chiark / gitweb /
man: use <literal> not <filename> for suffixes
[elogind.git] / man / systemd.unit.xml
1 <?xml version='1.0'?> <!--*-nxml-*-->
2 <!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
3         "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd" [
4 <!ENTITY % entities SYSTEM "custom-entities.ent" >
5 %entities;
6 ]>
7
8 <!--
9   This file is part of systemd.
10
11   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
12
13   systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
14   under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
15   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
16   (at your option) any later version.
17
18   systemd is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
19   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
20   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
21   Lesser General Public License for more details.
22
23   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
24   along with systemd; If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
25 -->
26
27 <refentry id="systemd.unit">
28
29         <refentryinfo>
30                 <title>systemd.unit</title>
31                 <productname>systemd</productname>
32
33                 <authorgroup>
34                         <author>
35                                 <contrib>Developer</contrib>
36                                 <firstname>Lennart</firstname>
37                                 <surname>Poettering</surname>
38                                 <email>lennart@poettering.net</email>
39                         </author>
40                 </authorgroup>
41         </refentryinfo>
42
43         <refmeta>
44                 <refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle>
45                 <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
46         </refmeta>
47
48         <refnamediv>
49                 <refname>systemd.unit</refname>
50                 <refpurpose>Unit configuration</refpurpose>
51         </refnamediv>
52
53         <refsynopsisdiv>
54                 <para><filename><replaceable>service</replaceable>.service</filename>,
55                 <filename><replaceable>socket</replaceable>.socket</filename>,
56                 <filename><replaceable>device</replaceable>.device</filename>,
57                 <filename><replaceable>mount</replaceable>.mount</filename>,
58                 <filename><replaceable>automount</replaceable>.automount</filename>,
59                 <filename><replaceable>swap</replaceable>.swap</filename>,
60                 <filename><replaceable>target</replaceable>.target</filename>,
61                 <filename><replaceable>path</replaceable>.path</filename>,
62                 <filename><replaceable>timer</replaceable>.timer</filename>,
63                 <filename><replaceable>snapshot</replaceable>.snapshot</filename></para>
64
65                 <para><literallayout><filename>/etc/systemd/system/*</filename>
66 <filename>/run/systemd/system/*</filename>
67 <filename>/usr/lib/systemd/system/*</filename>
68 <filename>...</filename>
69                 </literallayout></para>
70
71                 <para><literallayout><filename>/etc/systemd/user/*</filename>
72 <filename>/run/systemd/user/*</filename>
73 <filename>/usr/lib/systemd/user/*</filename>
74 <filename>...</filename>
75                 </literallayout></para>
76         </refsynopsisdiv>
77
78         <refsect1>
79                 <title>Description</title>
80
81                 <para>A unit configuration file encodes information
82                 about a service, a socket, a device, a mount point, an
83                 automount point, a swap file or partition, a start-up
84                 target, a file system path, or a timer controlled and
85                 supervised by
86                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The
87                 syntax is inspired by <ulink
88                 url="http://standards.freedesktop.org/desktop-entry-spec/latest/">XDG
89                 Desktop Entry Specification</ulink> <filename>.desktop</filename> files, which are in turn
90                 inspired by Microsoft Windows
91                 <filename>.ini</filename> files.</para>
92
93                 <para>This man page lists the common configuration
94                 options of all the unit types. These options need to
95                 be configured in the [Unit] or [Install]
96                 sections of the unit files.</para>
97
98                 <para>In addition to the generic [Unit] and [Install]
99                 sections described here, each unit may have a
100                 type-specific section, e.g. [Service] for a service
101                 unit. See the respective man pages for more
102                 information:
103                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
104                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
105                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.device</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
106                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
107                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.automount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
108                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.swap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
109                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.target</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
110                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.path</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
111                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.timer</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
112                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.snapshot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
113                 </para>
114
115                 <para>Unit files are loaded from a set of paths
116                 determined during compilation, described in the next section.
117                 </para>
118
119                 <para>Unit files may contain additional options on top
120                 of those listed here. If systemd encounters an unknown
121                 option it will write a warning log message but
122                 continue loading the unit. If an option is prefixed
123                 with <option>X-</option> it is ignored completely by
124                 systemd. Applications may use this to include
125                 additional information in the unit files.</para>
126
127                 <para>Boolean arguments used in unit files can be
128                 written in various formats. For positive settings the
129                 strings <option>1</option>, <option>yes</option>,
130                 <option>true</option> and <option>on</option> are
131                 equivalent. For negative settings the strings
132                 <option>0</option>, <option>no</option>,
133                 <option>false</option> and <option>off</option> are
134                 equivalent.</para>
135
136                 <para>Time span values encoded in unit files can be
137                 written in various formats. A stand-alone number
138                 specifies a time in seconds. If suffixed with a time
139                 unit, the unit is honored. A concatenation of multiple
140                 values with units is supported, in which case the
141                 values are added up. Example: "50" refers to 50
142                 seconds; "2min 200ms" refers to 2 minutes plus 200
143                 milliseconds, i.e. 120200ms. The following time units
144                 are understood: s, min, h, d, w, ms, us. For details
145                 see
146                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.time</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
147
148                 <para>Empty lines and lines starting with # or ; are
149                 ignored. This may be used for commenting. Lines ending
150                 in a backslash are concatenated with the following
151                 line while reading and the backslash is replaced by a
152                 space character. This may be used to wrap long lines.</para>
153
154                 <para>Along with a unit file
155                 <filename>foo.service</filename> the directory
