chiark / gitweb /
man: be more explicit about option arguments that take 128-bit IDs in journalctl(1)
[elogind.git] / man / journalctl.xml
index f6e46cf..23bb960 100644 (file)
@@ -8,16 +8,16 @@
   Copyright 2012 Lennart Poettering
 
   systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
-  under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+  under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
+  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
   (at your option) any later version.
 
   systemd is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
-  General Public License for more details.
+  Lesser General Public License for more details.
 
-  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+  You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
   along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 -->
 
 
         <refsynopsisdiv>
                 <cmdsynopsis>
-                        <command>journalctl <arg choice="opt" rep="repeat">OPTIONS</arg> <arg choice="opt">MATCH</arg></command>
+                        <command>journalctl</command>
+                        <arg choice="opt" rep="repeat">OPTIONS</arg>
+                        <arg choice="opt" rep="repeat">MATCHES</arg>
                 </cmdsynopsis>
         </refsynopsisdiv>
 
         <refsect1>
                 <title>Description</title>
 
-                <para><command>journalctl</command> may be
-                used to query the contents of the
+                <para><command>journalctl</command> may be used to
+                query the contents of the
                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
-                journal.</para>
+                journal as written by
+                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-journald.service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
 
-                <para>If called without parameter will show the full
+                <para>If called without parameters, it will show the full
                 contents of the journal, starting with the oldest
                 entry collected.</para>
 
-                <para>If a match argument is passed the output is
-                filtered accordingly. A match is in the format
-                <literal>FIELD=VALUE</literal>,
-                e.g. <literal>_SYSTEMD_UNIT=httpd.service</literal>.</para>
+                <para>If one or more match arguments are passed, the
+                output is filtered accordingly. A match is in the
+                format <literal>FIELD=VALUE</literal>,
+                e.g. <literal>_SYSTEMD_UNIT=httpd.service</literal>,
+                referring to the components of a structured journal
+                entry. See
+                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.journal-fields</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                for a list of well-known fields. If multiple matches
+                are specified matching different fields, the log
+                entries are filtered by both, i.e. the resulting output
+                will show only entries matching all the specified
+                matches of this kind. If two matches apply to the same
+                field, then they are automatically matched as
+                alternatives, i.e. the resulting output will show
+                entries matching any of the specified matches for the
+                same field. Finally, if the character
+                <literal>+</literal> appears as a separate word on the
+                command line, all matches before and after are combined
+                in a disjunction (i.e. logical OR).</para>
+
+                <para>As shortcuts for a few types of field/value
+                matches, file paths may be specified. If a file path
+                refers to an executable file, this is equivalent to an
+                <literal>_EXE=</literal> match for the canonicalized
+                binary path. Similarly, if a path refers to a device
+                node, this is equivalent to a
+                <literal>_KERNEL_DEVICE=</literal> match for the
+                device.</para>
 
                 <para>Output is interleaved from all accessible
                 journal files, whether they are rotated or currently
-                being written, and regardless whether they belong to the
+                being written, and regardless of whether they belong to the
                 system itself or are accessible user journals.</para>
 
                 <para>All users are granted access to their private
-                per-user journals. However, by default only root and
-                users who are members of the <literal>adm</literal>
+                per-user journals. However, by default, only root and
+                users who are members of the <literal>systemd-journal</literal>
                 group get access to the system journal and the
                 journals of other users.</para>
+
+                <para>The output is paged through
+                <command>less</command> by default, and long lines are
+                "truncated" to screen width. The hidden part can be
+                viewed by using the left-arrow and right-arrow
+                keys. Paging can be disabled; see the
+                <option>--no-pager</option> option and the "Environment"
+                section below.</para>
+
+                <para>When outputing to a tty, lines are colored
+                according to priority: lines of level ERROR and higher
+                are colored red; lines of level NOTICE and higher are
+                highlighted; and other lines are displayed normally.
+                </para>
         </refsect1>
 
         <refsect1>
 
                 <variablelist>
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><option>--help</option></term>
                                 <term><option>-h</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--help</option></term>
 
