chiark / gitweb /
networkd: support vxlan parameters
[elogind.git] / man / systemd.service.xml
index 8eda85f..da9079c 100644 (file)
@@ -76,8 +76,8 @@
                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                 which define the way the processes of the service are
                 terminated, and in
-                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.cgroup</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
-                which configure control group settings for the
+                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                which configure resource control settings for the
                 processes of the service.</para>
 
                 <para>Unless <varname>DefaultDependencies=</varname>
                 script. This is useful for compatibility with
                 SysV. Note that this compatibility is quite
                 comprehensive but not 100%. For details about the
-                incompatibilities see the <ulink
+                incompatibilities, see the <ulink
                 url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities">Incompatibilities
                 with SysV</ulink> document.
                 </para>
 
                                 <para>If set to
                                 <option>simple</option> (the default
-                                value if <varname>BusName=</varname>
-                                is not specified), it is expected that
-                                the process configured with
+                                if neither
+                                <varname>Type=</varname> nor
+                                <varname>BusName=</varname>, but
+                                <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
+                                specified), it is expected that the
+                                process configured with
                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is the
                                 main process of the service. In this
                                 mode, if the process offers
                                 <varname>PIDFile=</varname> option, so
                                 that systemd can identify the main
                                 process of the daemon. systemd will
-                                proceed starting follow-up units as
-                                soon as the parent process
+                                proceed with starting follow-up units
+                                as soon as the parent process
                                 exits.</para>
 
                                 <para>Behavior of
-                                <option>oneshot</option> is similar
-                                to <option>simple</option>, however
-                                it is expected that the process has to
+                                <option>oneshot</option> is similar to
+                                <option>simple</option>; however, it
+                                is expected that the process has to
                                 exit before systemd starts follow-up
                                 units. <varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname>
                                 is particularly useful for this type
-                                of service.</para>
+                                of service. This is the implied
+                                default if neither
+                                <varname>Type=</varname> or
+                                <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
+                                specified.</para>
 
                                 <para>Behavior of
                                 <option>dbus</option> is similar to
-                                <option>simple</option>, however it is
+                                <option>simple</option>; however, it is
                                 expected that the daemon acquires a
                                 name on the D-Bus bus, as configured
                                 by
                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>. systemd
-                                will proceed starting follow-up units
-                                after the D-Bus bus name has been
+                                will proceed with starting follow-up
+                                units after the D-Bus bus name has been
                                 acquired. Service units with this
                                 option configured implicitly gain
                                 dependencies on the
 
                                 <para>Behavior of
                                 <option>notify</option> is similar to
-                                <option>simple</option>, however it is
+                                <option>simple</option>; however, it is
                                 expected that the daemon sends a
                                 notification message via
                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
-                                or an equivalent call when it finished
-                                starting up. systemd will proceed
+                                or an equivalent call when it has finished
+                                starting up. systemd will proceed with
                                 starting follow-up units after this
                                 notification message has been sent. If
                                 this option is used,
 
                                 <para>Behavior of
                                 <option>idle</option> is very similar
-                                to <option>simple</option>, however
+                                to <option>simple</option>; however,
                                 actual execution of the service
                                 binary is delayed until all jobs are
                                 dispatched. This may be used to avoid
                                 is set and <option>PIDFile=</option>
                                 is unset because for the other types
                                 or with an explicitly configured PID
-                                file the main PID is always known. The
+                                file, the main PID is always known. The
                                 guessing algorithm might come to
                                 incorrect conclusions if a daemon
                                 consists of more than one process. If
                                 <term><varname>BusName=</varname></term>
 