156                 <filename>foo.service.wants/</filename> may exist. All
157                 unit files symlinked from such a directory are
158                 implicitly added as dependencies of type
159                 <varname>Wanted=</varname> to the unit. This is useful
160                 to hook units into the start-up of other units,
161                 without having to modify their unit files. For details
162                 about the semantics of <varname>Wanted=</varname> see
163                 below. The preferred way to create symlinks in the
164                 <filename>.wants/</filename> directory of a unit file
165                 is with the <command>enable</command> command of the
166                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
167                 tool which reads information from the [Install]
168                 section of unit files (see below). A similar
169                 functionality exists for <varname>Requires=</varname>
170                 type dependencies as well, the directory suffix is
171                 <filename>.requires/</filename> in this case.</para>
172
173                 <para>Along with a unit file
174                 <filename>foo.service</filename> a directory
175                 <filename>foo.service.d/</filename> may exist. All
176                 files with the suffix <literal>.conf</literal> from
177                 this directory will be parsed after the file itself is
178                 parsed. This is useful to alter or add configuration
179                 settings to a unit, without having to modify their
180                 unit files. Make sure that the file that is included
181                 has the appropriate section headers before any
182                 directive.</para>
183
184                 <para>If a line starts with <option>.include</option>
185                 followed by a filename, the specified file will be
186                 parsed at this point. Make sure that the file that is
187                 included has the appropriate section headers before
188                 any directives.</para>
189
190                 <para>Note that while systemd offers a flexible
191                 dependency system between units it is recommended to
192                 use this functionality only sparingly and instead rely
193                 on techniques such as bus-based or socket-based
194                 activation which make dependencies implicit, resulting
195                 in a both simpler and more flexible system.</para>
196
197                 <para>Some unit names reflect paths existing in the
198                 file system namespace. Example: a device unit
199                 <filename>dev-sda.device</filename> refers to a device
200                 with the device node <filename noindex='true'>/dev/sda</filename> in
201                 the file system namespace. If this applies a special
202                 way to escape the path name is used, so that the
203                 result is usable as part of a filename. Basically,
204                 given a path, "/" is replaced by "-", and all
205                 unprintable characters and the "-" are replaced by
206                 C-style "\x20" escapes. The root directory "/" is
207                 encoded as single dash, while otherwise the initial
208                 and ending "/" is removed from all paths during
209                 transformation. This escaping is reversible.</para>
210
211                 <para>Optionally, units may be instantiated from a
212                 template file at runtime. This allows creation of
213                 multiple units from a single configuration file. If
214                 systemd looks for a unit configuration file it will
215                 first search for the literal unit name in the
216                 filesystem. If that yields no success and the unit
217                 name contains an <literal>@</literal> character, systemd will look for a
218                 unit template that shares the same name but with the
219                 instance string (i.e. the part between the <literal>@</literal> character
220                 and the suffix) removed. Example: if a service
221                 <filename>getty@tty3.service</filename> is requested
222                 and no file by that name is found, systemd will look
223                 for <filename>getty@.service</filename> and
224                 instantiate a service from that configuration file if
225                 it is found.</para>
226
227                 <para>To refer to the instance string from
228                 within the configuration file you may use the special
229                 <literal>%i</literal> specifier in many of the
230                 configuration options. See below for details.</para>
231
232                 <para>If a unit file is empty (i.e. has the file size
233                 0) or is symlinked to <filename>/dev/null</filename>
234                 its configuration will not be loaded and it appears
235                 with a load state of <literal>masked</literal>, and
236                 cannot be activated. Use this as an effective way to
237                 fully disable a unit, making it impossible to start it
238                 even manually.</para>
239
240                 <para>The unit file format is covered by the
241                 <ulink
242                 url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/InterfaceStabilityPromise">Interface
243                 Stability Promise</ulink>.</para>
244
245         </refsect1>
246
247         <refsect1>
248                 <title>Unit Load Path</title>
249
250                 <para>Unit files are loaded from a set of paths
251                 determined during compilation, described in the two
252                 tables below. Unit files found in directories higher
253                 in the hierarchy override files with the same name
254                 lower in the hierarchy, thus allowing overrides.
255                 </para>
256
257                 <para>When systemd is running in user mode
258                 (<option>--user</option>) and the variable
259                 <varname>$SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH</varname> is set, this
260                 contents of this variable overrides the unit load
261                 path.
262                 </para>
263
264                 <table>
265                   <title>
266                     Load path when running in system mode (<option>--system</option>).
267                   </title>
268
269                   <tgroup cols='2'>
270                     <colspec colname='path' />
271                     <colspec colname='expl' />
272                     <thead>
273                       <row>
274                         <entry>Path</entry>
275                         <entry>Description</entry>
276                       </row>
277                     </thead>
278                     <tbody>
279                       <row>
280                         <entry><filename>/run/systemd/generator.early</filename></entry>
281                         <entry>Generated units (early)</entry>
282                       </row>
283                       <row>
284                         <entry><filename>/etc/systemd/system</filename></entry>
285                         <entry>Local configuration</entry>
286                       </row>
287                       <row>
288                         <entry><filename>/run/systemd/systemd</filename></entry>
289                         <entry>Volatile units</entry>
290                       </row>
291                       <row>
292                         <entry><filename>/run/systemd/generator</filename></entry>
293                         <entry>Generated units (middle)</entry>
294                       </row>
295                       <row>
296                         <entry><filename>/usr/local/lib/systemd/system</filename></entry>
297                         <entry>Units for local packages</entry>
298                       </row>
299                       <row>
300                         <entry><filename>/usr/lib/systemd/system</filename></entry>
301                         <entry>Units for installed packages</entry>
302                       </row>
303                       <row>
304                         <entry><filename>/run/systemd/generator.late</filename></entry>
