n_running_jobs > 1)
                 if (asprintf(&job_of_n, "(%u of %u) ", counter, m->n_running_jobs) < 0)
                         job_of_n = NULL;
 
-        manager_status_printf(m, true, cylon, "%sA %s job is running for %s",
-                              strempty(job_of_n), job_type_to_string(j->type), unit_description(j->unit));
+        format_timespan(time, sizeof(time), now(CLOCK_MONOTONIC) - j->begin_usec, 1*USEC_PER_SEC);
+        if (job_get_timeout(j, &x) > 0)
+                format_timespan(limit, sizeof(limit), x - j->begin_usec, 1*USEC_PER_SEC);
 
-        m->jobs_in_progress_iteration++;
+        manager_status_printf(m, STATUS_TYPE_EPHEMERAL, cylon,
+                              "%sA %s job is running for %s (%s / %s)",
+                              strempty(job_of_n),
+                              job_type_to_string(j->type),
+                              unit_description(j->unit),
+                              time, limit);
+
+}
+
+static int have_ask_password(void) {
+        _cleanup_closedir_ DIR *dir;
+
+        dir = opendir("/run/systemd/ask-password");
+        if (!dir) {
+                if (errno == ENOENT)
+                        return false;
+                else
+                        return -errno;
+        }
+
+        for (;;) {
+                struct dirent *de;
+
+                errno = 0;
+                de = readdir(dir);
+                if (!de && errno != 0)
+                        return -errno;
+                if (!de)
+                        return false;
+
+                if (startswith(de->d_name, "ask."))
+                        return true;
+        }
+}
+
+static int manager_dispatch_ask_password_fd(sd_event_source *source,
+                                            int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata) {
+        Manager *m = userdata;
+
+        assert(m);
+
+        flush_fd(fd);
+
+        m->have_ask_password = have_ask_password();
+        if (m->have_ask_password < 0)
+                /* Log error but continue. Negative have_ask_password
+                 * is treated as unknown status. */
+                log_error("Failed to list /run/systemd/ask-password: %s", strerror(m->have_ask_password));
+
+        return 0;
+}
+
+static void manager_close_ask_password(Manager *m) {
+        assert(m);
+
+        m->ask_password_inotify_fd = safe_close(m->ask_password_inotify_fd);
+        m->ask_password_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->ask_password_event_source);
+        m->have_ask_password = -EINVAL;
+}
+
+static int manager_check_ask_password(Manager *m) {
+        int r;
+
+        assert(m);
+
+        if (!m->ask_password_event_source) {
+                assert(m->ask_password_inotify_fd < 0);
+
+                mkdir_p_label("/run/systemd/ask-password", 0755);
+
+                m->ask_password_inotify_fd = inotify_init1(IN_NONBLOCK|IN_CLOEXEC);
+                if (m->ask_password_inotify_fd < 0) {
+                        log_error("inotify_init1() failed: %m");
+                        return -errno;
+                }
+
+                if (inotify_add_watch(m->ask_password_inotify_fd, "/run/systemd/ask-password", IN_CREATE|IN_DELETE|IN_MOVE) < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to add watch on /run/systemd/ask-password: %m");
+                        manager_close_ask_password(m);
+                        return -errno;
+                }
+
+                r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, &m->ask_password_event_source,
+                                    m->ask_password_inotify_fd, EPOLLIN,
+                                    manager_dispatch_ask_password_fd, m);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to add event source for /run/systemd/ask-password: %m");
+                        manager_close_ask_password(m);
+                        return -errno;
+                }
+
+                /* Queries might have been added meanwhile... */
+                manager_dispatch_ask_password_fd(m->ask_password_event_source,
+                                                 m->ask_password_inotify_fd, EPOLLIN, m);
+        }
+
+        return m->have_ask_password;
 }
 
 static int manager_watch_idle_pipe(Manager *m) {
@@ -183,7 +301,7 @@ static int manager_watch_idle_pipe(Manager *m) {
         if (m->idle_pipe[2] < 0)
                 return 0;
 
-        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, m->idle_pipe[2], EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_idle_pipe_fd, m, &m->idle_pipe_event_source);
+        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, &m->idle_pipe_event_source, m->idle_pipe[2], EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_idle_pipe_fd, m);
         if (r < 0) {
                 log_error("Failed to watch idle pipe: %s", strerror(-r));
                 return r;
@@ -195,8 +313,8 @@ static int manager_watch_idle_pipe(Manager *m) {
 static void manager_close_idle_pipe(Manager *m) {
         assert(m);
 
-        close_pipe(m->idle_pipe);
-        close_pipe(m->idle_pipe + 2);
+        safe_close_pair(m->idle_pipe);
+        safe_close_pair(m->idle_pipe + 2);
 }
 
 static int manager_setup_time_change(Manager *m) {
@@ -211,6 +329,9 @@ static int manager_setup_time_change(Manager *m) {
         assert(m);
         assert_cc(sizeof(time_t) == sizeof(TIME_T_MAX));
 
+        if (m->test_run)
+                return 0;
+
         /* Uses TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET to get notifications whenever
          * CLOCK_REALTIME makes a jump relative to CLOCK_MONOTONIC */
 
@@ -222,12 +343,11 @@ static int manager_setup_time_change(Manager *m) {
 
         if (timerfd_settime(m->time_change_fd, TFD_TIMER_ABSTIME|TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET, &its, NULL) < 0) {
                 log_debug("Failed to set up TFD_TIMER_CANCEL_ON_SET, ignoring: %m");
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_fd);
-                m->time_change_fd = -1;
+                m->time_change_fd = safe_close(m->time_change_fd);
                 return 0;
         }
 
-        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, m->time_change_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_time_change_fd, m, &m->time_change_event_source);
+        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, &m->time_change_event_source, m->time_change_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_time_change_fd, m);
         if (r < 0) {
                 log_error("Failed to create time change event source: %s", strerror(-r));
                 return r;
@@ -273,11 +393,14 @@ static int manager_setup_signals(Manager *m) {
 
         assert(m);
 
-        /* We are not interested in SIGSTOP and friends. */
         assert_se(sigaction(SIGCHLD, &sa, NULL) == 0);
 
-        assert_se(sigemptyset(&mask) == 0);
+        /* We make liberal use of realtime signals here. On
+         * Linux/glibc we have 30 of them (with the exception of Linux
+         * on hppa, see below), between SIGRTMIN+0 ... SIGRTMIN+30
+         * (aka SIGRTMAX). */
 
+        assert_se(sigemptyset(&mask) == 0);
         sigset_add_many(&mask,
                         SIGCHLD,     /* Child died */
                         SIGTERM,     /* Reexecute daemon */
@@ -287,6 +410,7 @@ static int manager_setup_signals(Manager *m) {
                         SIGINT,      /* Kernel sends us this on control-alt-del */
                         SIGWINCH,    /* Kernel sends us this on kbrequest (alt-arrowup) */
                         SIGPWR,      /* Some kernel drivers and upsd send us this on power failure */
+
                         SIGRTMIN+0,  /* systemd: start default.target */
                         SIGRTMIN+1,  /* systemd: isolate rescue.target */
                         SIGRTMIN+2,  /* systemd: isolate emergency.target */
@@ -294,19 +418,40 @@ static int manager_setup_signals(Manager *m) {
                         SIGRTMIN+4,  /* systemd: start poweroff.target */
                         SIGRTMIN+5,  /* systemd: start reboot.target */
                         SIGRTMIN+6,  /* systemd: start kexec.target */
+
+                        /* ... space for more special targets ... */
+
                         SIGRTMIN+13, /* systemd: Immediate halt */
                         SIGRTMIN+14, /* systemd: Immediate poweroff */
                         SIGRTMIN+15, /* systemd: Immediate reboot */
                         SIGRTMIN+16, /* systemd: Immediate kexec */
+
+                        /* ... space for more immediate system state changes ... */
+
                         SIGRTMIN+20, /* systemd: enable status messages */
                         SIGRTMIN+21, /* systemd: disable status messages */
                         SIGRTMIN+22, /* systemd: set log level to LOG_DEBUG */
                         SIGRTMIN+23, /* systemd: set log level to LOG_INFO */
                         SIGRTMIN+24, /* systemd: Immediate exit (--user only) */
+
+                        /* .. one free signal here ... */
+
+#if !defined(__hppa64__) && !defined(__hppa__)
+                        /* Apparently Linux on hppa has fewer RT
+                         * signals (SIGRTMAX is SIGRTMIN+25 there),
+                         * hence let's not try to make use of them
+                         * here. Since these commands are accessible
+                         * by different means and only really a safety
+                         * net, the missing functionality on hppa
+                         * shouldn't matter. */
+
                         SIGRTMIN+26, /* systemd: set log target to journal-or-kmsg */
                         SIGRTMIN+27, /* systemd: set log target to console */
                         SIGRTMIN+28, /* systemd: set log target to kmsg */
-                        SIGRTMIN+29, /* systemd: set log target to syslog-or-kmsg */
+                        SIGRTMIN+29, /* systemd: set log target to syslog-or-kmsg (obsolete)*/
+
+                        /* ... one free signal here SIGRTMIN+30 ... */
+#endif
                         -1);
         assert_se(sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &mask, NULL) == 0);
 
