chiark / gitweb /
machined: optionally, allow registration of pre-existing units (scopes
[elogind.git] / man / systemd.special.xml
index 4c64a0f..76bb5cd 100644 (file)
@@ -8,16 +8,16 @@
   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
 
   systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
 
   systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-  under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+  under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
+  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
   (at your option) any later version.
 
   systemd is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
   (at your option) any later version.
 
   systemd is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
-  General Public License for more details.
+  Lesser General Public License for more details.
 
 
-  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+  You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
   along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 -->
 
   along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 -->
 
 
         <refsynopsisdiv>
                 <para><filename>basic.target</filename>,
 
         <refsynopsisdiv>
                 <para><filename>basic.target</filename>,
+                <filename>bluetooth.target</filename>,
                 <filename>ctrl-alt-del.target</filename>,
                 <filename>ctrl-alt-del.target</filename>,
+                <filename>cryptsetup.target</filename>,
                 <filename>dbus.service</filename>,
                 <filename>dbus.socket</filename>,
                 <filename>default.target</filename>,
                 <filename>display-manager.service</filename>,
                 <filename>emergency.target</filename>,
                 <filename>dbus.service</filename>,
                 <filename>dbus.socket</filename>,
                 <filename>default.target</filename>,
                 <filename>display-manager.service</filename>,
                 <filename>emergency.target</filename>,
-                <filename>exit.service</filename>,
-                <filename>final.service</filename>,
+                <filename>exit.target</filename>,
+                <filename>final.target</filename>,
+                <filename>getty.target</filename>,
                 <filename>graphical.target</filename>,
                 <filename>graphical.target</filename>,
-                <filename>http-daemon.target</filename>,
                 <filename>halt.target</filename>,
                 <filename>halt.target</filename>,
+                <filename>hibernate.target</filename>,
+                <filename>hybrid-sleep.target</filename>,
+                <filename>initrd-fs.target</filename>,
                 <filename>kbrequest.target</filename>,
                 <filename>kexec.target</filename>,
                 <filename>local-fs.target</filename>,
                 <filename>local-fs-pre.target</filename>,
                 <filename>kbrequest.target</filename>,
                 <filename>kexec.target</filename>,
                 <filename>local-fs.target</filename>,
                 <filename>local-fs-pre.target</filename>,
-                <filename>mail-transfer-agent.target</filename>,
                 <filename>multi-user.target</filename>,
                 <filename>network.target</filename>,
                 <filename>multi-user.target</filename>,
                 <filename>network.target</filename>,
+                <filename>network-online.target</filename>,
                 <filename>nss-lookup.target</filename>,
                 <filename>nss-lookup.target</filename>,
+                <filename>nss-user-lookup.target</filename>,
+                <filename>paths.target</filename>,
                 <filename>poweroff.target</filename>,
                 <filename>poweroff.target</filename>,
+                <filename>printer.target</filename>,
                 <filename>reboot.target</filename>,
                 <filename>remote-fs.target</filename>,
                 <filename>remote-fs-pre.target</filename>,
                 <filename>rescue.target</filename>,
                 <filename>reboot.target</filename>,
                 <filename>remote-fs.target</filename>,
                 <filename>remote-fs-pre.target</filename>,
                 <filename>rescue.target</filename>,
+                <filename>initrd-root-fs.target</filename>,
                 <filename>rpcbind.target</filename>,
                 <filename>runlevel2.target</filename>,
                 <filename>runlevel3.target</filename>,
                 <filename>rpcbind.target</filename>,
                 <filename>runlevel2.target</filename>,
                 <filename>runlevel3.target</filename>,
                 <filename>runlevel5.target</filename>,
                 <filename>shutdown.target</filename>,
                 <filename>sigpwr.target</filename>,
                 <filename>runlevel5.target</filename>,
                 <filename>shutdown.target</filename>,
                 <filename>sigpwr.target</filename>,
+                <filename>sleep.target</filename>,
+                <filename>smartcard.target</filename>,
                 <filename>sockets.target</filename>,
                 <filename>sockets.target</filename>,
+                <filename>sound.target</filename>,
+                <filename>suspend.target</filename>,
                 <filename>swap.target</filename>,
                 <filename>sysinit.target</filename>,
                 <filename>swap.target</filename>,
                 <filename>sysinit.target</filename>,
-                <filename>syslog.service</filename>,
                 <filename>syslog.socket</filename>,
                 <filename>syslog.socket</filename>,
-                <filename>syslog.target</filename>,
+                <filename>system-update.target</filename>,
                 <filename>time-sync.target</filename>,
                 <filename>time-sync.target</filename>,
-                <filename>umount.target</filename></para>
+                <filename>timers.target</filename>,
+                <filename>umount.target</filename>,
+                <filename>-.slice</filename>,
+                <filename>system.slice</filename>,
+                <filename>user.slice</filename>,
+                <filename>machine.slice</filename></para>
         </refsynopsisdiv>
 