305                         <entry>Generated units (late)</entry>
306                       </row>
307                     </tbody>
308                   </tgroup>
309                 </table>
310
311                 <table>
312                   <title>
313                     Load path when running in session mode (<option>--user</option>).
314                   </title>
315
316                   <tgroup cols='2'>
317                     <colspec colname='path' />
318                     <colspec colname='expl' />
319                     <thead>
320                       <row>
321                         <entry>Path</entry>
322                         <entry>Description</entry>
323                       </row>
324                     </thead>
325                     <tbody>
326                       <row>
327                         <entry><filename>/tmp/systemd-generator.early.<replaceable>XXXXXX</replaceable></filename></entry>
328                         <entry>Generated units (early)</entry>
329                       </row>
330                       <row>
331                         <entry><filename>/etc/systemd/user</filename></entry>
332                         <entry>Local configuration</entry>
333                       </row>
334                       <row>
335                         <entry><filename>/run/systemd/user</filename></entry>
336                         <entry>Volatile units</entry>
337                       </row>
338                       <row>
339                         <entry><filename>/tmp/systemd-generator.<replaceable>XXXXXX</replaceable></filename></entry>
340                         <entry>Generated units (middle)</entry>
341                       </row>
342                       <row>
343                         <entry><filename>/usr/local/lib/systemd/user</filename></entry>
344                         <entry>Units for local packages</entry>
345                       </row>
346                       <row>
347                         <entry><filename>/usr/lib/systemd/user</filename></entry>
348                         <entry>Units for installed packages</entry>
349                       </row>
350                       <row>
351                         <entry><filename>/tmp/systemd-generator.late.<replaceable>XXXXXX</replaceable></filename></entry>
352                         <entry>Generated units (late)</entry>
353                       </row>
354                     </tbody>
355                   </tgroup>
356                 </table>
357
358                 <para>Additional units might be loaded into systemd
359                 ("linked") from directories not on the unit load
360                 path. See the <command>link</command> command for
361                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
362                 </para>
363         </refsect1>
364
365         <refsect1>
366                 <title>Options</title>
367
368                 <para>Unit file may include a [Unit] section, which
369                 carries generic information about the unit that is not
370                 dependent on the type of unit:</para>
371
372                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
373
374                         <varlistentry>
375                                 <term><varname>Description=</varname></term>
376                                 <listitem><para>A free-form string
377                                 describing the unit. This is intended
378                                 for use in UIs to show descriptive
379                                 information along with the unit
380                                 name.</para></listitem>
381                         </varlistentry>
382
383                         <varlistentry>
384                                 <term><varname>Documentation=</varname></term>
385                                 <listitem><para>A space-separated list
386                                 of URIs referencing documentation for
387                                 this unit or its
388                                 configuration. Accepted are only URIs
389                                 of the types
390                                 <literal>http://</literal>,
391                                 <literal>https://</literal>,
392                                 <literal>file:</literal>,
393                                 <literal>info:</literal>,
394                                 <literal>man:</literal>. For more
395                                 information about the syntax of these
396                                 URIs, see
397                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>uri</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The
398                                 URIs should be listed in order of
399                                 relevance, starting with the most
400                                 relevant. It is a good idea to first
401                                 reference documentation that explains
402                                 what the unit's purpose is, followed
403                                 by how it is configured, followed by
404                                 any other related documentation. This
405                                 option may be specified more than once
406                                 in which case the specified list of
407                                 URIs is merged. If the empty string is
408                                 assigned to this option, the list is
409                                 reset and all prior assignments will
410                                 have no effect.</para></listitem>
411                         </varlistentry>
412
413                         <varlistentry>
414                                 <term><varname>Requires=</varname></term>
415
416                                 <listitem><para>Configures requirement
417                                 dependencies on other units. If this
418                                 unit gets activated, the units listed
419                                 here will be activated as well. If one
420                                 of the other units gets deactivated or
421                                 its activation fails, this unit will
422                                 be deactivated. This option may be
423                                 specified more than once, in which
424                                 case requirement dependencies for all
425                                 listed names are created. Note that
426                                 requirement dependencies do not
427                                 influence the order in which services
428                                 are started or stopped. This has to be
429                                 configured independently with the
430                                 <varname>After=</varname> or
431                                 <varname>Before=</varname> options. If
432                                 a unit
433                                 <filename>foo.service</filename>
434                                 requires a unit
435                                 <filename>bar.service</filename> as
436                                 configured with
437                                 <varname>Requires=</varname> and no
438                                 ordering is configured with
439                                 <varname>After=</varname> or
440                                 <varname>Before=</varname>, then both
441                                 units will be started simultaneously
442                                 and without any delay between them if
443                                 <filename>foo.service</filename> is
444                                 activated. Often it is a better choice
445                                 to use <varname>Wants=</varname>
446                                 instead of
447                                 <varname>Requires=</varname> in order
448                                 to achieve a system that is more
449                                 robust when dealing with failing
450                                 services.</para>
451
452                                 <para>Note that dependencies of this
453                                 type may also be configured outside of
454                                 the unit configuration file by
455                                 adding a symlink to a
456                                 <filename>.requires/</filename> directory
457                                 accompanying the unit file. For
458                                 details see above.</para></listitem>
459                         </varlistentry>
460
461                         <varlistentry>
462                                 <term><varname>RequiresOverridable=</varname></term>
463
464                                 <listitem><para>Similar to
465                                 <varname>Requires=</varname>.