@@ -314,12 +459,12 @@ static int manager_setup_signals(Manager *m) {
         if (m->signal_fd < 0)
                 return -errno;
 
-        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, m->signal_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_signal_fd, m, &m->signal_event_source);
+        r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, &m->signal_event_source, m->signal_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_signal_fd, m);
         if (r < 0)
                 return r;
 
         /* Process signals a bit earlier than the rest of things, but
-         * later that notify_fd processing, so that the notify
+         * later than notify_fd processing, so that the notify
          * processing can still figure out to which process/service a
          * message belongs, before we reap the process. */
         r = sd_event_source_set_priority(m->signal_event_source, -5);
@@ -332,6 +477,23 @@ static int manager_setup_signals(Manager *m) {
         return 0;
 }
 
+static void manager_clean_environment(Manager *m) {
+        assert(m);
+
+        /* Let's remove some environment variables that we
+         * need ourselves to communicate with our clients */
+        strv_env_unset_many(
+                        m->environment,
+                        "NOTIFY_SOCKET",
+                        "MAINPID",
+                        "MANAGERPID",
+                        "LISTEN_PID",
+                        "LISTEN_FDS",
+                        "WATCHDOG_PID",
+                        "WATCHDOG_USEC",
+                        NULL);
+}
+
 static int manager_default_environment(Manager *m) {
         assert(m);
 
@@ -348,20 +510,22 @@ static int manager_default_environment(Manager *m) {
 
                 /* Import locale variables LC_*= from configuration */
                 locale_setup(&m->environment);
-        } else
+        } else {
                 /* The user manager passes its own environment
                  * along to its children. */
                 m->environment = strv_copy(environ);
+        }
 
         if (!m->environment)
                 return -ENOMEM;
 
+        manager_clean_environment(m);
         strv_sort(m->environment);
 
         return 0;
 }
 
-int manager_new(SystemdRunningAs running_as, Manager **_m) {
+int manager_new(SystemdRunningAs running_as, bool test_run, Manager **_m) {
         Manager *m;
         int r;
 
@@ -374,39 +538,49 @@ int manager_new(SystemdRunningAs running_as, Manager **_m) {
                 return -ENOMEM;
 
 #ifdef ENABLE_EFI
-        if (detect_container(NULL) <= 0)
+        if (running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM && detect_container(NULL) <= 0)
                 boot_timestamps(&m->userspace_timestamp, &m->firmware_timestamp, &m->loader_timestamp);
 #endif
 
         m->running_as = running_as;
         m->exit_code = _MANAGER_EXIT_CODE_INVALID;
+        m->default_timer_accuracy_usec = USEC_PER_MINUTE;
 
         m->idle_pipe[0] = m->idle_pipe[1] = m->idle_pipe[2] = m->idle_pipe[3] = -1;
 
         m->pin_cgroupfs_fd = m->notify_fd = m->signal_fd = m->time_change_fd = m->dev_autofs_fd = m->private_listen_fd = m->kdbus_fd = -1;
         m->current_job_id = 1; /* start as id #1, so that we can leave #0 around as "null-like" value */
 
+        m->ask_password_inotify_fd = -1;
+        m->have_ask_password = -EINVAL; /* we don't know */
+
+        m->test_run = test_run;
+
         r = manager_default_environment(m);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->units, string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->units, &string_hash_ops);
+        if (r < 0)
+                goto fail;
+
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->jobs, NULL);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->jobs, trivial_hash_func, trivial_compare_func);
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->cgroup_unit, &string_hash_ops);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->cgroup_unit, string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->watch_bus, &string_hash_ops);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->watch_pids, trivial_hash_func, trivial_compare_func);
+        r = set_ensure_allocated(&m->startup_units, NULL);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = hashmap_ensure_allocated(&m->watch_bus, string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        r = set_ensure_allocated(&m->failed_units, NULL);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
@@ -414,7 +588,7 @@ int manager_new(SystemdRunningAs running_as, Manager **_m) {
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
-        r = sd_event_add_defer(m->event, manager_dispatch_run_queue, m, &m->run_queue_event_source);
+        r = sd_event_add_defer(m->event, &m->run_queue_event_source, manager_dispatch_run_queue, m);
         if (r < 0)
                 goto fail;
 
@@ -459,16 +633,17 @@ fail:
 }
 
 static int manager_setup_notify(Manager *m) {
-        union {
-                struct sockaddr sa;
-                struct sockaddr_un un;
-        } sa = {
-                .sa.sa_family = AF_UNIX,
-        };
-        int one = 1, r;
+        int r;
+
+        if (m->test_run)
+                return 0;
 
         if (m->notify_fd < 0) {
                 _cleanup_close_ int fd = -1;
+                union sockaddr_union sa =  {
+                        .sa.sa_family = AF_UNIX,
+                };
+                static const int one = 1;
 
                 /* First free all secondary fields */
                 free(m->notify_socket);
@@ -481,15 +656,29 @@ static int manager_setup_notify(Manager *m) {
                         return -errno;
                 }
 
-                if (getpid() != 1 || detect_container(NULL) > 0)
-                        snprintf(sa.un.sun_path, sizeof(sa.un.sun_path), NOTIFY_SOCKET "/%" PRIx64, random_u64());
-                else
-                        strncpy(sa.un.sun_path, NOTIFY_SOCKET, sizeof(sa.un.sun_path));
-                sa.un.sun_path[0] = 0;
+                if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
+                        m->notify_socket = strdup("/run/systemd/notify");
+                else {
+                        const char *e;
+
+                        e = getenv("XDG_RUNTIME_DIR");
+                        if (!e) {
+                                log_error("XDG_RUNTIME_DIR is not set: %m");
+                                return -EINVAL;
+                        }
+
+                        m->notify_socket = strappend(e, "/systemd/notify");
+                }
+                if (!m->notify_socket)
+                        return log_oom();
+
+                (void) mkdir_parents_label(m->notify_socket, 0755);
+                (void) unlink(m->notify_socket);
 
-                r = bind(fd, &sa.sa, offsetof(struct sockaddr_un, sun_path) + 1 + strlen(sa.un.sun_path+1));
+                strncpy(sa.un.sun_path, m->notify_socket, sizeof(sa.un.sun_path)-1);
+                r = bind(fd, &sa.sa, offsetof(struct sockaddr_un, sun_path) + strlen(sa.un.sun_path));
                 if (r < 0) {
-                        log_error("bind() failed: %m");
+                        log_error("bind(%s) failed: %m", sa.un.sun_path);
                         return -errno;
                 }
 
@@ -499,11 +688,6 @@ static int manager_setup_notify(Manager *m) {
                         return -errno;
                 }
 
-                sa.un.sun_path[0] = '@';
-                m->notify_socket = strdup(sa.un.sun_path);
-                if (!m->notify_socket)
-                        return log_oom();
-
                 m->notify_fd = fd;
                 fd = -1;
 