                                 <listitem><para>Prints a short help
                                 text and exits.</para></listitem>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><option>--no-pager</option></term>
 
-                               <listitem><para>Do not pipe output into a
-                               pager.</para></listitem>
-                       </varlistentry>
+                                <listitem><para>Do not pipe output into a
+                                pager.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--no-full</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--full</option></term>
+                                <term><option>-l</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Ellipsize fields when
+                                they do not fit in available columns.
+                                The default is to show full fields,
+                                allowing them to wrap or be truncated
+                                by the pager, if one is used.</para>
+
+                                <para>The old options
+                                <option>-l</option>/<option>--full</option>
+                                are not useful anymore, except to undo
+                                <option>--no-full</option>.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><option>--all</option></term>
                                 <term><option>-a</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--all</option></term>
 
                                 <listitem><para>Show all fields in
                                 full, even if they include unprintable
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><option>--follow</option></term>
                                 <term><option>-f</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--follow</option></term>
 
-                                <listitem><para>Show only most recent
-                                journal entries, and continously print
+                                <listitem><para>Show only the most recent
+                                journal entries, and continuously print
                                 new entries as they are appended to
                                 the journal.</para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><option>--lines=</option></term>
+                                <term><option>-e</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--pager-end</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Immediately jump to
+                                the end of the journal inside the
+                                implied pager tool. This implies
+                                <option>-n1000</option> to guarantee
+                                that the pager will not buffer logs of
+                                unbounded size. This may be overridden
+                                with an explicit <option>-n</option>
+                                with some other numeric value on the
+                                command line. Note that this option is
+                                only supported for the
+                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>less</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                pager.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><option>-n</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--lines=</option></term>
 
-                                <listitem><para>Controls the number of
-                                journal lines to show, counting from
-                                the most recent ones. Takes a positive
-                                integer argument. In follow mode
-                                defaults to 10, otherwise is unset
-                                thus not limiting how many lines are
-                                shown.</para></listitem>
+                                <listitem><para>Show the most recent
+                                journal events and limit the number of
+                                events shown. If
+                                <option>--follow</option> is used,
+                                this option is implied. The argument,
+                                a positive integer, is optional, and
+                                defaults to 10. </para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><option>--output=</option></term>
+                                <term><option>-r</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--reverse</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Reverse output so the newest
+                                entries are displayed first.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
                                 <term><option>-o</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--output=</option></term>
 