466                                 Dependencies listed in
467                                 <varname>RequiresOverridable=</varname>
468                                 which cannot be fulfilled or fail to
469                                 start are ignored if the startup was
470                                 explicitly requested by the user. If
471                                 the start-up was pulled in indirectly
472                                 by some dependency or automatic
473                                 start-up of units that is not
474                                 requested by the user this dependency
475                                 must be fulfilled and otherwise the
476                                 transaction fails. Hence, this option
477                                 may be used to configure dependencies
478                                 that are normally honored unless the
479                                 user explicitly starts up the unit, in
480                                 which case whether they failed or not
481                                 is irrelevant.</para></listitem>
482
483                         </varlistentry>
484                         <varlistentry>
485                                 <term><varname>Requisite=</varname></term>
486                                 <term><varname>RequisiteOverridable=</varname></term>
487
488                                 <listitem><para>Similar to
489                                 <varname>Requires=</varname>
490                                 and <varname>RequiresOverridable=</varname>, respectively. However,
491                                 if a unit listed here is not started
492                                 already it will not be started and the
493                                 transaction fails
494                                 immediately.</para></listitem>
495                         </varlistentry>
496
497                         <varlistentry>
498                                 <term><varname>Wants=</varname></term>
499
500                                 <listitem><para>A weaker version of
501                                 <varname>Requires=</varname>. A unit
502                                 listed in this option will be started
503                                 if the configuring unit is. However,
504                                 if the listed unit fails to start up
505                                 or cannot be added to the transaction
506                                 this has no impact on the validity of
507                                 the transaction as a whole. This is
508                                 the recommended way to hook start-up
509                                 of one unit to the start-up of another
510                                 unit.</para>
511
512                                 <para>Note that dependencies of this
513                                 type may also be configured outside of
514                                 the unit configuration file by
515                                 adding a symlink to a
516                                 <filename>.wants/</filename> directory
517                                 accompanying the unit file. For
518                                 details see above.</para></listitem>
519                         </varlistentry>
520
521                         <varlistentry>
522                                 <term><varname>BindsTo=</varname></term>
523
524                                 <listitem><para>Configures requirement
525                                 dependencies, very similar in style to
526                                 <varname>Requires=</varname>, however
527                                 in addition to this behavior it also
528                                 declares that this unit is stopped
529                                 when any of the units listed suddenly
530                                 disappears. Units can suddenly,
531                                 unexpectedly disappear if a service
532                                 terminates on its own choice, a device
533                                 is unplugged or a mount point
534                                 unmounted without involvement of
535                                 systemd.</para></listitem>
536                         </varlistentry>
537
538                         <varlistentry>
539                                 <term><varname>PartOf=</varname></term>
540
541                                 <listitem><para>Configures dependencies
542                                 similar to <varname>Requires=</varname>,
543                                 but limited to stopping and restarting
544                                 of units. When systemd stops or restarts
545                                 the units listed here, the action is
546                                 propagated to this unit.
547                                 Note that this is a one way dependency -
548                                 changes to this unit do not affect the
549                                 listed units.
550                                 </para></listitem>
551                         </varlistentry>
552
553                         <varlistentry>
554                                 <term><varname>Conflicts=</varname></term>
555
556                                 <listitem><para>Configures negative
557                                 requirement dependencies. If a unit
558                                 has a
559                                 <varname>Conflicts=</varname> setting
560                                 on another unit, starting the former
561                                 will stop the latter and vice
562                                 versa. Note that this setting is
563                                 independent of and orthogonal to the
564                                 <varname>After=</varname> and
565                                 <varname>Before=</varname> ordering
566                                 dependencies.</para>
567
568                                 <para>If a unit A that conflicts with
569                                 a unit B is scheduled to be started at
570                                 the same time as B, the transaction
571                                 will either fail (in case both are
572                                 required part of the transaction) or
573                                 be modified to be fixed (in case one
574                                 or both jobs are not a required part
575                                 of the transaction). In the latter
576                                 case the job that is not the required
577                                 will be removed, or in case both are
578                                 not required the unit that conflicts
579                                 will be started and the unit that is
580                                 conflicted is
581                                 stopped.</para></listitem>
582                         </varlistentry>
583
584                         <varlistentry>
585                                 <term><varname>Before=</varname></term>
586                                 <term><varname>After=</varname></term>
587
588                                 <listitem><para>Configures ordering
589                                 dependencies between units. If a unit
590                                 <filename>foo.service</filename>
591                                 contains a setting
592                                 <option>Before=bar.service</option>
593                                 and both units are being started,
594                                 <filename>bar.service</filename>'s
595                                 start-up is delayed until
596                                 <filename>foo.service</filename> is
597                                 started up. Note that this setting is
598                                 independent of and orthogonal to the
599                                 requirement dependencies as configured
600                                 by <varname>Requires=</varname>. It is
601                                 a common pattern to include a unit
602                                 name in both the
603                                 <varname>After=</varname> and
604                                 <varname>Requires=</varname> option in
605                                 which case the unit listed will be
606                                 started before the unit that is
607                                 configured with these options. This
608                                 option may be specified more than
609                                 once, in which case ordering
610                                 dependencies for all listed names are
611                                 created. <varname>After=</varname> is
612                                 the inverse of
613                                 <varname>Before=</varname>, i.e. while
614                                 <varname>After=</varname> ensures that
615                                 the configured unit is started after
616                                 the listed unit finished starting up,
617                                 <varname>Before=</varname> ensures the
618                                 opposite, i.e.  that the configured
619                                 unit is fully started up before the
620                                 listed unit is started. Note that when
621                                 two units with an ordering dependency
622                                 between them are shut down, the
623                                 inverse of the start-up order is
624                                 applied. i.e. if a unit is configured
625                                 with <varname>After=</varname> on
626                                 another unit, the former is stopped
627                                 before the latter if both are shut
628                                 down. If one unit with an ordering
629                                 dependency on another unit is shut
630                                 down while the latter is started up,
631                                 the shut down is ordered before the
632                                 start-up regardless whether the
633                                 ordering dependency is actually of
634                                 type <varname>After=</varname> or
635                                 <varname>Before=</varname>. If two
636                                 units have no ordering dependencies
637                                 between them they are shut down
638                                 or started up simultaneously, and