@@ -511,7 +695,7 @@ static int manager_setup_notify(Manager *m) {
         }
 
         if (!m->notify_event_source) {
-                r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, m->notify_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_notify_fd, m, &m->notify_event_source);
+                r = sd_event_add_io(m->event, &m->notify_event_source, m->notify_fd, EPOLLIN, manager_dispatch_notify_fd, m);
                 if (r < 0) {
                         log_error("Failed to allocate notify event source: %s", strerror(-r));
                         return -errno;
@@ -530,12 +714,12 @@ static int manager_setup_notify(Manager *m) {
 }
 
 static int manager_setup_kdbus(Manager *m) {
+#ifdef ENABLE_KDBUS
         _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
 
         assert(m);
 
-#ifdef ENABLE_KDBUS
-        if (m->kdbus_fd >= 0)
+        if (m->test_run || m->kdbus_fd >= 0)
                 return 0;
 
         m->kdbus_fd = bus_kernel_create_bus(m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM ? "system" : "user", m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM, &p);
@@ -545,13 +729,6 @@ static int manager_setup_kdbus(Manager *m) {
         }
 
         log_debug("Successfully set up kdbus on %s", p);
-
-        /* Create the namespace directory here, so that the contents
-         * of that directory is not visible to non-root users. This is
-         * necessary to ensure that users cannot get access to busses
-         * of virtualized users when no UID namespacing is used. */
-        if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
-                mkdir_p_label("/dev/kdbus/ns", 0700);
 #endif
 
         return 0;
@@ -562,6 +739,9 @@ static int manager_connect_bus(Manager *m, bool reexecuting) {
 
         assert(m);
 
+        if (m->test_run)
+                return 0;
+
         try_bus_connect =
                 m->kdbus_fd >= 0 ||
                 reexecuting ||
@@ -674,7 +854,7 @@ static unsigned manager_dispatch_gc_queue(Manager *m) {
 
                 if (u->gc_marker == gc_marker + GC_OFFSET_BAD ||
                     u->gc_marker == gc_marker + GC_OFFSET_UNSURE) {
-                        log_debug_unit(u->id, "Collecting %s", u->id);
+                        log_unit_debug(u->id, "Collecting %s", u->id);
                         u->gc_marker = gc_marker + GC_OFFSET_BAD;
                         unit_add_to_cleanup_queue(u);
                 }
@@ -709,11 +889,12 @@ static void manager_clear_jobs_and_units(Manager *m) {
         m->n_running_jobs = 0;
 }
 
-void manager_free(Manager *m) {
+Manager* manager_free(Manager *m) {
         UnitType c;
         int i;
 
-        assert(m);
+        if (!m)
+                return NULL;
 
         manager_clear_jobs_and_units(m);
 
@@ -731,9 +912,13 @@ void manager_free(Manager *m) {
 
         hashmap_free(m->units);
         hashmap_free(m->jobs);
-        hashmap_free(m->watch_pids);
+        hashmap_free(m->watch_pids1);
+        hashmap_free(m->watch_pids2);
         hashmap_free(m->watch_bus);
 
+        set_free(m->startup_units);
+        set_free(m->failed_units);
+
         sd_event_source_unref(m->signal_event_source);
         sd_event_source_unref(m->notify_event_source);
         sd_event_source_unref(m->time_change_event_source);
@@ -741,14 +926,12 @@ void manager_free(Manager *m) {
         sd_event_source_unref(m->idle_pipe_event_source);
         sd_event_source_unref(m->run_queue_event_source);
 
-        if (m->signal_fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->signal_fd);
-        if (m->notify_fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->notify_fd);
-        if (m->time_change_fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_fd);
-        if (m->kdbus_fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(m->kdbus_fd);
+        safe_close(m->signal_fd);
+        safe_close(m->notify_fd);
+        safe_close(m->time_change_fd);
+        safe_close(m->kdbus_fd);
+
+        manager_close_ask_password(m);
 
         manager_close_idle_pipe(m);
 
@@ -766,13 +949,14 @@ void manager_free(Manager *m) {
         free(m->switch_root);
         free(m->switch_root_init);
 
-        for (i = 0; i < RLIMIT_NLIMITS; i++)
+        for (i = 0; i < _RLIMIT_MAX; i++)
                 free(m->rlimit[i]);
 
         assert(hashmap_isempty(m->units_requiring_mounts_for));
         hashmap_free(m->units_requiring_mounts_for);
 
         free(m);
+        return NULL;
 }
 
 int manager_enumerate(Manager *m) {
@@ -795,7 +979,7 @@ int manager_enumerate(Manager *m) {
 }
 
 static int manager_coldplug(Manager *m) {
-        int r = 0, q;
+        int r = 0;
         Iterator i;
         Unit *u;
         char *k;
@@ -804,12 +988,14 @@ static int manager_coldplug(Manager *m) {
 
         /* Then, let's set up their initial state. */
         HASHMAP_FOREACH_KEY(u, k, m->units, i) {
+                int q;
 
                 /* ignore aliases */
                 if (u->id != k)
                         continue;
 
-                if ((q = unit_coldplug(u)) < 0)
+                q = unit_coldplug(u);
+                if (q < 0)
                         r = q;
         }
 
@@ -818,14 +1004,14 @@ static int manager_coldplug(Manager *m) {
 
 static void manager_build_unit_path_cache(Manager *m) {
         char **i;
-        _cleanup_free_ DIR *d = NULL;
+        _cleanup_closedir_ DIR *d = NULL;
         int r;
 
         assert(m);
 
         set_free_free(m->unit_path_cache);
 
-        m->unit_path_cache = set_new(string_hash_func, string_compare_func);
+        m->unit_path_cache = set_new(&string_hash_ops);
         if (!m->unit_path_cache) {
                 log_error("Failed to allocate unit path cache.");
                 return;
@@ -908,6 +1094,7 @@ int manager_startup(Manager *m, FILE *serialization, FDSet *fds) {
 
         r = lookup_paths_init(
                         &m->lookup_paths, m->running_as, true,
+                        NULL,
                         m->generator_unit_path,
                         m->generator_unit_path_early,
                         m->generator_unit_path_late);
@@ -928,11 +1115,8 @@ int manager_startup(Manager *m, FILE *serialization, FDSet *fds) {
         dual_timestamp_get(&m->units_load_finish_timestamp);
 
         /* Second, deserialize if there is something to deserialize */
-        if (serialization) {
-                q = manager_deserialize(m, serialization, fds);
-                if (q < 0)
-                        r = q;
-        }
+        if (serialization)
+                r = manager_deserialize(m, serialization, fds);
 
         /* Any fds left? Find some unit which wants them. This is
          * useful to allow container managers to pass some file
@@ -940,22 +1124,25 @@ int manager_startup(Manager *m, FILE *serialization, FDSet *fds) {
          * socket-based activation of entire containers. */
         if (fdset_size(fds) > 0) {
                 q = manager_distribute_fds(m, fds);
-                if (q < 0)
+                if (q < 0 && r == 0)
                         r = q;
         }
 
         /* We might have deserialized the notify fd, but if we didn't
          * then let's create the bus now */
-        manager_setup_notify(m);
+        q = manager_setup_notify(m);
+        if (q < 0 && r == 0)
+                r = q;
 
         /* We might have deserialized the kdbus control fd, but if we
          * didn't, then let's create the bus now. */
         manager_setup_kdbus(m);
         manager_connect_bus(m, !!serialization);
+        bus_track_coldplug(m, &m->subscribed, &m->deserialized_subscribed);
 
         /* Third, fire things up! */
         q = manager_coldplug(m);
-        if (q < 0)
+        if (q < 0 && r == 0)
                 r = q;
 
         if (serialization) {
@@ -980,17 +1167,13 @@ int manager_add_job(Manager *m, JobType type, Unit *unit, JobMode mode, bool ove
         assert(unit);
         assert(mode < _JOB_MODE_MAX);
 