                                 <listitem><para>Controls the
-                                formatting of the journal entries that are
-                                shown. Takes one of
-                                <literal>short</literal>,
-                                <literal>short-monotonic</literal>,
-                                <literal>verbose</literal>,
-                                <literal>export</literal>,
-                                <literal>json</literal>,
-                                <literal>cat</literal>. <literal>short</literal>
-                                is the default and generates an output
-                                that is mostly identical to the
-                                formatting of classic syslog log
-                                files, showing one line per journal
-                                entry. <literal>short-monotonic</literal>
-                                is very similar but shows monotonic
-                                timestamps instead of wallclock
-                                timestamps. <literal>verbose</literal>
-                                shows the full structered entry items
-                                with all
-                                fiels. <literal>export</literal>
-                                serializes the journal into a binary
-                                (but mostly text-based) stream
-                                suitable for backups and network
-                                transfer. <literal>json</literal>
-                                formats entries as JSON data
-                                structures. <literal>cat</literal>
-                                generates a very terse output only
-                                showing the actual message of each
-                                journal entry with no meta data, not
-                                even a timestamp.</para></listitem>
+                                formatting of the journal entries that
+                                are shown. Takes one of the following options:
+                                </para>
+                                <variablelist>
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>short</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>is the default
+                                                        and generates an output
+                                                        that is mostly identical
+                                                        to the formatting of
+                                                        classic syslog files,
+                                                        showing one line per
+                                                        journal entry.</para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>short-iso</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>is very similar,
+                                                        but shows ISO 8601
+                                                        wallclock timestamps.
+                                                        </para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>short-precise</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>is very similar,
+                                                        but shows timestamps
+                                                        with full microsecond
+                                                        precision.
+                                                        </para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>short-monotonic</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>is very similar,
+                                                        but shows monotonic
+                                                        timestamps instead of
+                                                        wallclock timestamps.
+                                                        </para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>verbose</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>shows the
+                                                        full-structured entry
+                                                        items with all fields.
+                                                        </para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>export</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>serializes the
+                                                        journal into a binary
+                                                        (but mostly text-based)
+                                                        stream suitable for
+                                                        backups and network
+                                                        transfer (see <ulink
+                                                        url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/export">Journal
+                                                        Export Format</ulink>
+                                                        for more
+                                                        information).</para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>json</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>formats entries
+                                                        as JSON data structures,
+                                                        one per line (see <ulink
+                                                        url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/json">Journal
+                                                        JSON Format</ulink> for
+                                                        more information).</para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>json-pretty</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>formats entries as
+                                                        JSON data structures,
+                                                        but formats them in
+                                                        multiple lines in order
+                                                        to make them more
+                                                        readable by humans.</para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>json-sse</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>formats entries as
+                                                        JSON data structures,
+                                                        but wraps them in a
+                                                        format suitable for <ulink
+                                                        url="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Server-sent_events/Using_server-sent_events">Server-Sent
+                                                        Events</ulink>.</para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+
+                                        <varlistentry>
+                                                <term>
+                                                        <option>cat</option>
+                                                </term>
+                                                <listitem>
+                                                        <para>generates a very
+                                                        terse output, only
+                                                        showing the actual
+                                                        message of each journal
+                                                        entry with no meta data,
+                                                        not even a timestamp.
+                                                        </para>
+                                                </listitem>
+                                        </varlistentry>
+                                </variablelist>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-x</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--catalog</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Augment log lines with
+                                explanation texts from the message
+                                catalog. This will add explanatory
+                                help texts to log messages in the
+                                output where this is available. These
+                                short help texts will explain the
+                                context of an error or log event,
+                                possible solutions, as well as
+                                pointers to support forums, developer
+                                documentation, and any other relevant
+                                manuals. Note that help texts are not
+                                available for all messages, but only
+                                for selected ones. For more
+                                information on the message catalog,
+                                please refer to the <ulink
+                                url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/catalog">Message
+                                Catalog Developer
+                                Documentation</ulink>.</para>
+
+                                <para>Note: when attaching
+                                <command>journalctl</command> output
+                                to bug reports, please do
+                                <emphasis>not</emphasis> use
+                                <option>-x</option>.</para>
+                                </listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><option>--quiet</option></term>
                                 <term><option>-q</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--quiet</option></term>
 