         <refsect1>
         </refsynopsisdiv>
 
         <refsect1>
                                 <term><filename>basic.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                 <term><filename>basic.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
-                                        covering early boot-up.</para>
+                                        covering basic boot-up.</para>
                                         <para>systemd automatically
                                         adds dependencies of the types
                                         <para>systemd automatically
                                         adds dependencies of the types
-                                        Requires and After for this
-                                        target unit to all SysV
-                                        service units configured for
-                                        runlevel 1 to 5.</para>
-                                        <para>Usually this should pull-in
-                                        all sockets, mount points,
-                                        swap devices and other basic
+                                        <varname>Requires=</varname>
+                                        and <varname>After=</varname>
+                                        for this target unit to all
+                                        services (except for those
+                                        with
+                                        <varname>DefaultDependencies=no</varname>).</para>
+
+                                        <para>Usually this should
+                                        pull-in all mount points, swap
+                                        devices, sockets, timers, and
+                                        path units and other basic
                                         initialization necessary for
                                         initialization necessary for
-                                        the general purpose
-                                        daemons. Most normal daemons
-                                        should have dependencies of
-                                        type After and Requires on
-                                        this unit.</para>
+                                        general purpose
+                                        daemons.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>cryptsetup.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>A target that pulls in
+                                        setup services for all
+                                        encrypted block
+                                        devices.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>dbus.service</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special unit for the
                                 <term><filename>dbus.service</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special unit for the
-                                        D-Bus system bus. As soon as
+                                        D-Bus bus daemon. As soon as
                                         this service is fully started
                                         up systemd will connect to it
                                         and register its
                                         this service is fully started
                                         up systemd will connect to it
                                         and register its
                                         <para>A special unit for the
                                         D-Bus system bus socket. All
                                         units with
                                         <para>A special unit for the
                                         D-Bus system bus socket. All
                                         units with
-                                        <literal>Type=dbus</literal>
+                                        <varname>Type=dbus</varname>
                                         automatically gain a
                                         dependency on this
                                         unit.</para>
                                         automatically gain a
                                         dependency on this
                                         unit.</para>
                                         <filename>multi-user.target</filename>
                                         or
                                         <filename>graphical.target</filename>.</para>
                                         <filename>multi-user.target</filename>
                                         or
                                         <filename>graphical.target</filename>.</para>
+
                                         <para>The default unit systemd
                                         starts at bootup can be
                                         overridden with the
                                         <para>The default unit systemd
                                         starts at bootup can be
                                         overridden with the
                                         <filename>gdm.service</filename>
                                         or a similar display manager
                                         service.</para>
                                         <filename>gdm.service</filename>
                                         or a similar display manager
                                         service.</para>
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with a LSB header
-                                        referring to the
-                                        <literal>$x-display-manager</literal>
-                                        facility, for compatibility
-                                        with Debian.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>getty.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>A special target unit
+                                        that pulls in statically
+                                        configured local TTY
+                                        <filename>getty</filename>
+                                        instances.
+                                        </para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>graphical.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                 <term><filename>graphical.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                         <filename>multi-user.target</filename>.</para>
 
                                         <para>Units that are needed
                                         <filename>multi-user.target</filename>.</para>
 