-        if (mode == JOB_ISOLATE && type != JOB_START) {
-                sd_bus_error_setf(e, SD_BUS_ERROR_INVALID_ARGS, "Isolate is only valid for start.");
-                return -EINVAL;
-        }
+        if (mode == JOB_ISOLATE && type != JOB_START)
+                return sd_bus_error_setf(e, SD_BUS_ERROR_INVALID_ARGS, "Isolate is only valid for start.");
 
-        if (mode == JOB_ISOLATE && !unit->allow_isolate) {
-                sd_bus_error_setf(e, BUS_ERROR_NO_ISOLATION, "Operation refused, unit may not be isolated.");
-                return -EPERM;
-        }
+        if (mode == JOB_ISOLATE && !unit->allow_isolate)
+                return sd_bus_error_setf(e, BUS_ERROR_NO_ISOLATION, "Operation refused, unit may not be isolated.");
 
-        log_debug_unit(unit->id,
+        log_unit_debug(unit->id,
                        "Trying to enqueue job %s/%s/%s", unit->id,
                        job_type_to_string(type), job_mode_to_string(mode));
 
@@ -1016,7 +1199,7 @@ int manager_add_job(Manager *m, JobType type, Unit *unit, JobMode mode, bool ove
         if (r < 0)
                 goto tr_abort;
 
-        log_debug_unit(unit->id,
+        log_unit_debug(unit->id,
                        "Enqueued job %s/%s as %u", unit->id,
                        job_type_to_string(type), (unsigned) tr->anchor_job->id);
 
@@ -1272,6 +1455,26 @@ static unsigned manager_dispatch_dbus_queue(Manager *m) {
         return n;
 }
 
+static void manager_invoke_notify_message(Manager *m, Unit *u, pid_t pid, char *buf, size_t n) {
+        _cleanup_strv_free_ char **tags = NULL;
+
+        assert(m);
+        assert(u);
+        assert(buf);
+        assert(n > 0);
+
+        tags = strv_split(buf, "\n\r");
+        if (!tags) {
+                log_oom();
+                return;
+        }
+
+        log_unit_debug(u->id, "Got notification message for unit %s", u->id);
+
+        if (UNIT_VTABLE(u)->notify_message)
+                UNIT_VTABLE(u)->notify_message(u, pid, tags);
+}
+
 static int manager_dispatch_notify_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t revents, void *userdata) {
         Manager *m = userdata;
         ssize_t n;
@@ -1290,6 +1493,7 @@ static int manager_dispatch_notify_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t
                         .iov_base = buf,
                         .iov_len = sizeof(buf)-1,
                 };
+                bool found = false;
 
                 union {
                         struct cmsghdr cmsghdr;
@@ -1303,8 +1507,7 @@ static int manager_dispatch_notify_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t
                         .msg_controllen = sizeof(control),
                 };
                 struct ucred *ucred;
-                Unit *u;
-                _cleanup_strv_free_ char **tags = NULL;
+                Unit *u1, *u2, *u3;
 
                 n = recvmsg(m->notify_fd, &msghdr, MSG_DONTWAIT);
                 if (n <= 0) {
@@ -1327,36 +1530,52 @@ static int manager_dispatch_notify_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t
 
                 ucred = (struct ucred*) CMSG_DATA(&control.cmsghdr);
 
-                u = hashmap_get(m->watch_pids, LONG_TO_PTR(ucred->pid));
-                if (!u) {
-                        u = manager_get_unit_by_pid(m, ucred->pid);
-                        if (!u) {
-                                log_warning("Cannot find unit for notify message of PID "PID_FMT".", ucred->pid);
-                                continue;
-                        }
-                }
-
                 assert((size_t) n < sizeof(buf));
                 buf[n] = 0;
-                tags = strv_split(buf, "\n\r");
-                if (!tags)
-                        return log_oom();
 
-                log_debug_unit(u->id, "Got notification message for unit %s", u->id);
+                /* Notify every unit that might be interested, but try
+                 * to avoid notifying the same one multiple times. */
+                u1 = manager_get_unit_by_pid(m, ucred->pid);
+                if (u1) {
+                        manager_invoke_notify_message(m, u1, ucred->pid, buf, n);
+                        found = true;
+                }
 
-                if (UNIT_VTABLE(u)->notify_message)
-                        UNIT_VTABLE(u)->notify_message(u, ucred->pid, tags);
+                u2 = hashmap_get(m->watch_pids1, LONG_TO_PTR(ucred->pid));
+                if (u2 && u2 != u1) {
+                        manager_invoke_notify_message(m, u2, ucred->pid, buf, n);
+                        found = true;
+                }
+
+                u3 = hashmap_get(m->watch_pids2, LONG_TO_PTR(ucred->pid));
+                if (u3 && u3 != u2 && u3 != u1) {
+                        manager_invoke_notify_message(m, u3, ucred->pid, buf, n);
+                        found = true;
+                }
+
+                if (!found)
+                        log_warning("Cannot find unit for notify message of PID "PID_FMT".", ucred->pid);
         }
 
         return 0;
 }
 
+static void invoke_sigchld_event(Manager *m, Unit *u, siginfo_t *si) {
+        assert(m);
+        assert(u);
+        assert(si);
+
+        log_unit_debug(u->id, "Child "PID_FMT" belongs to %s", si->si_pid, u->id);
+
+        unit_unwatch_pid(u, si->si_pid);
+        UNIT_VTABLE(u)->sigchld_event(u, si->si_pid, si->si_code, si->si_status);
+}
+
 static int manager_dispatch_sigchld(Manager *m) {
         assert(m);
 
         for (;;) {
                 siginfo_t si = {};
-                Unit *u;
 
                 /* First we call waitd() for a PID and do not reap the
                  * zombie. That way we can still access /proc/$PID for
@@ -1377,15 +1596,30 @@ static int manager_dispatch_sigchld(Manager *m) {
 
                 if (si.si_code == CLD_EXITED || si.si_code == CLD_KILLED || si.si_code == CLD_DUMPED) {
                         _cleanup_free_ char *name = NULL;
+                        Unit *u1, *u2, *u3;
 
                         get_process_comm(si.si_pid, &name);
-                        log_debug("Got SIGCHLD for process "PID_FMT" (%s)", si.si_pid, strna(name));
-                }
 
-                /* And now figure out the unit this belongs to */
-                u = hashmap_get(m->watch_pids, LONG_TO_PTR(si.si_pid));
-                if (!u)
-                        u = manager_get_unit_by_pid(m, si.si_pid);
+                        log_debug("Child "PID_FMT" (%s) died (code=%s, status=%i/%s)",
+                                  si.si_pid, strna(name),
+                                  sigchld_code_to_string(si.si_code),
+                                  si.si_status,
+                                  strna(si.si_code == CLD_EXITED
+                                        ? exit_status_to_string(si.si_status, EXIT_STATUS_FULL)
+                                        : signal_to_string(si.si_status)));
+
+                        /* And now figure out the unit this belongs
+                         * to, it might be multiple... */
+                        u1 = manager_get_unit_by_pid(m, si.si_pid);
+                        if (u1)
+                                invoke_sigchld_event(m, u1, &si);
+                        u2 = hashmap_get(m->watch_pids1, LONG_TO_PTR(si.si_pid));
+                        if (u2 && u2 != u1)
+                                invoke_sigchld_event(m, u2, &si);
+                        u3 = hashmap_get(m->watch_pids2, LONG_TO_PTR(si.si_pid));
+                        if (u3 && u3 != u2 && u3 != u1)
+                                invoke_sigchld_event(m, u3, &si);
+                }
 
                 /* And now, we actually reap the zombie. */
                 if (waitid(P_PID, si.si_pid, &si, WEXITED) < 0) {
@@ -1394,26 +1628,6 @@ static int manager_dispatch_sigchld(Manager *m) {
 