                                 <listitem><para>Takes a D-Bus bus
-                                name, that this service is reachable
+                                name that this service is reachable
                                 as. This option is mandatory for
                                 services where
                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
-                                <option>dbus</option>, but its use
-                                is otherwise recommended as well if
-                                the process takes a name on the D-Bus
-                                bus.</para>
+                                <option>dbus</option>.</para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><varname>BusPolicy=</varname></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>If specified, a custom
+                                <ulink url="https://code.google.com/p/d-bus/">kdbus</ulink>
+                                endpoint will be created and installed as the
+                                default bus node for the service. Such a custom
+                                endpoint can hold an own set of policy rules
+                                that are enforced on top of the bus-wide ones.
+                                The custom endpoint is named after the service
+                                it was created for, and its node will be
+                                bind-mounted over the default bus node
+                                location, so the service can only access the
+                                bus through its own endpoint. Note that custom
+                                bus endpoints default to a 'deny all' policy.
+                                Hence, if at least one
+                                <varname>BusPolicy=</varname> directive is
+                                given, you have to make sure to add explicit
+                                rules for everything the service should be able
+                                to do.</para>
+                                <para>The value of this directive is comprised
+                                of two parts; the bus name, and a verb to
+                                specify to granted access, which is one of
+                                <option>see</option>,
+                                <option>talk</option>, or
+                                <option>own</option>.
+                                <option>talk</option> implies
+                                <option>see</option>, and <option>own</option>
+                                implies both <option>talk</option> and
+                                <option>see</option>.
+                                If multiple access levels are specified for the
+                                same bus name, the most powerful one takes
+                                effect.
+                                </para>
+                                <para>Examples:</para>
+                                <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.freedesktop.systemd1 talk</programlisting>
+                                <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.foo.bar see</programlisting>
+                                <para>This option is only available on kdbus enabled systems.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                                 <term><varname>ExecStart=</varname></term>
                                 <listitem><para>Commands with their
                                 arguments that are executed when this
-                                service is started. The first
-                                argument must be an absolute path
-                                name.</para>
+                                service is started. The value is split
+                                into zero or more command lines is
+                                according to the rules described below
+                                (see section "Command Lines" below).
+                                </para>
 
                                 <para>When <varname>Type</varname> is
                                 not <option>oneshot</option>, only one
-                                command may be given. When
+                                command may and must be given. When
                                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
-                                used, more than one command may be
-                                specified. Multiple command lines may
-                                be concatenated in a single directive,
-                                by separating them with semicolons
-                                (these semicolons must be passed as
-                                separate words). Alternatively, this
-                                directive may be specified more than
-                                once with the same effect. However,
-                                the latter syntax is not recommended
-                                for compatibility with parsers
-                                suitable for XDG
-                                <filename>.desktop</filename> files.
-                                Lone semicolons may be escaped as
-                                <literal>\;</literal>. If the empty
-                                string is assigned to this option, the
-                                list of commands to start is reset,
-                                prior assignments of this option will
-                                have no effect.</para>
-
-                                <para>If more than one command is
-                                specified, the commands are invoked
-                                one by one sequentially in the order
-                                they appear in the unit file. If one
-                                of the commands fails (and is not
-                                prefixed with <literal>-</literal>),
-                                other lines are not executed and the
-                                unit is considered failed.</para>
-
-                                <para>Unless
-                                <varname>Type=forking</varname> is
-                                set, the process started via this
-                                command line will be considered the
-                                main process of the daemon.</para>
-
-                                <para>The command line accepts
-                                <literal>%</literal> specifiers as
-                                described in
-                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Note
-                                that the first argument of the command
-                                line (i.e. the program to execute) may
-                                not include specifiers.</para>
-
-                                <para>Basic environment variable
-                                substitution is supported. Use
-                                <literal>${FOO}</literal> as part of a
-                                word, or as a word of its own on the
-                                command line, in which case it will be
-                                replaced by the value of the
-                                environment variable including all
-                                whitespace it contains, resulting in a
-                                single argument.  Use
-                                <literal>$FOO</literal> as a separate
-                                word on the command line, in which
-                                case it will be replaced by the value
-                                of the environment variable split up
-                                at whitespace, resulting in zero or
-                                more arguments. Note that the first
-                                argument (i.e. the program to execute)
-                                may not be a variable, since it must
-                                be a literal and absolute path
-                                name.</para>
-
-                                <para>Optionally, if the absolute file
-                                name is prefixed with
+                                used, zero or more commands may be
+                                specified. This can be specified by
+                                providing multiple command lines in
+                                the same directive, or alternatively,
+                                this directive may be specified more
+                                than once with the same effect. If the
+                                empty string is assigned to this
+                                option, the list of commands to start
+                                is reset, prior assignments of this
+                                option will have no effect. If no
+                                <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is
+                                specified, then the service must have
+                                <varname>RemainAfterExit=yes</varname>
+                                set.</para>
+
+                                <para>For each of the specified
+                                commands, the first argument must be
+                                an absolute and literal path to an
+                                executable. Optionally, if the
+                                absolute file name is prefixed with
                                 <literal>@</literal>, the second token
                                 will be passed as
                                 <literal>argv[0]</literal> to the
                                 <literal>-</literal>, an exit code of
                                 the command normally considered a
                                 failure (i.e. non-zero exit status or
-                                abnormal exit due to signal) is ignored
-                                and considered success. If both
-                                <literal>-</literal> and
+                                abnormal exit due to signal) is
+                                ignored and considered success. If
+                                both <literal>-</literal> and
                                 <literal>@</literal> are used, they
                                 can appear in either order.</para>
 