                                         <para>Units that are needed
-                                        for graphical login shall add
-                                        Wants dependencies for their
-                                        unit to this unit (or
+                                        for graphical logins shall add
+                                        <varname>Wants=</varname>
+                                        dependencies for their unit to
+                                        this unit (or
                                         <filename>multi-user.target</filename>)
                                         <filename>multi-user.target</filename>)
-                                        during installation.</para>
+                                        during installation. This is
+                                        best configured via
+                                        <varname>WantedBy=graphical.target</varname>
+                                        in the unit's
+                                        <literal>[Install]</literal>
+                                        section.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>http-daemon.target</filename></term>
+                                <term><filename>hibernate.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>A target for pulling in
-                                        an HTTP server if there is
-                                        any.</para>
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with a LSB header
-                                        referring to the
-                                        <literal>$httpd</literal>
-                                        facility.</para>
+                                        <para>A special target unit
+                                        for hibernating the
+                                        system. This pulls in
+                                        <filename>sleep.target</filename>.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>hybrid-sleep.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>A special target unit
+                                        for hibernating and suspending the
+                                        system at the same time. This pulls in
+                                        <filename>sleep.target</filename>.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>halt.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>halt.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
-                                        for shutting down and halting the system.</para>
+                                        for shutting down and halting
+                                        the system. Note that this
+                                        target is distinct from
+                                        <filename>poweroff.target</filename>
+                                        in that it generally really
+                                        just halts the system rather
+                                        than powering it down.</para>
 
                                         <para>Applications wanting to
                                         halt the system should start
 
                                         <para>Applications wanting to
                                         halt the system should start
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>initrd-fs.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-fstab-generator</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                        automatically adds
+                                        dependencies of type
+                                        <varname>Before=</varname> to
+                                        <filename>sysroot-usr.mount</filename>
+                                        and all mount points found in
+                                        <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
+                                        that have the
+                                        <option>auto</option> and
+                                        <option>x-initrd.mount</option>
+                                        mount options set.
+                                        </para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>kbrequest.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>systemd starts this
                                 <term><filename>kbrequest.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>systemd starts this
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>local-fs.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>local-fs.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
+                                        <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-fstab-generator</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                        automatically adds
+                                        dependencies of type
+                                        <varname>Before=</varname> to
+                                        all mount units that refer to
+                                        local mount points for this
+                                        target unit. In addition, it
                                         adds dependencies of type
                                         adds dependencies of type
-                                        After to all mount units that
-                                        refer to local mount points
-                                        for this target unit. In
-                                        addition, systemd adds
-                                        dependencies of type Wants to
+                                        <varname>Wants=</varname> to
                                         this target unit for those
                                         mounts listed in
                                         <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
                                         that have the
                                         this target unit for those
                                         mounts listed in
                                         <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
                                         that have the
-                                        <option>auto</option> and
-                                        <option>comment=systemd.mount</option>
-                                        mount options set.</para>
-
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with an LSB header
-                                        referring to the
-                                        <literal>$local_fs</literal>
-                                        facility.</para>
-                                </listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
-                        <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>local-fs-pre.target</filename></term>
-                                <listitem>
-                                        <para>This target unit is
-                                        automatically ordered before
-                                        all local mount points marked
-                                        with <option>auto</option>
-                                        (see above). It can be used to
-                                        execute certain units before
-                                        all local mounts.</para>
-                                </listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
-                        <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>mail-transfer-agent.target</filename></term>
-                                <listitem>
-                                        <para>The mail transfer agent
-                                        (MTA) service. Usually this
-                                        should pull-in all units
-                                        necessary for
-                                        sending/receiving mails on the
-                                        local host.</para>
-
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with an LSB header
-                                        referring to the
-                                        <literal>$mail-transfer-agent</literal>
-                                        or
-                                        <literal>$mail-transport-agent</literal>
-                                        facilities, for compatibility
-                                        with Debian.</para>
+                                        <option>auto</option> mount
+                                        option set.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
 
                                         <para>Units that are needed
                                         for a multi-user system shall
 