                         return -errno;
                 }
-
-                if (si.si_code != CLD_EXITED && si.si_code != CLD_KILLED && si.si_code != CLD_DUMPED)
-                        continue;
-
-                log_debug("Child %lu died (code=%s, status=%i/%s)",
-                          (long unsigned) si.si_pid,
-                          sigchld_code_to_string(si.si_code),
-                          si.si_status,
-                          strna(si.si_code == CLD_EXITED
-                                ? exit_status_to_string(si.si_status, EXIT_STATUS_FULL)
-                                : signal_to_string(si.si_status)));
-
-                if (!u)
-                        continue;
-
-                log_debug_unit(u->id,
-                               "Child %lu belongs to %s", (long unsigned) si.si_pid, u->id);
-
-                hashmap_remove(m->watch_pids, LONG_TO_PTR(si.si_pid));
-                UNIT_VTABLE(u)->sigchld_event(u, si.si_pid, si.si_code, si.si_status);
         }
 
         return 0;
@@ -1423,11 +1637,11 @@ static int manager_start_target(Manager *m, const char *name, JobMode mode) {
         _cleanup_bus_error_free_ sd_bus_error error = SD_BUS_ERROR_NULL;
         int r;
 
-        log_debug_unit(name, "Activating special unit %s", name);
+        log_unit_debug(name, "Activating special unit %s", name);
 
         r = manager_add_job_by_name(m, JOB_START, name, mode, true, &error, NULL);
         if (r < 0)
-                log_error_unit(name, "Failed to enqueue %s job: %s", name, bus_error_message(&error, r));
+                log_unit_error(name, "Failed to enqueue %s job: %s", name, bus_error_message(&error, r));
 
         return r;
 }
@@ -1459,23 +1673,10 @@ static int manager_dispatch_signal_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t
                         return -errno;
                 }
 
-                if (sfsi.ssi_pid > 0) {
-                        _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
-
-                        get_process_comm(sfsi.ssi_pid, &p);
-
-                        log_full(sfsi.ssi_signo == SIGCHLD ||
-                                 (sfsi.ssi_signo == SIGTERM && m->running_as == SYSTEMD_USER)
-                                 ? LOG_DEBUG : LOG_INFO,
-                                 "Received SIG%s from PID "PID_FMT" (%s).",
-                                 signal_to_string(sfsi.ssi_signo),
-                                 sfsi.ssi_pid, strna(p));
-                } else
-                        log_full(sfsi.ssi_signo == SIGCHLD ||
-                                 (sfsi.ssi_signo == SIGTERM && m->running_as == SYSTEMD_USER)
-                                 ? LOG_DEBUG : LOG_INFO,
-                                 "Received SIG%s.",
-                                 signal_to_string(sfsi.ssi_signo));
+                log_received_signal(sfsi.ssi_signo == SIGCHLD ||
+                                    (sfsi.ssi_signo == SIGTERM && m->running_as == SYSTEMD_USER)
+                                    ? LOG_DEBUG : LOG_INFO,
+                                    &sfsi);
 
                 switch (sfsi.ssi_signo) {
 
@@ -1558,6 +1759,11 @@ static int manager_dispatch_signal_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t
                                 break;
                         }
 
+                        if (fflush(f)) {
+                                log_warning("Failed to flush status stream");
+                                break;
+                        }
+
                         log_dump(LOG_INFO, dump);
                         break;
                 }
@@ -1605,12 +1811,12 @@ static int manager_dispatch_signal_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t
 
                         case 20:
                                 log_debug("Enabling showing of status.");
-                                manager_set_show_status(m, true);
+                                manager_set_show_status(m, SHOW_STATUS_YES);
                                 break;
 
                         case 21:
                                 log_debug("Disabling showing of status.");
-                                manager_set_show_status(m, false);
+                                manager_set_show_status(m, SHOW_STATUS_NO);
                                 break;
 
                         case 22:
@@ -1633,6 +1839,7 @@ static int manager_dispatch_signal_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t
                                 break;
 
                         case 26:
+                        case 29: /* compatibility: used to be mapped to LOG_TARGET_SYSLOG_OR_KMSG */
                                 log_set_target(LOG_TARGET_JOURNAL_OR_KMSG);
                                 log_notice("Setting log target to journal-or-kmsg.");
                                 break;
@@ -1647,11 +1854,6 @@ static int manager_dispatch_signal_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32_t
                                 log_notice("Setting log target to kmsg.");
                                 break;
 
-                        case 29:
-                                log_set_target(LOG_TARGET_SYSLOG_OR_KMSG);
-                                log_notice("Setting log target to syslog-or-kmsg.");
-                                break;
-
                         default:
                                 log_warning("Got unhandled signal <%s>.", signal_to_string(sfsi.ssi_signo));
                         }
@@ -1680,9 +1882,7 @@ static int manager_dispatch_time_change_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint
 
         /* Restart the watch */
         m->time_change_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->time_change_event_source);
-
-        close_nointr_nofail(m->time_change_fd);
-        m->time_change_fd = -1;
+        m->time_change_fd = safe_close(m->time_change_fd);
 
         manager_setup_time_change(m);
 
@@ -1709,11 +1909,20 @@ static int manager_dispatch_idle_pipe_fd(sd_event_source *source, int fd, uint32
 
 static int manager_dispatch_jobs_in_progress(sd_event_source *source, usec_t usec, void *userdata) {
         Manager *m = userdata;
+        int r;
+        uint64_t next;
 
         assert(m);
+        assert(source);
 
         manager_print_jobs_in_progress(m);
-        return 0;
+
+        next = now(CLOCK_MONOTONIC) + JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_USEC;
+        r = sd_event_source_set_time(source, next);
+        if (r < 0)
+                return r;
+
+        return sd_event_source_set_enabled(source, SD_EVENT_ONESHOT);
 }
 
 int manager_loop(Manager *m) {
@@ -1722,7 +1931,7 @@ int manager_loop(Manager *m) {
         RATELIMIT_DEFINE(rl, 1*USEC_PER_SEC, 50000);
 
         assert(m);
-        m->exit_code = MANAGER_RUNNING;
+        m->exit_code = MANAGER_OK;
 
         /* Release the path cache */
         set_free_free(m->unit_path_cache);
@@ -1736,7 +1945,7 @@ int manager_loop(Manager *m) {
         if (r < 0)
                 return r;
 
-        while (m->exit_code == MANAGER_RUNNING) {
+        while (m->exit_code == MANAGER_OK) {
                 usec_t wait_usec;
 
                 if (m->runtime_watchdog > 0 && m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
@@ -1770,7 +1979,7 @@ int manager_loop(Manager *m) {
                         if (wait_usec <= 0)
                                 wait_usec = 1;
                 } else
-                        wait_usec = (usec_t) -1;
+                        wait_usec = USEC_INFINITY;
 
                 r = sd_event_run(m->event, wait_usec);
                 if (r < 0) {
@@ -1834,7 +2043,8 @@ int manager_get_job_from_dbus_path(Manager *m, const char *s, Job **_j) {
 void manager_send_unit_audit(Manager *m, Unit *u, int type, bool success) {
 
 #ifdef HAVE_AUDIT
-        char *p;
+        _cleanup_free_ char *p = NULL;
+        const char *msg;
         int audit_fd;
 
         audit_fd = get_audit_fd();
@@ -1854,30 +2064,30 @@ void manager_send_unit_audit(Manager *m, Unit *u, int type, bool success) {
 
         p = unit_name_to_prefix_and_instance(u->id);
         if (!p) {
-                log_error_unit(u->id,
-                               "Failed to allocate unit name for audit message: %s", strerror(ENOMEM));
+                log_oom();
                 return;
         }
 
-        if (audit_log_user_comm_message(audit_fd, type, "", p, NULL, NULL, NULL, success) < 0) {
-                if (errno == EPERM) {
+        msg = strappenda("unit=", p);
+
+        if (audit_log_user_comm_message(audit_fd, type, msg, "systemd", NULL, NULL, NULL, success) < 0) {
+                if (errno == EPERM)
                         /* We aren't allowed to send audit messages?
                          * Then let's not retry again. */
                         close_audit_fd();
-                else
+                else
                         log_warning("Failed to send audit message: %m");
         }
-
-        free(p);
 #endif
 
 }
 
 void manager_send_unit_plymouth(Manager *m, Unit *u) {
-        int fd = -1;
-        union sockaddr_union sa;
+        union sockaddr_union sa = PLYMOUTH_SOCKET;
+
         int n = 0;
-        char *message = NULL;
+        _cleanup_free_ char *message = NULL;
+        _cleanup_close_ int fd = -1;
 