                                 <listitem><para>Suppresses any warning
-                                message regarding inaccessable system
-                                journals when run as normal
+                                messages regarding inaccessible system
+                                journals when run as normal
                                 user.</para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
-                                <term><option>--local</option></term>
-                                <term><option>-l</option></term>
+                                <term><option>-m</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--merge</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show entries
+                                interleaved from all available
+                                journals, including remote
+                                ones.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-b <optional><replaceable>ID</replaceable></optional><optional><replaceable>┬▒offset</replaceable></optional></option></term>
+                                <term><option>--boot=<optional><replaceable>ID</replaceable></optional><optional><replaceable>┬▒offset</replaceable></optional></option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show messages from a specific
+                                boot. This will add a match for
+                                <literal>_BOOT_ID=</literal>.</para>
+
+                                <para>The argument may be empty, in which case
+                                logs for the current boot will be shown.</para>
+
+                                <para>If the boot ID is omitted, a positive
+                                <replaceable>offset</replaceable> will look up
+                                the boots starting from the beginning of the
+                                journal, and a equal-or-less-than zero
+                                <replaceable>offset</replaceable> will look up
+                                boots starting from the end of the
+                                journal. Thus, <constant>1</constant> means the
+                                first boot found in the journal in
+                                chronological order, <constant>2</constant> the
+                                second and so on; while <constant>-0</constant>
+                                is the last boot, <constant>-1</constant> the
+                                boot before last, and so on. An empty
+                                <replaceable>offset</replaceable> is equivalent
+                                to specifying <constant>-0</constant>, except
+                                when the current boot is not the last boot
+                                (e.g. because <option>--directory</option> was
+                                specified to look at logs from a different
+                                machine).</para>
+
+                                <para>If the 32-character
+                                <replaceable>ID</replaceable> is specified, it
+                                may optionally be followed by
+                                <replaceable>offset</replaceable> which
+                                identifies the boot relative to the one given by
+                                boot <replaceable>ID</replaceable>. Negative
+                                values mean earlier boots and a positive values
+                                mean later boots. If
+                                <replaceable>offset</replaceable> is not
+                                specified, a value of zero is assumed, and the
+                                logs for the boot given by
+                                <replaceable>ID</replaceable> are shown.
+                                </para>
+
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--list-boots</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show a tabular list of
+                                boot numbers (relative to the current
+                                boot), their IDs, and the timestamps
+                                of the first and last message
+                                pertaining to the boot.
+                                </para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-k</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--dmesg</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show only kernel messages. This
+                                implies <option>-b</option> and adds the match
+                                <literal>_TRANSPORT=kernel</literal>.
+                                </para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-u</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--unit=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show messages for the
+                                specified systemd unit. This will add
+                                a match for messages from the unit
+                                (<literal>_SYSTEMD_UNIT=</literal>)
+                                and additional matches for messages
+                                from systemd and messages about
+                                coredumps for the specified unit.</para>
+                                <para>This parameter can be specified multiple times.
+                                </para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--user-unit=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show messages for the
+                                specified user session unit. This will
+                                add a match for messages from the unit
+                                (<literal>_SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT=</literal>
+                                and <literal>_UID=</literal>) and
+                                additional matches for messages from
+                                session systemd and messages about
+                                coredumps for the specified unit.</para>
+                                <para>This parameter can be specified multiple times.
+                                </para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-p</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--priority=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Filter output by
+                                message priorities or priority
+                                ranges. Takes either a single numeric
+                                or textual log level (i.e. between
+                                0/<literal>emerg</literal> and
+                                7/<literal>debug</literal>), or a
+                                range of numeric/text log levels in
+                                the form FROM..TO. The log levels are
+                                the usual syslog log levels as
+                                documented in
+                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                                i.e. <literal>emerg</literal> (0),
+                                <literal>alert</literal> (1),
+                                <literal>crit</literal> (2),
+                                <literal>err</literal> (3),
+                                <literal>warning</literal> (4),
+                                <literal>notice</literal> (5),
+                                <literal>info</literal> (6),
+                                <literal>debug</literal> (7). If a
+                                single log level is specified, all
+                                messages with this log level or a
+                                lower (hence more important) log level
+                                are shown. If a range is specified, all
+                                messages within the range are shown,
+                                including both the start and the end
+                                value of the range. This will add
+                                <literal>PRIORITY=</literal> matches
+                                for the specified
+                                priorities.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-c</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--cursor=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Start showing entries
+                                from the location in the journal
+                                specified by the passed
+                                cursor.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--after-cursor=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Start showing entries
+                                from the location in the journal
+                                <emphasis>after</emphasis> the
+                                location specified by the this cursor.
+                                The cursor is shown when the
+                                <option>--show-cursor</option> option
+                                is used.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--show-cursor</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>The cursor is shown after the last
+                                entry after two dashes:</para>
+                                <programlisting>-- cursor: s=0639...</programlisting>
+                                <para>The format of the cursor is private
+                                and subject to change.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
 