-                                <para>Note that this setting does not
-                                directly support shell command
-                                lines. If shell command lines are to
-                                be used, they need to be passed
-                                explicitly to a shell implementation
-                                of some kind. Example:</para>
-                                <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/sh -c 'dmesg | tac'
-                                </programlisting>
-
-                                <para>For services run by a user
-                                instance of systemd the special
-                                environment variable
-                                <varname>$MANAGERPID</varname> is set
-                                to the PID of the systemd
-                                instance.</para>
-                                </listitem>
+                                <para>If more than one command is
+                                specified, the commands are invoked
+                                sequentially in the order they appear
+                                in the unit file. If one of the
+                                commands fails (and is not prefixed
+                                with <literal>-</literal>), other
+                                lines are not executed, and the unit
+                                is considered failed.</para>
+
+                                <para>Unless
+                                <varname>Type=forking</varname> is
+                                set, the process started via this
+                                command line will be considered the
+                                main process of the daemon.</para>
+
+                              </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
                                 here following the same scheme as for
                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>.</para>
 
-                                <para>One additional special
-                                environment variables is set: if known
+                                <para>One additional, special
+                                environment variable is set: if known,
                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname> is set to
                                 the main process of the daemon, and
                                 may be used for command lines like the
                                 following:</para>
 