                                         <para>Units that are needed
                                         for a multi-user system shall
-                                        add Wants dependencies to
-                                        this unit for their unit during
-                                        installation.</para>
-                                </listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
-                        <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>network.target</filename></term>
-                                <listitem>
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with an LSB header
-                                        referring to the
-                                        <literal>$network</literal>
-                                        facility.</para>
+                                        add <varname>Wants=</varname>
+                                        dependencies for their unit to
+                                        this unit during
+                                        installation. This is best
+                                        configured via
+                                        <varname>WantedBy=multi-user.target</varname>
+                                        in the unit's
+                                        <literal>[Install]</literal>
+                                        section.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>nss-lookup.target</filename></term>
+                                <term><filename>network-online.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>A target that should be
-                                        used as synchronization point
-                                        for all host/network name
-                                        service lookups. Note that
-                                        this is independent of
-                                        user/group name lookups for
-                                        which
-                                        <filename>nss-user-lookup.target</filename>
-                                        should be used. systemd
-                                        automatically adds
-                                        dependencies of type After for
-                                        this target unit to all SysV
-                                        init script service units with
-                                        an LSB header referring to the
-                                        <literal>$named</literal>
-                                        facility.</para>
-                                </listitem>
+                                        <para>Units that strictly
+                                        require a configured network
+                                        connection should pull in
+                                        <filename>network-online.target</filename>
+                                        (via a
+                                        <varname>Wants=</varname> type
+                                        dependency) and order
+                                        themselves after it. This
+                                        target unit is intended to
+                                        pull in a service that delays
+                                        further execution until the
+                                        network is sufficiently set
+                                        up. What precisely this
+                                        requires is left to the
+                                        implementation of the network
+                                        managing service.</para>
+
+                                        <para>Note the distinction
+                                        between this unit and
+                                        <filename>network.target</filename>. This
+                                        unit is an active unit
+                                        (i.e. pulled in by the
+                                        consumer rather than the
+                                        provider of this
+                                        functionality) and pulls in a
+                                        service which possibly adds
+                                        substantial delays to further
+                                        execution. In contrast,
+                                        <filename>network.target</filename>
+                                        is a passive unit (i.e. pulled
+                                        in by the provider of the
+                                        functionality, rather than the
+                                        consumer) that usually does
+                                        not delay execution
+                                        much. Usually,
+                                        <filename>network.target</filename>
+                                        is part of the boot of most
+                                        systems, while
+                                        <filename>network-online.target</filename>
+                                        is not, except when at least
+                                        one unit requires it. Also see
+                                        <ulink
+                                        url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/NetworkTarget">Running
+                                        Services After the Network is
+                                        up</ulink> for more
+                                        information.</para>
+
+                                        <para>All mount units for
+                                        remote network file systems
+                                        automatically pull in this
+                                        unit, and order themselves
+                                        after it. Note that networking
+                                        daemons that simply provide
+                                        functionality to other hosts
+                                        generally do not need to pull
+                                        this in.</para>
+                                        </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>nss-user-lookup.target</filename></term>
+                                <term><filename>paths.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>A target that should be
-                                        used as synchronization point
-                                        for all user/group name
-                                        service lookups. Note that
-                                        this is independent of
-                                        host/network name lookups for
-                                        which
-                                        <filename>nss-lookup.target</filename>
-                                        should be used. </para>
+                                        <para>A special target unit
+                                        that sets up all path units
+                                        (see
+                                        <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.path</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                        for details) that shall be
+                                        active after boot.</para>
+
+                                        <para>It is recommended that
+                                        path units installed by
+                                        applications get pulled in via
+                                        <varname>Wants=</varname>
+                                        dependencies from this
+                                        unit. This is best configured
+                                        via a
+                                        <varname>WantedBy=paths.target</varname>
+                                        in the path unit's
+                                        <literal>[Install]</literal>
+                                        section.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
 
                                         <para>systemd automatically
                                         adds dependencies of type
 