639                                 no ordering takes
640                                 place. </para></listitem>
641                         </varlistentry>
642
643                         <varlistentry>
644                                 <term><varname>OnFailure=</varname></term>
645
646                                 <listitem><para>Lists one or more
647                                 units that are activated when this
648                                 unit enters the
649                                 <literal>failed</literal>
650                                 state.</para></listitem>
651                         </varlistentry>
652
653                         <varlistentry>
654                                 <term><varname>PropagatesReloadTo=</varname></term>
655                                 <term><varname>ReloadPropagatedFrom=</varname></term>
656
657                                 <listitem><para>Lists one or more
658                                 units where reload requests on the
659                                 unit will be propagated to/on the
660                                 other unit will be propagated
661                                 from. Issuing a reload request on a
662                                 unit will automatically also enqueue a
663                                 reload request on all units that the
664                                 reload request shall be propagated to
665                                 via these two
666                                 settings.</para></listitem>
667                         </varlistentry>
668
669                         <varlistentry>
670                                 <term><varname>RequiresMountsFor=</varname></term>
671
672                                 <listitem><para>Takes a space-separated
673                                 list of absolute paths. Automatically
674                                 adds dependencies of type
675                                 <varname>Requires=</varname> and
676                                 <varname>After=</varname> for all
677                                 mount units required to access the
678                                 specified path.</para></listitem>
679                         </varlistentry>
680
681                         <varlistentry>
682                                 <term><varname>OnFailureIsolate=</varname></term>
683
684                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
685                                 argument. If <option>true</option> the
686                                 unit listed in
687                                 <varname>OnFailure=</varname> will be
688                                 enqueued in isolation mode, i.e. all
689                                 units that are not its dependency will
690                                 be stopped. If this is set only a
691                                 single unit may be listed in
692                                 <varname>OnFailure=</varname>. Defaults
693                                 to
694                                 <option>false</option>.</para></listitem>
695                         </varlistentry>
696
697                         <varlistentry>
698                                 <term><varname>IgnoreOnIsolate=</varname></term>
699
700                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
701                                 argument. If <option>true</option>
702                                 this unit will not be stopped when
703                                 isolating another unit. Defaults to
704                                 <option>false</option>.</para></listitem>
705                         </varlistentry>
706
707                         <varlistentry>
708                                 <term><varname>IgnoreOnSnapshot=</varname></term>
709
710                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
711                                 argument. If <option>true</option>
712                                 this unit will not be included in
713                                 snapshots. Defaults to
714                                 <option>true</option> for device and
715                                 snapshot units, <option>false</option>
716                                 for the others.</para></listitem>
717                         </varlistentry>
718
719                         <varlistentry>
720                                 <term><varname>StopWhenUnneeded=</varname></term>
721
722                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
723                                 argument. If <option>true</option>
724                                 this unit will be stopped when it is
725                                 no longer used. Note that in order to
726                                 minimize the work to be executed,
727                                 systemd will not stop units by default
728                                 unless they are conflicting with other
729                                 units, or the user explicitly
730                                 requested their shut down. If this
731                                 option is set, a unit will be
732                                 automatically cleaned up if no other
733                                 active unit requires it. Defaults to
734                                 <option>false</option>.</para></listitem>
735                         </varlistentry>
736
737                         <varlistentry>
738                                 <term><varname>RefuseManualStart=</varname></term>
739                                 <term><varname>RefuseManualStop=</varname></term>
740
741                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
742                                 argument. If <option>true</option>
743                                 this unit can only be activated
744                                 or deactivated indirectly. In
745                                 this case explicit start-up
746                                 or termination requested by the
747                                 user is denied, however if it is
748                                 started or stopped as a
749                                 dependency of another unit, start-up
750                                 or termination will succeed. This
751                                 is mostly a safety feature to ensure
752                                 that the user does not accidentally
753                                 activate units that are not intended
754                                 to be activated explicitly, and not
755                                 accidentally deactivate units that are
756                                 not intended to be deactivated.
757                                 These options default to
758                                 <option>false</option>.</para></listitem>
759                         </varlistentry>
760
761                         <varlistentry>
762                                 <term><varname>AllowIsolate=</varname></term>
763
764                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
765                                 argument. If <option>true</option>
766                                 this unit may be used with the
767                                 <command>systemctl isolate</command>
768                                 command. Otherwise this will be
769                                 refused. It probably is a good idea to
770                                 leave this disabled except for target
771                                 units that shall be used similar to
772                                 runlevels in SysV init systems, just
773                                 as a precaution to avoid unusable
774                                 system states. This option defaults to
775                                 <option>false</option>.</para></listitem>
776                         </varlistentry>
777
778                         <varlistentry>
779                                 <term><varname>DefaultDependencies=</varname></term>
780
781                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
782                                 argument. If <option>true</option>
783                                 (the default), a few default
784                                 dependencies will implicitly be
785                                 created for the unit. The actual
786                                 dependencies created depend on the
787                                 unit type. For example, for service
788                                 units, these dependencies ensure that
789                                 the service is started only after
790                                 basic system initialization is
791                                 completed and is properly terminated on
792                                 system shutdown. See the respective
793                                 man pages for details. Generally, only
794                                 services involved with early boot or
795                                 late shutdown should set this option
796                                 to <option>false</option>. It is
797                                 highly recommended to leave this
798                                 option enabled for the majority of
799                                 common units. If set to
800                                 <option>false</option>, this option
801                                 does not disable all implicit
802                                 dependencies, just non-essential
803                                 ones.</para></listitem>
804                         </varlistentry>
805
806                         <varlistentry>
807                                 <term><varname>JobTimeoutSec=</varname></term>
808
809                                 <listitem><para>When clients are
810                                 waiting for a job of this unit to
811                                 complete, time out after the specified
812                                 time. If this time limit is reached
813                                 the job will be cancelled, the unit
814                                 however will not change state or even
815                                 enter the <literal>failed</literal>
816                                 mode. This value defaults to 0 (job
817                                 timeouts disabled), except for device
818                                 units. NB: this timeout is independent
819                                 from any unit-specific timeout (for
820                                 example, the timeout set with
821                                 <varname>Timeout=</varname> in service