                                 <programlisting>/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID</programlisting>
+
+                                <para>Note however that reloading a
+                                daemon by sending a signal (as with
+                                the example line above) is usually not
+                                a good choice, because this is an
+                                asynchronous operation and hence not
+                                suitable to order reloads of multiple
+                                services against each other. It is
+                                strongly recommended to set
+                                <varname>ExecReload=</varname> to a
+                                command that not only triggers a
+                                configuration reload of the daemon,
+                                but also synchronously waits for it to
+                                complete.</para>
                                 </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                                 following the same scheme as described
                                 for <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
                                 above. Use of this setting is
-                                optional. All processes remaining for
-                                a service after the commands
-                                configured in this option are run are
+                                optional. After the commands configured
+                                in this option are run, all processes
+                                remaining for a service are
                                 terminated according to the
                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname> setting
                                 (see
                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>). If
                                 this option is not specified, the
-                                process is terminated right-away when
+                                process is terminated immediately when
                                 service stop is requested. Specifier
                                 and environment variable substitution
                                 is supported (including
                                 daemon service does not signal
                                 start-up completion within the
                                 configured time, the service will be
-                                considered failed and be shut down
-                                again.
+                                considered failed and will be shut
+                                down again.
                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
                                 time span value such as "5min
-                                20s". Pass 0 to disable the timeout
-                                logic. Defaults to 90s, except when
-                                <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
-                                used in which case the timeout
-                                is disabled by default.
+                                20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to
+                                disable the timeout logic. Defaults to
+                                <varname>DefaultTimeoutStartSec=</varname> from
+                                the manager configuration file, except
+                                when <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
+                                used, in which case the timeout
+                                is disabled by default
+                                (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
                                 </para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname></term>
                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
                                 wait for stop. If a service is asked
-                                to stop but does not terminate in the
+                                to stop, but does not terminate in the
                                 specified time, it will be terminated
-                                forcibly via <constant>SIGTERM</constant>, and after
-                                another delay of this time with
-                                <constant>SIGKILL</constant> (See
+                                forcibly via <constant>SIGTERM</constant>,
+                                and after another timeout of equal duration
+                                with <constant>SIGKILL</constant> (see
                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname>
                                 in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
                                 time span value such as "5min
-                                20s". Pass 0 to disable the timeout
-                                logic. Defaults to 90s.
+                                20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to disable
+                                the timeout logic. Defaults to
+                                <varname>DefaultTimeoutStopSec=</varname> from the
+                                manager configuration file
+                                (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
                                 </para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                                 watchdog is activated when the start-up is
                                 completed. The service must call
                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
-                                regularly with "WATCHDOG=1" (i.e. the
-                                "keep-alive ping"). If the time
+                                regularly with <literal>WATCHDOG=1</literal>
+                                (i.e. the "keep-alive ping"). If the time
                                 between two such calls is larger than
                                 the configured time, then the service
-                                is placed in a failure state. By
-                                setting <varname>Restart=</varname> to
+                                is placed in a failed state and it will
+                                be terminated with <varname>SIGABRT</varname>.
+                                By setting <varname>Restart=</varname> to
                                 <option>on-failure</option> or
                                 <option>always</option>, the service
                                 will be automatically restarted. The
                                 service process exits, is killed,
                                 or a timeout is reached. The service
                                 process may be the main service
-                                process, but also one of the processes
-                                specified with
+                                process, but it may also be one of the
+                                processes specified with
                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
-                                <varname>ExecStopPre=</varname>,
+                                <varname>ExecStop=</varname>,
                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>, or
                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>.
                                 When the death of the process is a
                                 <option>no</option>,
                                 <option>on-success</option>,
                                 <option>on-failure</option>,
+                                <option>on-abnormal</option>,
                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>,
                                 <option>on-abort</option>, or
                                 <option>always</option>. If set to
                                 <option>no</option> (the default), the
-                                service will not be restarted. If set to
-                                <option>on-success</option>, it will be
-                                restarted only when the service process
-                                exits cleanly.
-                                In this context, a clean exit means
-                                an exit code of 0, or one of the signals
-                                <constant>SIGHUP</constant>, <constant>SIGINT</constant>, <constant>SIGTERM</constant>, or <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>, and
-                                additionally, exit statuses and signals
-                                specified in <varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname>.
+                                service will not be restarted. If set
+                                to <option>on-success</option>, it
+                                will be restarted only when the
+                                service process exits cleanly.  In
+                                this context, a clean exit means an
+                                exit code of 0, or one of the signals
+                                <constant>SIGHUP</constant>,
+                                <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
+                                <constant>SIGTERM</constant> or
+                                <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>, and
+                                additionally, exit statuses and
+                                signals specified in
+                                <varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname>.
                                 If set to <option>on-failure</option>,
                                 the service will be restarted when the
-                                process exits with an nonzero exit code,
-                                is terminated by a signal (including on
-                                core dump), when an operation (such as
-                                service reload) times out, and when the
-                                configured watchdog timeout is triggered.
-                                If set to
-                                <option>on-abort</option>, the service
-                                will be restarted only if the service
-                                process exits due to an uncaught
-                                signal not specified as a clean exit
-                                status.
-                                If set to
-                                <option>on-watchdog</option>, the service
-                                will be restarted only if the watchdog
-                                timeout for the service expires.
-                                If set to
+                                process exits with a non-zero exit
+                                code, is terminated by a signal
+                                (including on core dump, but excluding
+                                the aforementiond four signals), when
+                                an operation (such as service reload)
+                                times out, and when the configured
+                                watchdog timeout is triggered.  If set
+                                to <option>on-abnormal</option>, the
+                                service will be restarted when the
+                                process is terminated by a signal
+                                (including on core dump, excluding the
+                                aforementioned four signals), when an
+                                operation times out, or when the
+                                watchdog timeout is triggered. If set
+                                to <option>on-abort</option>, the
+                                service will be restarted only if the
+                                service process exits due to an
+                                uncaught signal not specified as a
+                                clean exit status.  If set to
+                                <option>on-watchdog</option>, the
+                                service will be restarted only if the
+                                watchdog timeout for the service
+                                expires.  If set to
                                 <option>always</option>, the service
-                                will be restarted regardless whether
-                                it exited cleanly or not, got
-                                terminated abnormally by a signal or
+                                will be restarted regardless of
+                                whether it exited cleanly or not, got
+                                terminated abnormally by a signal, or
                                 hit a timeout.</para>
 