         /* Don't generate plymouth events if the service was already
          * started and we're just deserializing */
@@ -1903,46 +2113,22 @@ void manager_send_unit_plymouth(Manager *m, Unit *u) {
                 return;
         }
 
-        zero(sa);
-        sa.sa.sa_family = AF_UNIX;
-        strncpy(sa.un.sun_path+1, "/org/freedesktop/plymouthd", sizeof(sa.un.sun_path)-1);
         if (connect(fd, &sa.sa, offsetof(struct sockaddr_un, sun_path) + 1 + strlen(sa.un.sun_path+1)) < 0) {
 
-                if (errno != EPIPE &&
-                    errno != EAGAIN &&
-                    errno != ENOENT &&
-                    errno != ECONNREFUSED &&
-                    errno != ECONNRESET &&
-                    errno != ECONNABORTED)
+                if (!IN_SET(errno, EPIPE, EAGAIN, ENOENT, ECONNREFUSED, ECONNRESET, ECONNABORTED))
                         log_error("connect() failed: %m");
-
-                goto finish;
+                return;
         }
 
         if (asprintf(&message, "U\002%c%s%n", (int) (strlen(u->id) + 1), u->id, &n) < 0) {
                 log_oom();
-                goto finish;
+                return;
         }
 
         errno = 0;
-        if (write(fd, message, n + 1) != n + 1) {
-
-                if (errno != EPIPE &&
-                    errno != EAGAIN &&
-                    errno != ENOENT &&
-                    errno != ECONNREFUSED &&
-                    errno != ECONNRESET &&
-                    errno != ECONNABORTED)
+        if (write(fd, message, n + 1) != n + 1)
+                if (!IN_SET(errno, EPIPE, EAGAIN, ENOENT, ECONNREFUSED, ECONNRESET, ECONNABORTED))
                         log_error("Failed to write Plymouth message: %m");
-
-                goto finish;
-        }
-
-finish:
-        if (fd >= 0)
-                close_nointr_nofail(fd);
-
-        free(message);
 }
 
 void manager_dispatch_bus_name_owner_changed(
@@ -1964,33 +2150,22 @@ void manager_dispatch_bus_name_owner_changed(
 }
 
 int manager_open_serialization(Manager *m, FILE **_f) {
-        _cleanup_free_ char *path = NULL;
+        const char *path;
         int fd = -1;
         FILE *f;
 
         assert(_f);
 
-        if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
-                asprintf(&path, "/run/systemd/dump-"PID_FMT"-XXXXXX", getpid());
-        else
-                asprintf(&path, "/tmp/systemd-dump-"PID_FMT"-XXXXXX", getpid());
-
-        if (!path)
-                return -ENOMEM;
-
-        RUN_WITH_UMASK(0077) {
-                fd = mkostemp(path, O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC);
-        }
-
+        path = m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM ? "/run/systemd" : "/tmp";
+        fd = open_tmpfile(path, O_RDWR|O_CLOEXEC);
         if (fd < 0)
                 return -errno;
 
-        unlink(path);
         log_debug("Serializing state to %s", path);
 
         f = fdopen(fd, "w+");
         if (!f) {
-                close_nointr_nofail(fd);
+                safe_close(fd);
                 return -errno;
         }
 
@@ -2066,7 +2241,7 @@ int manager_serialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds, bool switching_root) {
                 fprintf(f, "kdbus-fd=%i\n", copy);
         }
 
-        bus_serialize(m, f);
+        bus_track_serialize(m->subscribed, f);
 
         fputc('\n', f);
 
@@ -2074,9 +2249,6 @@ int manager_serialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds, bool switching_root) {
                 if (u->id != t)
                         continue;
 
-                if (!unit_can_serialize(u))
-                        continue;
-
                 /* Start marker */
                 fputs(u->id, f);
                 fputc('\n', f);
@@ -2133,7 +2305,7 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                         uint32_t id;
 
                         if (safe_atou32(l+15, &id) < 0)
-                                log_debug("Failed to parse current job id value %s", l+15);
+                                log_warning("Failed to parse current job id value %s", l+15);
                         else
                                 m->current_job_id = MAX(m->current_job_id, id);
 
@@ -2141,7 +2313,7 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                         uint32_t n;
 
                         if (safe_atou32(l+17, &n) < 0)
-                                log_debug("Failed to parse installed jobs counter %s", l+17);
+                                log_warning("Failed to parse installed jobs counter %s", l+17);
                         else
                                 m->n_installed_jobs += n;
 
@@ -2149,7 +2321,7 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                         uint32_t n;
 
                         if (safe_atou32(l+14, &n) < 0)
-                                log_debug("Failed to parse failed jobs counter %s", l+14);
+                                log_warning("Failed to parse failed jobs counter %s", l+14);
                         else
                                 m->n_failed_jobs += n;
 
@@ -2158,7 +2330,7 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
 
                         b = parse_boolean(l+10);
                         if (b < 0)
-                                log_debug("Failed to parse taint /usr flag %s", l+10);
+                                log_warning("Failed to parse taint /usr flag %s", l+10);
                         else
                                 m->taint_usr = m->taint_usr || b;
 
@@ -2209,13 +2381,10 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                         int fd;
 
                         if (safe_atoi(l + 10, &fd) < 0 || fd < 0 || !fdset_contains(fds, fd))
-                                log_debug("Failed to parse notify fd: %s", l + 10);
+                                log_warning("Failed to parse notify fd: %s", l + 10);
                         else {
-                                if (m->notify_fd >= 0) {
-                                        m->notify_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->notify_event_source);
-                                        close_nointr_nofail(m->notify_fd);
-                                }
-
+                                m->notify_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->notify_event_source);
+                                safe_close(m->notify_fd);
                                 m->notify_fd = fdset_remove(fds, fd);
                         }
 
@@ -2235,16 +2404,14 @@ int manager_deserialize(Manager *m, FILE *f, FDSet *fds) {
                         int fd;
 
                         if (safe_atoi(l + 9, &fd) < 0 || fd < 0 || !fdset_contains(fds, fd))
-                                log_debug("Failed to parse kdbus fd: %s", l + 9);
+                                log_warning("Failed to parse kdbus fd: %s", l + 9);
                         else {
-                                if (m->kdbus_fd >= 0)
-                                        close_nointr_nofail(m->kdbus_fd);
-
+                                safe_close(m->kdbus_fd);
                                 m->kdbus_fd = fdset_remove(fds, fd);
                         }
 
-                } else if (bus_deserialize_item(m, l) == 0)
-                        log_debug("Unknown serialization item '%s'", l);
+                } else if (bus_track_deserialize_item(&m->deserialized_subscribed, l) < 0)
+                        log_warning("Unknown serialization item '%s'", l);
         }
 
         for (;;) {
@@ -2323,6 +2490,7 @@ int manager_reload(Manager *m) {
 
         q = lookup_paths_init(
                         &m->lookup_paths, m->running_as, true,
+                        NULL,
                         m->generator_unit_path,
                         m->generator_unit_path_early,
                         m->generator_unit_path_late);
@@ -2344,6 +2512,11 @@ int manager_reload(Manager *m) {
         fclose(f);
         f = NULL;
 
+        /* Re-register notify_fd as event source */
+        q = manager_setup_notify(m);
+        if (q < 0)
+                r = q;
+
         /* Third, fire things up! */
         q = manager_coldplug(m);
         if (q < 0)
@@ -2357,23 +2530,6 @@ int manager_reload(Manager *m) {
         return r;
 }
 
-static bool manager_is_booting_or_shutting_down(Manager *m) {
-        Unit *u;
-
-        assert(m);
-
-        /* Is the initial job still around? */
-        if (manager_get_job(m, m->default_unit_job_id))
-                return true;
-
-        /* Is there a job for the shutdown target? */
-        u = manager_get_unit(m, SPECIAL_SHUTDOWN_TARGET);
-        if (u)
-                return !!u->job;
-
-        return false;
-}
-
 bool manager_is_reloading_or_reexecuting(Manager *m) {
         assert(m);
 