822                                 units) as the job timeout has no
823                                 effect on the unit itself, only on the
824                                 job that might be pending for it. Or
825                                 in other words: unit-specific timeouts
826                                 are useful to abort unit state
827                                 changes, and revert them. The job
828                                 timeout set with this option however
829                                 is useful to abort only the job
830                                 waiting for the unit state to
831                                 change.</para></listitem>
832                         </varlistentry>
833
834                         <varlistentry>
835                                 <term><varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname></term>
836                                 <term><varname>ConditionPathExistsGlob=</varname></term>
837                                 <term><varname>ConditionPathIsDirectory=</varname></term>
838                                 <term><varname>ConditionPathIsSymbolicLink=</varname></term>
839                                 <term><varname>ConditionPathIsMountPoint=</varname></term>
840                                 <term><varname>ConditionPathIsReadWrite=</varname></term>
841                                 <term><varname>ConditionDirectoryNotEmpty=</varname></term>
842                                 <term><varname>ConditionFileNotEmpty=</varname></term>
843                                 <term><varname>ConditionFileIsExecutable=</varname></term>
844                                 <term><varname>ConditionKernelCommandLine=</varname></term>
845                                 <term><varname>ConditionVirtualization=</varname></term>
846                                 <term><varname>ConditionSecurity=</varname></term>
847                                 <term><varname>ConditionCapability=</varname></term>
848                                 <term><varname>ConditionHost=</varname></term>
849                                 <term><varname>ConditionACPower=</varname></term>
850                                 <term><varname>ConditionNull=</varname></term>
851
852                                 <listitem><para>Before starting a unit
853                                 verify that the specified condition is
854                                 true. If it is not true the starting
855                                 of the unit will be skipped, however
856                                 all ordering dependencies of it are
857                                 still respected. A failing condition
858                                 will not result in the unit being
859                                 moved into a failure state. The
860                                 condition is checked at the time the
861                                 queued start job is to be
862                                 executed.</para>
863
864                                 <para>With
865                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
866                                 a file existence condition is
867                                 checked before a unit is started. If
868                                 the specified absolute path name does
869                                 not exist the condition will
870                                 fail. If the absolute path name passed
871                                 to
872                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
873                                 is prefixed with an exclamation mark
874                                 (<literal>!</literal>), the test is negated, and the unit
875                                 is only started if the path does not
876                                 exist.</para>
877
878                                 <para><varname>ConditionPathExistsGlob=</varname>
879                                 is similar to
880                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>,
881                                 but checks for the existence of at
882                                 least one file or directory matching
883                                 the specified globbing pattern.</para>
884
885                                 <para><varname>ConditionPathIsDirectory=</varname>
886                                 is similar to
887                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
888                                 but verifies whether a certain path
889                                 exists and is a
890                                 directory.</para>
891
892                                 <para><varname>ConditionPathIsSymbolicLink=</varname>
893                                 is similar to
894                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
895                                 but verifies whether a certain path
896                                 exists and is a symbolic
897                                 link.</para>
898
899                                 <para><varname>ConditionPathIsMountPoint=</varname>
900                                 is similar to
901                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
902                                 but verifies whether a certain path
903                                 exists and is a mount
904                                 point.</para>
905
906                                 <para><varname>ConditionPathIsReadWrite=</varname>
907                                 is similar to
908                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
909                                 but verifies whether the underlying
910                                 file system is readable and writable
911                                 (i.e. not mounted
912                                 read-only).</para>
913
914                                 <para><varname>ConditionDirectoryNotEmpty=</varname>
915                                 is similar to
916                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
917                                 but verifies whether a certain path
918                                 exists and is a non-empty
919                                 directory.</para>
920
921                                 <para><varname>ConditionFileNotEmpty=</varname>
922                                 is similar to
923                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
924                                 but verifies whether a certain path
925                                 exists and refers to a regular file
926                                 with a non-zero size.</para>
927
928                                 <para><varname>ConditionFileIsExecutable=</varname>
929                                 is similar to
930                                 <varname>ConditionPathExists=</varname>
931                                 but verifies whether a certain path
932                                 exists, is a regular file and marked
933                                 executable.</para>
934
935                                 <para>Similar,
936                                 <varname>ConditionKernelCommandLine=</varname>
937                                 may be used to check whether a
938                                 specific kernel command line option is
939                                 set (or if prefixed with the
940                                 exclamation mark unset). The argument
941                                 must either be a single word, or an
942                                 assignment (i.e. two words, separated
943                                 <literal>=</literal>). In the former
944                                 case the kernel command line is
945                                 searched for the word appearing as is,
946                                 or as left hand side of an
947                                 assignment. In the latter case the
948                                 exact assignment is looked for with
949                                 right and left hand side
950                                 matching.</para>
951
952                                 <para><varname>ConditionVirtualization=</varname>
953                                 may be used to check whether the
954                                 system is executed in a virtualized
955                                 environment and optionally test
956                                 whether it is a specific
957                                 implementation. Takes either boolean
958                                 value to check if being executed in
959                                 any virtualized environment, or one of
960                                 <varname>vm</varname> and
961                                 <varname>container</varname> to test
962                                 against a generic type of
963                                 virtualization solution, or one of
964                                 <varname>qemu</varname>,
965                                 <varname>kvm</varname>,
966                                 <varname>vmware</varname>,
967                                 <varname>microsoft</varname>,
968                                 <varname>oracle</varname>,
969                                 <varname>xen</varname>,
970                                 <varname>bochs</varname>,
971                                 <varname>chroot</varname>,
972                                 <varname>openvz</varname>,
973                                 <varname>lxc</varname>,
974                                 <varname>lxc-libvirt</varname>,
975                                 <varname>systemd-nspawn</varname> to
976                                 test against a specific
977                                 implementation. If multiple
978                                 virtualization technologies are nested
979                                 only the innermost is considered. The
980                                 test may be negated by prepending an
981                                 exclamation mark.</para>
982
983                                 <para><varname>ConditionSecurity=</varname>
984                                 may be used to check whether the given
985                                 security module is enabled on the
986                                 system. Currently the recognized values
987                                 values are <varname>selinux</varname>,
988                                 <varname>apparmor</varname>,
989                                 <varname>ima</varname> and
990                                 <varname>smack</varname>.