                                         <para>systemd automatically
                                         adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with an LSB header
-                                        referring to the
+                                        <varname>After=</varname> for
+                                        this target unit to all SysV
+                                        init script service units with
+                                        an LSB header referring to the
                                         <literal>$remote_fs</literal>
                                         facility.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                         <literal>$remote_fs</literal>
                                         facility.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>remote-fs-pre.target</filename></term>
-                                <listitem>
-                                        <para>This target unit is
-                                        automatically ordered before
-                                        all remote mount points marked
-                                        with <option>auto</option>
-                                        (see above). It can be used to
-                                        execute certain units before
-                                        all remote mounts.</para>
-                                </listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
-                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>rescue.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                 <term><filename>rescue.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>rpcbind.target</filename></term>
+                                <term><filename>initrd-root-fs.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with an LSB header
-                                        referring to the
-                                        <literal>$rpcbind</literal>
-                                        facility.</para>
+                                        <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-fstab-generator</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                        automatically adds
+                                        dependencies of type
+                                        <varname>Before=</varname> to
+                                        the
+                                        <filename>sysroot.mount</filename>
+                                        unit, which is generated from
+                                        the kernel command line.
+                                        </para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>runlevel2.target</filename></term>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>runlevel2.target</filename></term>
-                                <listitem>
-                                        <para>This is a target that is
-                                        called whenever the SysV
-                                        compatibility code asks for
-                                        runlevel 2. It is a good idea
-                                        to make this an alias for
-                                        (i.e. symlink to)
-                                        <filename>multi-user.target</filename>.</para>
-                                </listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
-                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>runlevel3.target</filename></term>
                                 <term><filename>runlevel3.target</filename></term>
-                                <listitem>
-                                        <para>This is a target that is
-                                        called whenever the SysV
-                                        compatibility code asks for
-                                        runlevel 3. It is a good idea
-                                        to make this an alias for
-                                        (i.e. symlink to)
-                                        <filename>multi-user.target</filename>
-                                        or
-                                        <filename>graphical.target</filename>.</para>
-                                </listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
-                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>runlevel4.target</filename></term>
                                 <term><filename>runlevel4.target</filename></term>
-                                <listitem>
-                                        <para>This is a target that is
-                                        called whenever the SysV
-                                        compatibility code asks for
-                                        runlevel 4. It is a good idea
-                                        to make this an alias for
-                                        (i.e. symlink to)
-                                        <filename>multi-user.target</filename>
-                                        or
-                                        <filename>graphical.target</filename>.</para>
-                                </listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
-                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>runlevel5.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                 <term><filename>runlevel5.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>This is a target that is
-                                        called whenever the SysV
+                                        <para>These are targets that
+                                        are called whenever the SysV
                                         compatibility code asks for
                                         compatibility code asks for
-                                        runlevel 5. It is a good idea
-                                        to make this an alias for
+                                        runlevel 2, 3, 4, 5,
+                                        respectively. It is a good
+                                        idea to make this an alias for
                                         (i.e. symlink to)
                                         <filename>multi-user.target</filename>
                                         (i.e. symlink to)
                                         <filename>multi-user.target</filename>
-                                        or
-                                        <filename>graphical.target</filename>.</para>
+                                        (for runlevel 2) or
+                                        <filename>graphical.target</filename>
+                                        (the others).</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
 
                                         <para>Services that shall be
                                         terminated on system shutdown
 
                                         <para>Services that shall be
                                         terminated on system shutdown
-                                        shall add Conflicts
+                                        shall add <varname>Conflicts=</varname>
                                         dependencies to this unit for
                                         their service unit, which is
                                         implicitly done when
                                         <varname>DefaultDependencies=yes</varname>
                                         is set (the default).</para>
                                         dependencies to this unit for
                                         their service unit, which is
                                         implicitly done when
                                         <varname>DefaultDependencies=yes</varname>
                                         is set (the default).</para>
-
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        Conflicts to this target unit
-                                        for all SysV init script
-                                        service units that shall be
-                                        terminated in SysV runlevels 0
-                                        or 6.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>sleep.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>A special target unit
+                                        that is pulled in by
+                                        <filename>suspend.target</filename>,
+                                        <filename>hibernate.target</filename>
+                                        and
+                                        <filename>hybrid-sleep.target</filename>
+                                        and may be used to hook units
+                                        into the sleep state
+                                        logic.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>sockets.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                 <term><filename>sockets.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
-                                        that sets up all service
-                                        sockets.</para>
+                                        that sets up all socket
+                                        units.(see
+                                        <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                        for details) that shall be
+                                        active after boot.</para>
 