@@ -2404,32 +2560,12 @@ bool manager_unit_inactive_or_pending(Manager *m, const char *name) {
         return unit_inactive_or_pending(u);
 }
 
-void manager_check_finished(Manager *m) {
+static void manager_notify_finished(Manager *m) {
         char userspace[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX], initrd[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX], kernel[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX], sum[FORMAT_TIMESPAN_MAX];
         usec_t firmware_usec, loader_usec, kernel_usec, initrd_usec, userspace_usec, total_usec;
 
-        assert(m);
-
-        if (m->n_running_jobs == 0)
-                m->jobs_in_progress_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->jobs_in_progress_event_source);
-
-        if (hashmap_size(m->jobs) > 0) {
-                if (m->jobs_in_progress_event_source)
-                        sd_event_source_set_time(m->jobs_in_progress_event_source, JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_PERIOD_SEC);
+        if (m->test_run)
                 return;
-        }
-
-        /* Notify Type=idle units that we are done now */
-        m->idle_pipe_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->idle_pipe_event_source);
-        manager_close_idle_pipe(m);
-
-        /* Turn off confirm spawn now */
-        m->confirm_spawn = false;
-
-        if (dual_timestamp_is_set(&m->finish_timestamp))
-                return;
-
-        dual_timestamp_get(&m->finish_timestamp);
 
         if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM && detect_container(NULL) <= 0) {
 
@@ -2448,53 +2584,95 @@ void manager_check_finished(Manager *m) {
                         kernel_usec = m->initrd_timestamp.monotonic - m->kernel_timestamp.monotonic;
                         initrd_usec = m->userspace_timestamp.monotonic - m->initrd_timestamp.monotonic;
 
-                        if (!log_on_console())
-                                log_struct(LOG_INFO,
-                                           MESSAGE_ID(SD_MESSAGE_STARTUP_FINISHED),
-                                           "KERNEL_USEC="USEC_FMT, kernel_usec,
-                                           "INITRD_USEC="USEC_FMT, initrd_usec,
-                                           "USERSPACE_USEC="USEC_FMT, userspace_usec,
-                                           "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s (kernel) + %s (initrd) + %s (userspace) = %s.",
-                                           format_timespan(kernel, sizeof(kernel), kernel_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
-                                           format_timespan(initrd, sizeof(initrd), initrd_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
-                                           format_timespan(userspace, sizeof(userspace), userspace_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
-                                           format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
-                                           NULL);
+                        log_struct(LOG_INFO,
+                                   MESSAGE_ID(SD_MESSAGE_STARTUP_FINISHED),
+                                   "KERNEL_USEC="USEC_FMT, kernel_usec,
+                                   "INITRD_USEC="USEC_FMT, initrd_usec,
+                                   "USERSPACE_USEC="USEC_FMT, userspace_usec,
+                                   "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s (kernel) + %s (initrd) + %s (userspace) = %s.",
+                                   format_timespan(kernel, sizeof(kernel), kernel_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                   format_timespan(initrd, sizeof(initrd), initrd_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                   format_timespan(userspace, sizeof(userspace), userspace_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                   format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                   NULL);
                 } else {
                         kernel_usec = m->userspace_timestamp.monotonic - m->kernel_timestamp.monotonic;
                         initrd_usec = 0;
 
-                        if (!log_on_console())
-                                log_struct(LOG_INFO,
-                                           MESSAGE_ID(SD_MESSAGE_STARTUP_FINISHED),
-                                           "KERNEL_USEC="USEC_FMT, kernel_usec,
-                                           "USERSPACE_USEC="USEC_FMT, userspace_usec,
-                                           "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s (kernel) + %s (userspace) = %s.",
-                                           format_timespan(kernel, sizeof(kernel), kernel_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
-                                           format_timespan(userspace, sizeof(userspace), userspace_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
-                                           format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
-                                           NULL);
-                }
-        } else {
-                firmware_usec = loader_usec = initrd_usec = kernel_usec = 0;
-                total_usec = userspace_usec = m->finish_timestamp.monotonic - m->userspace_timestamp.monotonic;
-
-                if (!log_on_console())
                         log_struct(LOG_INFO,
                                    MESSAGE_ID(SD_MESSAGE_STARTUP_FINISHED),
+                                   "KERNEL_USEC="USEC_FMT, kernel_usec,
                                    "USERSPACE_USEC="USEC_FMT, userspace_usec,
-                                   "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s.",
+                                   "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s (kernel) + %s (userspace) = %s.",
+                                   format_timespan(kernel, sizeof(kernel), kernel_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                                   format_timespan(userspace, sizeof(userspace), userspace_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
                                    format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
                                    NULL);
+                }
+        } else {
+                firmware_usec = loader_usec = initrd_usec = kernel_usec = 0;
+                total_usec = userspace_usec = m->finish_timestamp.monotonic - m->userspace_timestamp.monotonic;
+
+                log_struct(LOG_INFO,
+                           MESSAGE_ID(SD_MESSAGE_STARTUP_FINISHED),
+                           "USERSPACE_USEC="USEC_FMT, userspace_usec,
+                           "MESSAGE=Startup finished in %s.",
+                           format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC),
+                           NULL);
         }
 
         bus_manager_send_finished(m, firmware_usec, loader_usec, kernel_usec, initrd_usec, userspace_usec, total_usec);
 
         sd_notifyf(false,
-                   "READY=1\nSTATUS=Startup finished in %s.",
+                   "READY=1\n"
+                   "STATUS=Startup finished in %s.",
                    format_timespan(sum, sizeof(sum), total_usec, USEC_PER_MSEC));
 }
 
+void manager_check_finished(Manager *m) {
+        Unit *u = NULL;
+        Iterator i;
+
+        assert(m);
+
+        if (m->n_running_jobs == 0)
+                m->jobs_in_progress_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->jobs_in_progress_event_source);
+
+        if (hashmap_size(m->jobs) > 0) {
+
+                if (m->jobs_in_progress_event_source)
+                        sd_event_source_set_time(m->jobs_in_progress_event_source, now(CLOCK_MONOTONIC) + JOBS_IN_PROGRESS_WAIT_USEC);
+
+                return;
+        }
+
+        manager_flip_auto_status(m, false);
+
+        /* Notify Type=idle units that we are done now */
+        m->idle_pipe_event_source = sd_event_source_unref(m->idle_pipe_event_source);
+        manager_close_idle_pipe(m);
+
+        /* Turn off confirm spawn now */
+        m->confirm_spawn = false;
+
+        /* No need to update ask password status when we're going non-interactive */
+        manager_close_ask_password(m);
+
+        /* This is no longer the first boot */
+        manager_set_first_boot(m, false);
+
+        if (dual_timestamp_is_set(&m->finish_timestamp))
+                return;
+
+        dual_timestamp_get(&m->finish_timestamp);
+
+        manager_notify_finished(m);
+
+        SET_FOREACH(u, m->startup_units, i)
+                if (u->cgroup_path)
+                        cgroup_context_apply(unit_get_cgroup_context(u), unit_get_cgroup_mask(u), u->cgroup_path, manager_state(m));
+}
+
 static int create_generator_dir(Manager *m, char **generator, const char *name) {
         char *p;
         int r;
@@ -2507,6 +2685,7 @@ static int create_generator_dir(Manager *m, char **generator, const char *name)
                 return 0;
 
         if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM && getpid() == 1) {
+                /* systemd --system, not running --test */
 
                 p = strappend("/run/systemd/", name);
                 if (!p)
@@ -2519,7 +2698,26 @@ static int create_generator_dir(Manager *m, char **generator, const char *name)
                         free(p);
                         return r;
                 }
+        } else if (m->running_as == SYSTEMD_USER) {
+                const char *s = NULL;
+
+                s = getenv("XDG_RUNTIME_DIR");
+                if (!s)
+                        return -EINVAL;
+                p = strjoin(s, "/systemd/", name, NULL);
+                if (!p)
+                        return log_oom();
+
+                r = mkdir_p_label(p, 0755);
+                if (r < 0) {
+                        log_error("Failed to create generator directory %s: %s",
+                                  p, strerror(-r));
+                        free(p);
+                        return r;
+                }
         } else {
+                /* systemd --system --test */
+
                 p = strjoin("/tmp/systemd-", name, ".XXXXXX", NULL);
                 if (!p)
                         return log_oom();
@@ -2559,6 +2757,9 @@ void manager_run_generators(Manager *m) {
 
         assert(m);
 