991                                 The test may be negated by prepending
992                                 an exclamation
993                                 mark.</para>
994
995                                 <para><varname>ConditionCapability=</varname>
996                                 may be used to check whether the given
997                                 capability exists in the capability
998                                 bounding set of the service manager
999                                 (i.e. this does not check whether
1000                                 capability is actually available in
1001                                 the permitted or effective sets, see
1002                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>capabilities</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1003                                 for details). Pass a capability name
1004                                 such as <literal>CAP_MKNOD</literal>,
1005                                 possibly prefixed with an exclamation
1006                                 mark to negate the check.</para>
1007
1008                                 <para><varname>ConditionHost=</varname>
1009                                 may be used to match against the
1010                                 hostname or machine ID of the
1011                                 host. This either takes a hostname
1012                                 string (optionally with shell style
1013                                 globs) which is tested against the
1014                                 locally set hostname as returned by
1015                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gethostname</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1016                                 or a machine ID formatted as string
1017                                 (see
1018                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>machine-id</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
1019                                 The test may be negated by prepending
1020                                 an exclamation mark.</para>
1021
1022                                 <para><varname>ConditionACPower=</varname>
1023                                 may be used to check whether the
1024                                 system has AC power, or is exclusively
1025                                 battery powered at the time of
1026                                 activation of the unit. This takes a
1027                                 boolean argument. If set to
1028                                 <varname>true</varname> the condition
1029                                 will hold only if at least one AC
1030                                 connector of the system is connected
1031                                 to a power source, or if no AC
1032                                 connectors are known. Conversely, if
1033                                 set to <varname>false</varname> the
1034                                 condition will hold only if there is
1035                                 at least one AC connector known and
1036                                 all AC connectors are disconnected
1037                                 from a power source.</para>
1038
1039                                 <para>Finally,
1040                                 <varname>ConditionNull=</varname> may
1041                                 be used to add a constant condition
1042                                 check value to the unit. It takes a
1043                                 boolean argument. If set to
1044                                 <varname>false</varname> the condition
1045                                 will always fail, otherwise
1046                                 succeed.</para>
1047
1048                                 <para>If multiple conditions are
1049                                 specified the unit will be executed if
1050                                 all of them apply (i.e. a logical AND
1051                                 is applied). Condition checks can be
1052                                 prefixed with a pipe symbol (|) in
1053                                 which case a condition becomes a
1054                                 triggering condition. If at least one
1055                                 triggering condition is defined for a
1056                                 unit then the unit will be executed if
1057                                 at least one of the triggering
1058                                 conditions apply and all of the
1059                                 non-triggering conditions. If you
1060                                 prefix an argument with the pipe
1061                                 symbol and an exclamation mark the
1062                                 pipe symbol must be passed first, the
1063                                 exclamation second. Except for
1064                                 <varname>ConditionPathIsSymbolicLink=</varname>,
1065                                 all path checks follow symlinks. If
1066                                 any of these options is assigned the
1067                                 empty string the list of conditions is
1068                                 reset completely, all previous
1069                                 condition settings (of any kind) will
1070                                 have no effect.</para></listitem>
1071                         </varlistentry>
1072
1073                         <varlistentry>
1074                                 <term><varname>SourcePath=</varname></term>
1075                                 <listitem><para>A path to a
1076                                 configuration file this unit has been
1077                                 generated from. This is primarily
1078                                 useful for implementation of generator
1079                                 tools that convert configuration from
1080                                 an external configuration file format
1081                                 into native unit files. Thus
1082                                 functionality should not be used in
1083                                 normal units.</para></listitem>
1084                         </varlistentry>
1085                 </variablelist>
1086
1087                 <para>Unit file may include a [Install] section, which
1088                 carries installation information for the unit. This
1089                 section is not interpreted by
1090                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1091                 during runtime. It is used exclusively by the
1092                 <command>enable</command> and
1093                 <command>disable</command> commands of the
1094                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1095                 tool during installation of a unit:</para>
1096
1097                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
1098                         <varlistentry>
1099                                 <term><varname>Alias=</varname></term>
1100
1101                                 <listitem><para>Additional names this
1102                                 unit shall be installed under. The
1103                                 names listed here must have the same
1104                                 suffix (i.e. type) as the unit file
1105                                 name. This option may be specified
1106                                 more than once, in which case all
1107                                 listed names are used. At installation
1108                                 time,
1109                                 <command>systemctl enable</command>
1110                                 will create symlinks from these names
1111                                 to the unit filename.</para></listitem>
1112                         </varlistentry>
1113
1114                         <varlistentry>
1115                                 <term><varname>WantedBy=</varname></term>
1116                                 <term><varname>RequiredBy=</varname></term>
1117
1118                                 <listitem><para>Installs a symlink in
1119                                 the <filename>.wants/</filename>
1120                                 or <filename>.requires/</filename>
1121                                 subdirectory for a unit, respectively. This has the
1122                                 effect that when the listed unit name
1123                                 is activated the unit listing it is
1124                                 activated
1125                                 too. <command>WantedBy=foo.service</command>
1126                                 in a service
1127                                 <filename>bar.service</filename> is
1128                                 mostly equivalent to
1129                                 <command>Alias=foo.service.wants/bar.service</command>
1130                                 in the same file.</para></listitem>
1131                         </varlistentry>
1132
1133                         <varlistentry>
1134                                 <term><varname>Also=</varname></term>
1135
1136                                 <listitem><para>Additional units to
1137                                 install/deinstall when this unit is
1138                                 installed/deinstalled. If the user
1139                                 requests installation/deinstallation
1140                                 of a unit with this option configured,
1141                                 <command>systemctl enable</command>
1142                                 and <command>systemctl
1143                                 disable</command> will automatically
1144                                 install/uninstall units listed in this option as