-                                <para>In addition to the above settings,
-                                the service will not be restarted if the
-                                exit code or signal is specified in
+                                <table>
+                                        <title>Exit causes and the effect of the <varname>Restart=</varname> settings on them</title>
+
+                                        <tgroup cols='2'>
+                                                <colspec colname='path' />
+                                                <colspec colname='expl' />
+                                                <thead>
+                                                        <row>
+                                                                <entry>Restart settings/Exit causes</entry>
+                                                                <entry><option>no</option></entry>
+                                                                <entry><option>always</option></entry>
+                                                                <entry><option>on-success</option></entry>
+                                                                <entry><option>on-failure</option></entry>
+                                                                <entry><option>on-abnormal</option></entry>
+                                                                <entry><option>on-abort</option></entry>
+                                                                <entry><option>on-watchdog</option></entry>
+                                                        </row>
+                                                </thead>
+                                                <tbody>
+                                                        <row>
+                                                                <entry>Clean exit code or signal</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                        </row>
+                                                        <row>
+                                                                <entry>Unclean exit code</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                        </row>
+                                                        <row>
+                                                                <entry>Unclean signal</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                        </row>
+                                                        <row>
+                                                                <entry>Timeout</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                        </row>
+                                                        <row>
+                                                                <entry>Watchdog</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                                <entry/>
+                                                                <entry>X</entry>
+                                                        </row>
+                                                </tbody>
+                                        </tgroup>
+                                </table>
+
+                                <para>As exceptions to the setting
+                                above the service will not be
+                                restarted if the exit code or signal
+                                is specified in
                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>
-                                (see below).</para></listitem>
+                                (see below). Also, the services will
+                                always be restarted if the exit code
+                                or signal is specified in
+                                <varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname>
+                                (see below).</para>
+
+                                <para>Setting this to
+                                <option>on-failure</option> is the
+                                recommended choice for long-running
+                                services, in order to increase
+                                reliability by attempting automatic
+                                recovery from errors. For services
+                                that shall be able to terminate on
+                                their own choice (and avoid
+                                immediate restarting),
+                                <option>on-abnormal</option> is an
+                                alternative choice.</para>
+                                </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
                                 considered successful termination, in
                                 addition to the normal successful exit
                                 code 0 and the signals <constant>SIGHUP</constant>, <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
-                                <constant>SIGTERM</constant> and <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>. Exit status
+                                <constant>SIGTERM</constant>, and <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>. Exit status
                                 definitions can either be numeric exit
                                 codes or termination signal names,
-                                separated by spaces. Example:
-                                <literal>SuccessExitStatus=1 2 8
-                                <constant>SIGKILL</constant></literal>, ensures that exit
-                                codes 1, 2, 8 and the termination
-                                signal <constant>SIGKILL</constant> are considered clean
-                                service terminations. This option may
-                                appear more than once in which case
-                                the list of successful exit statuses
-                                is merged. If the empty string is
-                                assigned to this option, the list is
-                                reset, all prior assignments of this
-                                option will have no
+                                separated by spaces. For example:
+                                <programlisting>SuccessExitStatus=1 2 8 SIGKILL</programlisting>
+                                ensures that exit codes 1, 2, 8 and
+                                the termination signal
+                                <constant>SIGKILL</constant> are
+                                considered clean service terminations.
+                                </para>
+
+                                <para>Note that if a process has a
+                                signal handler installed and exits by
+                                calling
+                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>_exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                in response to a signal, the
+                                information about the signal is lost.
+                                Programs should instead perform cleanup and kill themselves with the same signal instead. See
+                                <ulink url="http://www.cons.org/cracauer/sigint.html">Proper handling of SIGINT/SIGQUIT — How to be a proper program</ulink>.</para>
+
+                                <para>This option may appear more than once,
+                                in which case the list of successful
+                                exit statuses is merged. If the empty
+                                string is assigned to this option, the
+                                list is reset, all prior assignments
+                                of this option will have no
                                 effect.</para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
                                 status definitions that when returned
                                 by the main service process will
-                                prevent automatic service restarts
+                                prevent automatic service restarts,
                                 regardless of the restart setting
                                 configured with
                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. Exit
                                 numeric exit codes or termination
                                 signal names, and are separated by
                                 spaces. Defaults to the empty list, so
-                                that by default no exit status is
+                                that, by default, no exit status is
                                 excluded from the configured restart
-                                logic. Example:
-                                <literal>RestartPreventExitStatus=1 6
-                                SIGABRT</literal>, ensures that exit
+                                logic. For example:
+                                <programlisting>RestartPreventExitStatus=1 6 SIGABRT</programlisting> ensures that exit
                                 codes 1 and 6 and the termination
-                                signal SIGABRT will not result in
-                                automatic service restarting. This
-                                option may appear more than once in
-                                which case the list of restart preventing
+                                signal <constant>SIGABRT</constant> will
+                                not result in automatic service
+                                restarting. This
+                                option may appear more than once, in
+                                which case the list of restart-preventing
                                 statuses is merged. If the empty
                                 string is assigned to this option, the
-                                list is reset, all prior assignments
+                                list is reset and all prior assignments
                                 of this option will have no
                                 effect.</para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
+                                <term><varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname></term>
+                                <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
+                                status definitions that when returned
+                                by the main service process will force
+                                automatic service restarts, regardless
+                                of the restart setting configured with
+                                <varname>Restart=</varname>. The
+                                argument format is similar to
+                                <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><varname>PermissionsStartOnly=</varname></term>
                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
-                                argument. If true, the permission
-                                related execution options as
+                                argument. If true, the permission-related
+                                execution options, as
                                 configured with
                                 <varname>User=</varname> and similar
                                 options (see
                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
-                                for more information) are only applied
+                                for more information), are only applied
                                 to the process started with
                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
                                 to the various other
                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
-                                <varname>ExecStop=</varname>,
+                                <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
                                 commands. If false, the setting is
                                 applied to all configured commands the
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><varname>RootDirectoryStartOnly=</varname></term>
                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
-                                argument. If true, the root directory
+                                argument. If true, the root directory,
                                 as configured with the
                                 <varname>RootDirectory=</varname>
                                 option (see
                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
-                                for more information) is only applied
+                                for more information), is only applied
                                 to the process started with
                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
                                 to the various other
                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
-                                <varname>ExecStop=</varname>,
+                                <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
                                 commands. If false, the setting is
                                 applied to all configured commands the
 