+        if (m->test_run)
+                return;
+
         generator_path = m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM ? SYSTEM_GENERATOR_PATH : USER_GENERATOR_PATH;
         d = opendir(generator_path);
         if (!d) {
@@ -2589,7 +2790,7 @@ void manager_run_generators(Manager *m) {
         argv[4] = NULL;
 
         RUN_WITH_UMASK(0022)
-                execute_directory(generator_path, d, (char**) argv);
+                execute_directory(generator_path, d, DEFAULT_TIMEOUT_USEC, (char**) argv);
 
 finish:
         trim_generator_dir(m, &m->generator_unit_path);
@@ -2635,8 +2836,10 @@ int manager_environment_add(Manager *m, char **minus, char **plus) {
 
         if (!strv_isempty(plus)) {
                 b = strv_env_merge(2, l, plus);
-                if (!b)
+                if (!b) {
+                        strv_free(a);
                         return -ENOMEM;
+                }
 
                 l = b;
         }
@@ -2648,7 +2851,10 @@ int manager_environment_add(Manager *m, char **minus, char **plus) {
         if (b != l)
                 strv_free(b);
 
-        m->environment = strv_sort(l);
+        m->environment = l;
+        manager_clean_environment(m);
+        strv_sort(m->environment);
+
         return 0;
 }
 
@@ -2657,7 +2863,7 @@ int manager_set_default_rlimits(Manager *m, struct rlimit **default_rlimit) {
 
         assert(m);
 
-        for (i = 0; i < RLIMIT_NLIMITS; i++) {
+        for (i = 0; i < _RLIMIT_MAX; i++) {
                 if (!default_rlimit[i])
                         continue;
 
@@ -2694,21 +2900,22 @@ void manager_recheck_journal(Manager *m) {
         log_open();
 }
 
-void manager_set_show_status(Manager *m, bool b) {
+void manager_set_show_status(Manager *m, ShowStatus mode) {
         assert(m);
+        assert(IN_SET(mode, SHOW_STATUS_AUTO, SHOW_STATUS_NO, SHOW_STATUS_YES, SHOW_STATUS_TEMPORARY));
 
         if (m->running_as != SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
                 return;
 
-        m->show_status = b;
+        m->show_status = mode;
 
-        if (b)
+        if (mode > 0)
                 touch("/run/systemd/show-status");
         else
                 unlink("/run/systemd/show-status");
 }
 
-static bool manager_get_show_status(Manager *m) {
+static bool manager_get_show_status(Manager *m, StatusType type) {
         assert(m);
 
         if (m->running_as != SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
@@ -2717,31 +2924,50 @@ static bool manager_get_show_status(Manager *m) {
         if (m->no_console_output)
                 return false;
 
-        if (m->show_status)
+        if (!IN_SET(manager_state(m), MANAGER_INITIALIZING, MANAGER_STARTING, MANAGER_STOPPING))
+                return false;
+
+        /* If we cannot find out the status properly, just proceed. */
+        if (type != STATUS_TYPE_EMERGENCY && manager_check_ask_password(m) > 0)
+                return false;
+
+        if (m->show_status > 0)
                 return true;
 
         /* If Plymouth is running make sure we show the status, so
          * that there's something nice to see when people press Esc */
-
         return plymouth_running();
 }
 
-void manager_status_printf(Manager *m, bool ephemeral, const char *status, const char *format, ...) {
+void manager_set_first_boot(Manager *m, bool b) {
+        assert(m);
+
+        if (m->running_as != SYSTEMD_SYSTEM)
+                return;
+
+        m->first_boot = b;
+
+        if (m->first_boot)
+                touch("/run/systemd/first-boot");
+        else
+                unlink("/run/systemd/first-boot");
+}
+
+void manager_status_printf(Manager *m, StatusType type, const char *status, const char *format, ...) {
         va_list ap;
 
-        if (!manager_get_show_status(m))
+        /* If m is NULL, assume we're after shutdown and let the messages through. */
+
+        if (m && !manager_get_show_status(m, type))
                 return;
 
         /* XXX We should totally drop the check for ephemeral here
          * and thus effectively make 'Type=idle' pointless. */
-        if (ephemeral && m->n_on_console > 0)
-                return;
-
-        if (!manager_is_booting_or_shutting_down(m))
+        if (type == STATUS_TYPE_EPHEMERAL && m && m->n_on_console > 0)
                 return;
 
         va_start(ap, format);
-        status_vprintf(status, true, ephemeral, format, ap);
+        status_vprintf(status, true, type == STATUS_TYPE_EPHEMERAL, format, ap);
         va_end(ap);
 }
 
@@ -2779,3 +3005,60 @@ Set *manager_get_units_requiring_mounts_for(Manager *m, const char *path) {
 
         return hashmap_get(m->units_requiring_mounts_for, streq(p, "/") ? "" : p);
 }
+
+const char *manager_get_runtime_prefix(Manager *m) {
+        assert(m);
+
+        return m->running_as == SYSTEMD_SYSTEM ?
+               "/run" :
+               getenv("XDG_RUNTIME_DIR");
+}
+
+ManagerState manager_state(Manager *m) {
+        Unit *u;
+
+        assert(m);
+
+        /* Did we ever finish booting? If not then we are still starting up */
+        if (!dual_timestamp_is_set(&m->finish_timestamp)) {
+
+                u = manager_get_unit(m, SPECIAL_BASIC_TARGET);
+                if (!u || !UNIT_IS_ACTIVE_OR_RELOADING(unit_active_state(u)))
+                        return MANAGER_INITIALIZING;
+
+                return MANAGER_STARTING;
+        }
+
+        /* Is the special shutdown target queued? If so, we are in shutdown state */
+        u = manager_get_unit(m, SPECIAL_SHUTDOWN_TARGET);
+        if (u && u->job && IN_SET(u->job->type, JOB_START, JOB_RESTART, JOB_TRY_RESTART, JOB_RELOAD_OR_START))
+                return MANAGER_STOPPING;
+
+        /* Are the rescue or emergency targets active or queued? If so we are in maintenance state */
+        u = manager_get_unit(m, SPECIAL_RESCUE_TARGET);
+        if (u && (UNIT_IS_ACTIVE_OR_ACTIVATING(unit_active_state(u)) ||
+                  (u->job && IN_SET(u->job->type, JOB_START, JOB_RESTART, JOB_TRY_RESTART, JOB_RELOAD_OR_START))))
+                return MANAGER_MAINTENANCE;
+
+        u = manager_get_unit(m, SPECIAL_EMERGENCY_TARGET);
+        if (u && (UNIT_IS_ACTIVE_OR_ACTIVATING(unit_active_state(u)) ||
+                  (u->job && IN_SET(u->job->type, JOB_START, JOB_RESTART, JOB_TRY_RESTART, JOB_RELOAD_OR_START))))
+                return MANAGER_MAINTENANCE;
+
+        /* Are there any failed units? If so, we are in degraded mode */
+        if (set_size(m->failed_units) > 0)
+                return MANAGER_DEGRADED;
+
+        return MANAGER_RUNNING;
+}
+
+static const char *const manager_state_table[_MANAGER_STATE_MAX] = {
+        [MANAGER_INITIALIZING] = "initializing",
+        [MANAGER_STARTING] = "starting",
+        [MANAGER_RUNNING] = "running",
+        [MANAGER_DEGRADED] = "degraded",
+        [MANAGER_MAINTENANCE] = "maintenance",
+        [MANAGER_STOPPING] = "stopping",
+};
+
+DEFINE_STRING_TABLE_LOOKUP(manager_state, ManagerState);