1145                                 well.</para></listitem>
1146                         </varlistentry>
1147                 </variablelist>
1148
1149                 <para>The following specifiers are interpreted in the
1150                 Install section: %n, %N, %p, %i, %U, %u, %m, %H, %b.
1151                 For their meaning see the next section.
1152                 </para>
1153         </refsect1>
1154
1155         <refsect1>
1156                 <title>Specifiers</title>
1157
1158                 <para>Many settings resolve specifiers which may be
1159                 used to write generic unit files referring to runtime
1160                 or unit parameters that are replaced when the unit
1161                 files are loaded. The following specifiers are
1162                 understood:</para>
1163
1164                 <table>
1165                   <title>Specifiers available in unit files</title>
1166                   <tgroup cols='3' align='left' colsep='1' rowsep='1'>
1167                     <colspec colname="spec" />
1168                     <colspec colname="mean" />
1169                     <colspec colname="detail" />
1170                     <thead>
1171                       <row>
1172                         <entry>Specifier</entry>
1173                         <entry>Meaning</entry>
1174                         <entry>Details</entry>
1175                       </row>
1176                     </thead>
1177                     <tbody>
1178                       <row>
1179                         <entry><literal>%n</literal></entry>
1180                         <entry>Full unit name</entry>
1181                         <entry></entry>
1182                       </row>
1183                       <row>
1184                         <entry><literal>%N</literal></entry>
1185                         <entry>Unescaped full unit name</entry>
1186                         <entry></entry>
1187                       </row>
1188                       <row>
1189                         <entry><literal>%p</literal></entry>
1190                         <entry>Prefix name</entry>
1191                         <entry>For instantiated units this refers to the string before the @. For non-instantiated units this refers to to the name of the unit with the type suffix removed.</entry>
1192                       </row>
1193                       <row>
1194                         <entry><literal>%P</literal></entry>
1195                         <entry>Unescaped prefix name</entry>
1196                         <entry></entry>
1197                       </row>
1198                       <row>
1199                         <entry><literal>%i</literal></entry>
1200                         <entry>Instance name</entry>
1201                         <entry>For instantiated units: this is the string between the <literal>@</literal> character and the suffix.</entry>
1202                       </row>
1203                       <row>
1204                         <entry><literal>%I</literal></entry>
1205                         <entry>Unescaped instance name</entry>
1206                         <entry></entry>
1207                       </row>
1208                       <row>
1209                         <entry><literal>%f</literal></entry>
1210                         <entry>Unescaped filename</entry>
1211                         <entry>This is either the unescaped instance name (if applicable) with <filename>/</filename> prepended (if applicable), or the prefix name similarly prepended with <filename>/</filename>.</entry>
1212                       </row>
1213                       <row>
1214                         <entry><literal>%c</literal></entry>
1215                         <entry>Control group path of the unit</entry>
1216                         <entry></entry>
1217                       </row>
1218                       <row>
1219                         <entry><literal>%r</literal></entry>
1220                         <entry>Root control group path where units are placed.</entry>
1221                         <entry>For system instances this usually resolves to <filename>/system</filename>, except in containers, where the path might be prefixed with the container's root control group.</entry>
1222                       </row>
1223                       <row>
1224                         <entry><literal>%R</literal></entry>
1225                         <entry>Parent directory of the control group path where units are placed.</entry>
1226                         <entry>For system instances this usually resolves to <filename>/</filename>, except in containers, where this resolves to the container's root directory. This specifier is particularly useful in the <varname>ControlGroup=</varname> setting (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).</entry>
1227                       </row>
1228                       <row>
1229                         <entry><literal>%t</literal></entry>
1230                         <entry>Runtime socket dir</entry>
1231                         <entry>This is either <filename>/run</filename> (for the system manager) or <literal>$XDG_RUNTIME_DIR</literal> (for user managers).</entry>
1232                       </row>
1233                       <row>
1234                         <entry><literal>%u</literal></entry>
1235                         <entry>User name</entry>
1236                         <entry>This is the name of the configured user of the unit, or (if none is set) the user running the systemd instance.</entry>
1237                       </row>
1238                       <row>
1239                         <entry><literal>%U</literal></entry>
1240                         <entry>User UID</entry>
1241                         <entry>This is the UID of the configured user of the unit, or (if none is set) the user running the systemd instance.</entry>
1242                       </row>
1243                       <row>
1244                         <entry><literal>%h</literal></entry>
1245                         <entry>User home directory</entry>
1246                         <entry>This is the home directory of the configured user of the unit, or (if none is set) the user running the systemd instance.</entry>
1247                       </row>
1248                       <row>
1249                         <entry><literal>%s</literal></entry>
1250                         <entry>User shell</entry>
1251                         <entry>This is the shell of the configured user of the unit, or (if none is set) the user running the systemd instance.  If the user is <literal>root</literal> (UID equal to 0), the shell configured in account database is ignored and <filename>/bin/sh</filename> is always used.</entry>
1252                       </row>
1253                       <row>
1254                         <entry><literal>%m</literal></entry>
1255                         <entry>Machine ID</entry>
1256                         <entry>The machine ID of the running system, formatted as string. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>machine-id</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information.</entry>
1257                       </row>
1258                       <row>
1259                         <entry><literal>%b</literal></entry>
1260                         <entry>Boot ID</entry>
1261                         <entry>The boot ID of the running system, formatted as string. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>random</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information.</entry>
1262                       </row>
1263                       <row>
1264                         <entry><literal>%H</literal></entry>
1265                         <entry>Host name</entry>
1266                         <entry>The hostname of the running system.</entry>
1267                       </row>
1268                       <row>
1269                         <entry><literal>%%</literal></entry>
1270                         <entry>Escaped %</entry>
1271                         <entry>Single percent sign.</entry>
1272                       </row>
1273                     </tbody>
1274                   </tgroup>
1275                 </table>
1276         </refsect1>
1277
1278         <refsect1>
1279                 <title>See Also</title>
1280                 <para>
1281                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1282                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1283                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.special</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1284                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1285                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1286                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.device</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1287                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1288                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.automount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1289                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.swap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1290                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.target</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1291                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.path</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1292                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.timer</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1293                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.snapshot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1294                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.time</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1295                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>capabilities</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1296                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.directives</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1297                 </para>
1298         </refsect1>
1299
1300 </refentry>