                                         <para>Services that can be
                                         socket-activated shall add
 
                                         <para>Services that can be
                                         socket-activated shall add
-                                        Wants dependencies to this
-                                        unit for their socket unit
-                                        during installation.</para>
+                                        <varname>Wants=</varname>
+                                        dependencies to this unit for
+                                        their socket unit during
+                                        installation. This is best
+                                        configured via a
+                                        <varname>WantedBy=sockets.target</varname>
+                                        in the socket unit's
+                                        <literal>[Install]</literal>
+                                        section.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>suspend.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>A special target unit
+                                        for suspending the
+                                        system. This pulls in
+                                        <filename>sleep.target</filename>.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                         covering early boot-up scripts.</para>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special target unit
                                         covering early boot-up scripts.</para>
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of the types
-                                        Wants and After for all
-                                        SysV service units configured
-                                        for runlevels that are not 0
-                                        to 6 to this target unit.
-                                        This covers the special
-                                        boot-up runlevels some
-                                        distributions have, such as S
-                                        or b.</para>
-                                </listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
-                        <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>syslog.service</filename></term>
-                                <listitem>
-                                        <para>The syslog service if
-                                        any. Implementations should
-                                        create a symlink from the
-                                        actual syslog implementation
-                                        to this generic name for
-                                        activating it.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>syslog.socket</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><filename>syslog.socket</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>The socket unit where
+                                        <para>The socket unit
                                         syslog implementations should
                                         listen on. All userspace log
                                         messages will be made
                                         syslog implementations should
                                         listen on. All userspace log
                                         messages will be made
-                                        available on this
-                                        socket.</para>
+                                        available on this socket. For
+                                        more information about syslog
+                                        integration, please consult
+                                        the <ulink
+                                        url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/syslog">Syslog
+                                        Interface</ulink>
+                                        document.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>syslog.target</filename></term>
+                                <term><filename>system-update.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with an LSB header
-                                        referring to the
-                                        <literal>$syslog</literal>
-                                        facility.</para>
+                                        <para>A special target unit
+                                        that is used for off-line
+                                        system updates.
+                                        <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system-update-generator</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                        will redirect the boot process
+                                        to this target if
+                                        <filename>/system-update</filename>
+                                        exists. For more information
+                                        see the <ulink
+                                        url="http://freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/SystemUpdates">System
+                                        Updates
+                                        Specification</ulink>.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>time-sync.target</filename></term>
+                                <term><filename>timers.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                 <listitem>
-                                        <para>systemd automatically
-                                        adds dependencies of type
-                                        After for this target unit to
-                                        all SysV init script service
-                                        units with an LSB header
-                                        referring to the
-                                        <literal>$time</literal>
-                                        facility.</para>
+                                        <para>A special target unit
+                                        that sets up all timer
+                                        units (see
+                                        <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.timer</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                        for details) that shall be
+                                        active after boot.</para>
+
+                                        <para>It is recommended that
+                                        timer units installed by
+                                        applications get pulled in via
+                                        <varname>Wants=</varname>
+                                        dependencies from this
+                                        unit. This is best configured
+                                        via
+                                        <varname>WantedBy=timers.target</varname>
+                                        in the timer unit's
+                                        <literal>[Install]</literal>
+                                        section.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                         <varlistentry>
                                         is set (the default).</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
                                         is set (the default).</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
+
+                </variablelist>
+        </refsect1>
+
+        <refsect1>
+                <title>Special System Units for Devices</title>
+
+                <para>Some target units are automatically pulled in as
+                devices of certain kinds show up in the system. These
+                may be used to automatically activate various services
+                based on the specific type of the available
+                hardware.</para>
+
+                <variablelist>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>bluetooth.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>This target is started
+                                        automatically as soon as a
+                                        Bluetooth controller is
+                                        plugged in or becomes
+                                        available at boot.</para>
+
+                                        <para>This may be used to pull
+                                        in Bluetooth management
+                                        daemons dynamically when
+                                        Bluetooth hardware is
+                                        found.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>printer.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>This target is started
+                                        automatically as soon as a
+                                        printer is plugged in or
+                                        becomes available at
+                                        boot.</para>
+
+                                        <para>This may be used to pull
+                                        in printer management
+                                        daemons dynamically when
+                                        printer hardware is
+                                        found.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>smartcard.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>This target is started
+                                        automatically as soon as a
+                                        smartcard controller is
+                                        plugged in or becomes