-                                <listitem><para>Show only locally
-                                generated messages.</para></listitem>
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--since=</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--until=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Start showing entries
+                                on or newer than the specified date,
+                                or on or older than the specified
+                                date, respectively. Date specifications
+                                should be of the format
+                                <literal>2012-10-30 18:17:16</literal>.
+                                If the time part is omitted,
+                                <literal>00:00:00</literal> is assumed.
+                                If only the seconds component is omitted,
+                                <literal>:00</literal> is assumed. If the
+                                date component is omitted, the current
+                                day is assumed. Alternatively the strings
+                                <literal>yesterday</literal>,
+                                <literal>today</literal>,
+                                <literal>tomorrow</literal> are
+                                understood, which refer to 00:00:00 of
+                                the day before the current day, the
+                                current day, or the day after the
+                                current day, respectively. <literal>now</literal>
+                                refers to the current time. Finally,
+                                relative times may be specified,
+                                prefixed with <literal>-</literal> or
+                                <literal>+</literal>, referring to
+                                times before or after the current
+                                time, respectively.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-F</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--field=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Print all possible
+                                data values the specified field can
+                                take in all entries of the
+                                journal.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--system</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--user</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show messages from
+                                system services and the kernel (with
+                                <option>--system</option>). Show
+                                messages from service of current user
+                                (with <option>--user</option>).
+                                If neither is specified, show all
+                                messages that the user can see.
+                                </para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-M</option></term>
+                                <term><option>--machine=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show messages from a
+                                running, local container. Specify a
+                                container name to connect
+                                to.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>-D <replaceable>DIR</replaceable></option></term>
+                                <term><option>--directory=<replaceable>DIR</replaceable></option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Takes a directory path
+                                as argument. If specified, journalctl
+                                will operate on the specified journal
+                                directory
+                                <replaceable>DIR</replaceable> instead
+                                of the default runtime and system
+                                journal paths.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--file=<replaceable>GLOB</replaceable></option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Takes a file glob as an
+                                argument. If specified, journalctl will
+                                operate on the specified journal files
+                                matching <replaceable>GLOB</replaceable>
+                                instead of the default runtime and
+                                system journal paths. May be specified
+                                multiple times, in which case, files will
+                                be suitably interleaved.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--root=<replaceable>ROOT</replaceable></option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Takes a directory path
+                                as an argument. If specified, journalctl
+                                will operate on catalog file hierarchy
+                                underneath the specified directory
+                                instead of the root directory
+                                (e.g. <option>--update-catalog</option>
+                                will create
+                                <filename><replaceable>ROOT</replaceable>/var/lib/systemd/catalog/database</filename>).
+                                </para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><option>--new-id128</option></term>
 
                                 <listitem><para>Instead of showing
-                                journal contents generate a new 128
-                                bit ID suitable for identifying
+                                journal contents, generate a new 128-bit
+                                ID suitable for identifying
                                 messages. This is intended for usage
                                 by developers who need a new
                                 identifier for a new message they
                                 introduce and want to make
-                                recognizable. Will print the new ID in
+                                recognizable. This will print the new ID in
                                 three different formats which can be
                                 copied into source code or
                                 similar.</para></listitem>
                         </varlistentry>
 