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><varname>NonBlocking=</varname></term>
-                                <listitem><para>Set O_NONBLOCK flag
+                                <listitem><para>Set the
+                                <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
                                 for all file descriptors passed via
                                 socket-based activation. If true, all
                                 file descriptors >= 3 (i.e. all except
-                                STDIN/STDOUT/STDERR) will have
-                                the O_NONBLOCK flag set and hence are in
+                                stdin, stdout, and stderr) will have
+                                the <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
+                                set and hence are in
                                 non-blocking mode. This option is only
                                 useful in conjunction with a socket
                                 unit, as described in
                                 <term><varname>Sockets=</varname></term>
                                 <listitem><para>Specifies the name of
                                 the socket units this service shall
-                                inherit the sockets from when the
-                                service is started. Normally it
-                                should not be necessary to use this
-                                setting as all sockets whose unit
+                                inherit socket file descriptors
+                                from when the service is
+                                started. Normally it should not be
+                                necessary to use this setting as all
+                                socket file descriptors whose unit
                                 shares the same name as the service
-                                (ignoring the different suffix of course)
-                                are passed to the spawned
-                                process.</para>
-
-                                <para>Note that the same socket may be
-                                passed to multiple processes at the
-                                same time. Also note that a different
-                                service may be activated on incoming
-                                traffic than inherits the sockets. Or
-                                in other words: the
+                                (subject to the different unit name
+                                suffix of course) are passed to the
+                                spawned process.</para>
+
+                                <para>Note that the same socket file
+                                descriptors may be passed to multiple
+                                processes simultaneously. Also note
+                                that a different service may be
+                                activated on incoming socket traffic
+                                than the one which is ultimately
+                                configured to inherit the socket file
+                                descriptors. Or in other words: the
                                 <varname>Service=</varname> setting of
                                 <filename>.socket</filename> units
                                 does not have to match the inverse of
                                 once, in which case the list of socket
                                 units is merged. If the empty string
                                 is assigned to this option, the list of
-                                sockets is reset, all prior uses of
+                                sockets is reset, and all prior uses of
                                 this setting will have no
                                 effect.</para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                                 <listitem><para>Configure service
                                 start rate limiting. By default,
-                                services which are started more often
-                                than 5 times within 10s are not
+                                services which are started more
+                                than 5 times within 10 seconds are not
                                 permitted to start any more times
-                                until the 10s interval ends. With
+                                until the 10 second interval ends. With
                                 these two options, this rate limiting
                                 may be modified. Use
                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
-                                to configure the checking interval
-                                (defaults to 10s, set to 0 to disable
+                                to configure the checking interval (defaults to
+                                <varname>DefaultStartLimitInterval=</varname> in
+                                manager configuration file, set to 0 to disable
                                 any kind of rate limiting). Use
                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> to
                                 configure how many starts per interval
-                                are allowed (defaults to 5). These
+                                are allowed (defaults to
+                                <varname>DefaultStartLimitBurst=</varname> in
+                                manager configuration file). These
                                 configuration options are particularly
                                 useful in conjunction with
-                                <varname>Restart=</varname>, however
-                                apply to all kinds of starts
+                                <varname>Restart=</varname>; however,
+                                they apply to all kinds of starts
                                 (including manual), not just those
                                 triggered by the
                                 <varname>Restart=</varname> logic.
                                 Note that units which are configured
                                 for <varname>Restart=</varname> and
                                 which reach the start limit are not
-                                attempted to be restarted anymore,
-                                however they may still be restarted
-                                manually at a later point from which
-                                point on the restart logic is again
+                                attempted to be restarted anymore;
+                                however, they may still be restarted
+                                manually at a later point, from which
+                                point on, the restart logic is again
                                 activated. Note that
                                 <command>systemctl
                                 reset-failed</command> will cause the
                                 hit. Takes one of
                                 <option>none</option>,
                                 <option>reboot</option>,
-                                <option>reboot-force</option> or
-                                <option>reboot-immediate</option>. If
-                                <option>none</option> is set,
-                                hitting the rate limit will trigger no
-                                action besides that the start will not
-                                be
+                                <option>reboot-force</option>,
+                                <option>reboot-immediate</option>,
+                                <option>poweroff</option>,
+                                <option>poweroff-force</option> or
+                                <option>poweroff-immediate</option>. If
+                                <option>none</option> is set, hitting
+                                the rate limit will trigger no action
+                                besides that the start will not be
                                 permitted. <option>reboot</option>
                                 causes a reboot following the normal
                                 shutdown procedure (i.e. equivalent to
-                                <command>systemctl reboot</command>),
-                                <option>reboot-force</option> causes
-                                an forced reboot which will terminate
-                                all processes forcibly but should
-                                cause no dirty file systems on reboot
+                                <command>systemctl reboot</command>).
+                                <option>reboot-force</option> causes a
+                                forced reboot which will terminate all
+                                processes forcibly but should cause no
+                                dirty file systems on reboot
                                 (i.e. equivalent to <command>systemctl
                                 reboot -f</command>) and
                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>
                                 causes immediate execution of the
                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
                                 system call, which might result in
-                                data loss.  Defaults to
+                                data loss. Similar,
+                                <option>poweroff</option>,
+                                <option>poweroff-force</option>,
+                                <option>poweroff-immediate</option>
+                                have the effect of powering down the
+                                system with similar
+                                semantics. Defaults to
                                 <option>none</option>.</para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><varname>FailureAction=</varname></term>
+                                <listitem><para>Configure the action
+                                to take when the service enters a failed
+                                state. Takes the same values as
+                                <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
+                                and executes the same actions.
+                                Defaults to <option>none</option>.
+                                </para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><varname>RebootArgument=</varname></term>
+                                <listitem><para>Configure the optional
+                                argument for the
+                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                system call if
+                                <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
+                                or <varname>FailureAction=</varname>
+                                is a reboot action. This works just
+                                like the optional argument to
+                                <command>systemctl reboot</command>
+                                command.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
                 </variablelist>
 