+                                        available at boot.</para>
+
+                                        <para>This may be used to pull
+                                        in smartcard management
+                                        daemons dynamically when
+                                        smartcard hardware is
+                                        found.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>sound.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>This target is started
+                                        automatically as soon as a
+                                        sound card is plugged in or
+                                        becomes available at
+                                        boot.</para>
+
+                                        <para>This may be used to pull
+                                        in audio management daemons
+                                        dynamically when audio
+                                        hardware is found.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                </variablelist>
+        </refsect1>
+
+        <refsect1>
+                <title>Special Passive System Units </title>
+
+                <para>A number of special system targets are defined
+                that can be used to properly order boot-up of optional
+                services. These targets are generally not part of the
+                initial boot transaction, unless they are explicitly
+                pulled in by one of the implementing services. Note
+                specifically, that these <emphasis>passive</emphasis>
+                target units are generally not pulled in by the
+                consumer of a service, but by the provider of the
+                service. This means: a consuming service should order
+                itself after these targets (as appropriate), but not
+                pull it in. A providing service should order itself
+                before these targets (as appropriate) and pull it in
+                (via a <varname>Wants=</varname> type
+                dependency).</para>
+
+                <para>Note that these passive units cannot be started
+                manually, i.e. <literal>systemctl start
+                time-sync.target</literal> will fail with an
+                error. They can only be pulled in by dependency. This
+                is enforced since they exist for ordering purposes
+                only and thus are not useful as only unit within a
+                transaction.</para>
+
+                <variablelist>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>local-fs-pre.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>This target unit is
+                                        automatically ordered before
+                                        all local mount points marked
+                                        with <option>auto</option>
+                                        (see above). It can be used to
+                                        execute certain units before
+                                        all local mounts.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>network.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>This unit is supposed to
+                                        indicate when network
+                                        functionality is available,
+                                        but it is only very weakly
+                                        defined what that is supposed
+                                        to mean, with one exception:
+                                        at shutdown, a unit that is
+                                        ordered after
+                                        <filename>network.target</filename>
+                                        will be stopped before the
+                                        network -- to whatever level
+                                        it might be set up then -- is
+                                        shut down. Also see <ulink
+                                        url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/NetworkTarget">Running
+                                        Services After the Network is
+                                        up</ulink> for more
+                                        information. Also see
+                                        <filename>network-online.target</filename>
+                                        described above.</para>
+
+                                        <para>systemd automatically
+                                        adds dependencies of type
+                                        <varname>After=</varname> for
+                                        this target unit to all SysV
+                                        init script service units with
+                                        an LSB header referring to the
+                                        <literal>$network</literal>
+                                        facility.</para>
+
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>nss-lookup.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>A target that should be
+                                        used as synchronization point
+                                        for all host/network name
+                                        service lookups. Note that
+                                        this is independent of
+                                        user/group name lookups for
+                                        which
+                                        <filename>nss-user-lookup.target</filename>
+                                        should be used. systemd
+                                        automatically adds
+                                        dependencies of type
+                                        <varname>After=</varname> for
+                                        this target unit to all SysV
+                                        init script service units with
+                                        an LSB header referring to the
+                                        <literal>$named</literal>
+                                        facility.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>nss-user-lookup.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>A target that should be
+                                        used as synchronization point
+                                        for all user/group name
+                                        service lookups. Note that
+                                        this is independent of
+                                        host/network name lookups for
+                                        which
+                                        <filename>nss-lookup.target</filename>
+                                        should be used. </para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>remote-fs-pre.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>This target unit is
+                                        automatically ordered before
+                                        all remote mount point units
+                                        (see above). It can be used to
+                                        run certain units before the
+                                        remote mounts are
+                                        established. Note that this
+                                        unit is generally not part of
+                                        the initial transaction,
+                                        unless the unit that wants to
+                                        be ordered before all remote
+                                        mounts pulls it in via a
+                                        <varname>Wants=</varname> type
+                                        dependency. If the unit wants
+                                        to be pulled in by the first
+                                        remote mount showing up, it
+                                        should use
+                                        <filename>network-online.target</filename>
+                                        (see above).</para>
+
+                                        <para>Again, this target unit
+                                        is <emphasis>not</emphasis>
+                                        suitable for pulling in other
+                                        units, it is only useful for
+                                        ordering.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>rpcbind.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>systemd automatically
+                                        adds dependencies of type
+                                        <varname>After=</varname> for
+                                        this target unit to all SysV
+                                        init script service units with
+                                        an LSB header referring to the
+                                        <literal>$portmap</literal>
+                                        facility.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>time-sync.target</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>systemd automatically
+                                        adds dependencies of type
+                                        <varname>After=</varname> for
+                                        this target unit to all SysV
+                                        init script service units with
+                                        an LSB header referring to the
+                                        <literal>$time</literal>
+                                        facility.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
                 </variablelist>
         </refsect1>
 