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--header</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Instead of showing
+                                journal contents, show internal header
+                                information of the journal fields
+                                accessed.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--disk-usage</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Shows the current disk
+                                usage of all
+                                journal files.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--list-catalog
+                                <optional><replaceable>128-bit-ID...</replaceable></optional>
+                                </option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>List the contents of
+                                the message catalog as a table of
+                                message IDs, plus their short
+                                description strings.</para>
+
+                                <para>If any
+                                <replaceable>128-bit-ID</replaceable>s are
+                                specified, only those entries are shown.
+                                </para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--dump-catalog
+                                <optional><replaceable>128-bit-ID...</replaceable></optional>
+                                </option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Show the contents of
+                                the message catalog, with entries
+                                separated by a line consisting of two
+                                dashes and the ID (the format is the
+                                same as <filename>.catalog</filename>
+                                files).</para>
+
+                                <para>If any
+                                <replaceable>128-bit-ID</replaceable>s are
+                                specified, only those entries are shown.
+                                </para>
+                                </listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--update-catalog</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Update the message
+                                catalog index. This command needs to
+                                be executed each time new catalog
+                                files are installed, removed, or
+                                updated to rebuild the binary catalog
+                                index.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--setup-keys</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Instead of showing
+                                journal contents, generate a new key
+                                pair for Forward Secure Sealing
+                                (FSS). This will generate a sealing
+                                key and a verification key. The
+                                sealing key is stored in the journal
+                                data directory and shall remain on the
+                                host. The verification key should be
+                                stored externally. Also see the
+                                <option>Seal=</option> option in
+                                <citerefentry><refentrytitle>journald.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+                                for details.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--force</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>When
+                                <option>--setup-keys</option> is passed and
+                                Forward Secure Sealing (FSS) has already been
+                                configured, recreate FSS keys.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--interval=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Specifies the change
+                                interval for the sealing key when
+                                generating an FSS key pair with
+                                <option>--setup-keys</option>. Shorter
+                                intervals increase CPU consumption but
+                                shorten the time range of
+                                undetectable journal
+                                alterations. Defaults to
+                                15min.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--verify</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Check the journal file
+                                for internal consistency. If the
+                                file has been generated with FSS
+                                enabled and the FSS verification key
+                                has been specified with
+                                <option>--verify-key=</option>,
+                                authenticity of the journal file is
+                                verified.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
+                        <varlistentry>
+                                <term><option>--verify-key=</option></term>
+
+                                <listitem><para>Specifies the FSS
+                                verification key to use for the
+                                <option>--verify</option>
+                                operation.</para></listitem>
+                        </varlistentry>
+
                 </variablelist>
         </refsect1>
 
         <refsect1>
                 <title>Exit status</title>
 
-                <para>On success 0 is returned, a non-zero failure
-                code otherwise.</para>
+                <para>On success, 0 is returned; otherwise, a non-zero
+                failure code is returned.</para>
         </refsect1>
 
         <refsect1>
                 <title>Environment</title>
 
-                <variablelist>
+                <variablelist class='environment-variables'>
                         <varlistentry>
                                 <term><varname>$SYSTEMD_PAGER</varname></term>
                                 <listitem><para>Pager to use when
         </refsect1>
 
         <refsect1>
+                <title>Examples</title>
+
+                <para>Without arguments, all collected logs are shown
+                unfiltered:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>journalctl</programlisting>
+
+                <para>With one match specified, all entries with a field matching the expression are shown:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>journalctl _SYSTEMD_UNIT=avahi-daemon.service</programlisting>
+
+                <para>If two different fields are matched, only entries matching both expressions at the same time are shown:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>journalctl _SYSTEMD_UNIT=avahi-daemon.service _PID=28097</programlisting>
+
+                <para>If two matches refer to the same field, all entries matching either expression are shown:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>journalctl _SYSTEMD_UNIT=avahi-daemon.service _SYSTEMD_UNIT=dbus.service</programlisting>
+
+                <para>If the separator <literal>+</literal> is used,
+                two expressions may be combined in a logical OR. The
+                following will show all messages from the Avahi
+                service process with the PID 28097 plus all messages
+                from the D-Bus service (from any of its
+                processes):</para>
+
+                <programlisting>journalctl _SYSTEMD_UNIT=avahi-daemon.service _PID=28097 + _SYSTEMD_UNIT=dbus.service</programlisting>
+
+                <para>Show all logs generated by the D-Bus executable:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>journalctl /usr/bin/dbus-daemon</programlisting>
+
+                <para>Show all logs of the kernel device node <filename noindex='true'>/dev/sda</filename>:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>journalctl /dev/sda</programlisting>
+
+                <para>Show all kernel logs from previous boot:</para>
+
+                <programlisting>journalctl -k -b -1</programlisting>
+
+        </refsect1>
+
+        <refsect1>
                 <title>See Also</title>
                 <para>
                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                        <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-journald.service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+                        <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.journal-fields</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>journald.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
                 </para>
         </refsect1>