                 <para>Check
         </refsect1>
 
         <refsect1>
-                <title>Compatibility Options</title>
+                <title>Command lines</title>
+
+                <para>This section describes command line parsing and
+                variable and specifier substitions for
+                <varname>ExecStart=</varname>,
+                <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
+                <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
+                <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
+                <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
+                <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname> options.</para>
+
+                <para>Multiple command lines may be concatenated in a
+                single directive by separating them with semicolons
+                (these semicolons must be passed as separate words).
+                Lone semicolons may be escaped as
+                <literal>\;</literal>.</para>
+
+                <para>Each command line is split on whitespace, with
+                the first item being the command to execute, and the
+                subsequent items being the arguments.  Double quotes
+                ("...") and single quotes ('...') may be used, in
+                which case everything until the next matching quote
+                becomes part of the same argument. Quotes themselves
+                are removed after parsing. In addition, a trailing
+                backslash (<literal>\</literal>) may be used to merge
+                lines. </para>
+
+                <para>This syntax is intended to be very similar to
+                shell syntax, but only the meta-characters and
+                expansions described in the following paragraphs are
+                understood.  Specifically, redirection using
+                <literal>&lt;</literal>, <literal>&lt;&lt;</literal>,
+                <literal>&gt;</literal>, and
+                <literal>&gt;&gt;</literal>, pipes using
+                <literal>|</literal>, running programs in the
+                background using <literal>&amp;</literal>, and
+                <emphasis>other elements of shell syntax are not
+                supported</emphasis>.</para>
+
+                <para>The command line accepts <literal>%</literal>
+                specifiers as described in
+                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
+                Note that the first argument of the command line
+                (i.e. the program to execute) may not include
+                specifiers.</para>
+
+                <para>Basic environment variable substitution is
+                supported. Use <literal>${FOO}</literal> as part of a
+                word, or as a word of its own, on the command line, in
+                which case it will be replaced by the value of the
+                environment variable including all whitespace it
+                contains, resulting in a single argument. Use
+                <literal>$FOO</literal> as a separate word on the
+                command line, in which case it will be replaced by the
+                value of the environment variable split at whitespace
+                resulting in zero or more arguments. For this type of
+                expansion, quotes and respected when splitting into
+                words, and afterwards removed.</para>
+
+                <para>Example:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>Environment="ONE=one" 'TWO=two two'
+ExecStart=/bin/echo $ONE $TWO ${TWO}</programlisting>
+
+                <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
+                with four arguments: <literal>one</literal>,
+                <literal>two</literal>, <literal>two</literal>, and
+                <literal>two two</literal>.</para>
+
+                <para>Example:</para>
+                <programlisting>Environment=ONE='one' "TWO='two two' too" THREE=
+ExecStart=/bin/echo ${ONE} ${TWO} ${THREE}
+ExecStart=/bin/echo $ONE $TWO $THREE</programlisting>
+                <para>This results in <filename>echo</filename> being
+                called twice, the first time with arguments
+                <literal>'one'</literal>,
+                <literal>'two two' too</literal>, <literal></literal>,
+                and the second time with arguments
+                <literal>one</literal>, <literal>two two</literal>,
+                <literal>too</literal>.
+                </para>
 