                 </variablelist>
         </refsect1>
 
                 similar definitions as their system counterparts:
                 <filename>default.target</filename>,
                 <filename>shutdown.target</filename>,
                 similar definitions as their system counterparts:
                 <filename>default.target</filename>,
                 <filename>shutdown.target</filename>,
-                <filename>sockets.target</filename></para>
+                <filename>sockets.target</filename>,
+                <filename>timers.target</filename>,
+                <filename>paths.target</filename>,
+                <filename>bluetooth.target</filename>,
+                <filename>printer.target</filename>,
+                <filename>smartcard.target</filename>,
+                <filename>sound.target</filename>.</para>
 
 
-                <para>In addition the following special unit is
+                <para>In addition, the following special unit is
                 understood only when systemd runs as service instance:</para>
 
                 <variablelist>
                         <varlistentry>
                 understood only when systemd runs as service instance:</para>
 
                 <variablelist>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><filename>exit.service</filename></term>
+                                <term><filename>exit.target</filename></term>
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special service unit
                                         for shutting down the
                                 <listitem>
                                         <para>A special service unit
                                         for shutting down the
                                         terminate the user service
                                         manager should start this
                                         unit. If systemd receives
                                         terminate the user service
                                         manager should start this
                                         unit. If systemd receives
-                                        SIGTERM or SIGINT when running
-                                        as user service daemon it will
+                                        <constant>SIGTERM</constant> or <constant>SIGINT</constant> when running
+                                        as user service daemon, it will
                                         start this unit.</para>
 
                                         <para>Normally, this pulls in
                                         start this unit.</para>
 
                                         <para>Normally, this pulls in
         </refsect1>
 
         <refsect1>
         </refsect1>
 
         <refsect1>
+                <title>Special Slice Units</title>
+
+                <para>There are four <literal>.slice</literal> units
+                which form the basis of the hierarchy for assignment
+                of resources for services, users, and virtual machines
+                or containers.</para>
+
+                <variablelist>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>-.slice</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>The root slice is the
+                                        root of the hierarchy. It
+                                        usually does not contain units
+                                        directly, but may be used to
+                                        set defaults for the whole
+                                        tree.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>system.slice</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>By default, all services
+                                        services started by
+                                        <command>systemd</command> are
+                                        found in this slice.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>user.slice</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>By default, all user
+                                        processes and services started
+                                        on behalf of the user,
+                                        including the per-user systemd
+                                        instance are found in this
+                                        slice.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><filename>machine.slice</filename></term>
+                                <listitem>
+                                        <para>By defalt, all virtual
+                                        machines and containers
+                                        registered with
+                                        <command>systemd-machined</command>
+                                        are found in this slice.
+                                        </para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+                </variablelist>
+        </refsect1>
+
+        <refsect1>
                   <title>See Also</title>
                   <para>
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                   <title>See Also</title>
                   <para>
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
-                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.target</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.target</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.slice</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bootup</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-fstab-generator</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
                   </para>
         </refsect1>
 
                   </para>
         </refsect1>