-                <para>The following options are also available in the
-                <literal>[Service]</literal> section, but exist purely
-                for compatibility reasons and should not be used in
-                newly written service files.</para>
+                <para>To pass a literal dollar sign, use
+                <literal>$$</literal>. Variables whose value is not
+                known at expansion time are treated as empty
+                strings. Note that the first argument (i.e. the
+                program to execute) may not be a variable.</para>
+
+                <para>Variables to be used in this fashion may be
+                defined through <varname>Environment=</varname> and
+                <varname>EnvironmentFile=</varname>.  In addition,
+                variables listed in the section "Environment variables
+                in spawned processes" in
+                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                which are considered "static configuration", may be
+                used (this includes e.g. <varname>$USER</varname>, but
+                not <varname>$TERM</varname>).</para>
 
-                <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
-                        <varlistentry>
-                                <term><varname>SysVStartPriority=</varname></term>
-                                <listitem><para>Set the SysV start
-                                priority to use to order this service
-                                in relation to SysV services lacking
-                                LSB headers. This option is only
-                                necessary to fix ordering in relation
-                                to legacy SysV services, that have no
-                                ordering information encoded in the
-                                script headers. As such it should only
-                                be used as temporary compatibility
-                                option, and not be used in new unit
-                                files. Almost always it is a better
-                                choice to add explicit ordering
-                                directives via
-                                <varname>After=</varname> or
-                                <varname>Before=</varname>,
-                                instead. For more details see
-                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If
-                                used, pass an integer value in the
-                                range 0-99.</para></listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
+                <para>Note that shell command lines are not directly
+                supported. If shell command lines are to be used, they
+                need to be passed explicitly to a shell implementation
+                of some kind. Example:</para>
+                <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/sh -c 'dmesg | tac'</programlisting>
 
-                        <varlistentry>
-                                <term><varname>FsckPassNo=</varname></term>
-                                <listitem><para>Set the fsck passno
-                                priority to use to order this service
-                                in relation to other file system
-                                checking services. This option is only
-                                necessary to fix ordering in relation
-                                to fsck jobs automatically created for
-                                all <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
-                                entries with a value in the fs_passno
-                                column > 0. As such it should only be
-                                used as option for fsck
-                                services. Almost always it is a better
-                                choice to add explicit ordering
-                                directives via
-                                <varname>After=</varname> or
-                                <varname>Before=</varname>,
-                                instead. For more details see
-                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If
-                                used, pass an integer value in the
-                                same range as
-                                <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>'s
-                                fs_passno column. See
-                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fstab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
-                                for details.</para></listitem>
-                        </varlistentry>
+                <para>Example:</para>
 
-                </variablelist>
+                <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo one ; /bin/echo "two two"</programlisting>
+
+                <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
+                two times, each time with one argument:
+                <literal>one</literal> and <literal>two two</literal>,
+                respectively. Because two commands are specified,
+                <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> must be used.</para>
+
+                <para>Example:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo / &gt;/dev/null &amp; \; \
+/bin/ls</programlisting>
+
+                <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
+                with five arguments: <literal>/</literal>,
+                <literal>&gt;/dev/null</literal>,
+                <literal>&amp;</literal>, <literal>;</literal>, and
+                <literal>/bin/ls</literal>.</para>
         </refsect1>
 
         <refsect1>
                   <title>See Also</title>
                   <para>
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
-                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
-                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.cgroup</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                          <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.directives</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
                   </para>