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networkd: support vxlan parameters
[elogind.git] / man / systemd.service.xml
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9   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
10
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24
25 <refentry id="systemd.service">
26         <refentryinfo>
27                 <title>systemd.service</title>
28                 <productname>systemd</productname>
29
30                 <authorgroup>
31                         <author>
32                                 <contrib>Developer</contrib>
33                                 <firstname>Lennart</firstname>
34                                 <surname>Poettering</surname>
35                                 <email>lennart@poettering.net</email>
36                         </author>
37                 </authorgroup>
38         </refentryinfo>
39
40         <refmeta>
41                 <refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle>
42                 <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
43         </refmeta>
44
45         <refnamediv>
46                 <refname>systemd.service</refname>
47                 <refpurpose>Service unit configuration</refpurpose>
48         </refnamediv>
49
50         <refsynopsisdiv>
51                 <para><filename><replaceable>service</replaceable>.service</filename></para>
52         </refsynopsisdiv>
53
54         <refsect1>
55                 <title>Description</title>
56
57                 <para>A unit configuration file whose name ends in
58                 <filename>.service</filename> encodes information
59                 about a process controlled and supervised by
60                 systemd.</para>
61
62                 <para>This man page lists the configuration options
63                 specific to this unit type. See
64                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
65                 for the common options of all unit configuration
66                 files. The common configuration items are configured
67                 in the generic <literal>[Unit]</literal> and
68                 <literal>[Install]</literal> sections. The service
69                 specific configuration options are configured in the
70                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section.</para>
71
72                 <para>Additional options are listed in
73                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
74                 which define the execution environment the commands
75                 are executed in, and in
76                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
77                 which define the way the processes of the service are
78                 terminated, and in
79                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
80                 which configure resource control settings for the
81                 processes of the service.</para>
82
83                 <para>Unless <varname>DefaultDependencies=</varname>
84                 is set to <option>false</option>, service units will
85                 implicitly have dependencies of type
86                 <varname>Requires=</varname> and
87                 <varname>After=</varname> on
88                 <filename>basic.target</filename> as well as
89                 dependencies of type <varname>Conflicts=</varname> and
90                 <varname>Before=</varname> on
91                 <filename>shutdown.target</filename>. These ensure
92                 that normal service units pull in basic system
93                 initialization, and are terminated cleanly prior to
94                 system shutdown. Only services involved with early
95                 boot or late system shutdown should disable this
96                 option.</para>
97
98                 <para>If a service is requested under a certain name
99                 but no unit configuration file is found, systemd looks
100                 for a SysV init script by the same name (with the
101                 <filename>.service</filename> suffix removed) and
102                 dynamically creates a service unit from that
103                 script. This is useful for compatibility with
104                 SysV. Note that this compatibility is quite
105                 comprehensive but not 100%. For details about the
106                 incompatibilities, see the <ulink
107                 url="http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/Incompatibilities">Incompatibilities
108                 with SysV</ulink> document.
109                 </para>
110         </refsect1>
111
112         <refsect1>
113                 <title>Options</title>
114
115                 <para>Service files must include a
116                 <literal>[Service]</literal> section, which carries
117                 information about the service and the process it
118                 supervises. A number of options that may be used in
119                 this section are shared with other unit types. These
120                 options are documented in
121                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
122                 and
123                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The
124                 options specific to the <literal>[Service]</literal>
125                 section of service units are the following:</para>
126
127                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
128                         <varlistentry>
129                                 <term><varname>Type=</varname></term>
130
131                                 <listitem><para>Configures the process
132                                 start-up type for this service
133                                 unit. One of <option>simple</option>,
134                                 <option>forking</option>,
135                                 <option>oneshot</option>,
136                                 <option>dbus</option>,
137                                 <option>notify</option> or
138                                 <option>idle</option>.</para>
139
140                                 <para>If set to
141                                 <option>simple</option> (the default
142                                 if neither
143                                 <varname>Type=</varname> nor
144                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>, but
145                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
146                                 specified), it is expected that the
147                                 process configured with
148                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is the
149                                 main process of the service. In this
150                                 mode, if the process offers
151                                 functionality to other processes on
152                                 the system, its communication channels
153                                 should be installed before the daemon
154                                 is started up (e.g. sockets set up by
155                                 systemd, via socket activation), as
156                                 systemd will immediately proceed
157                                 starting follow-up units.</para>
158
159                                 <para>If set to
160                                 <option>forking</option>, it is
161                                 expected that the process configured
162                                 with <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
163                                 will call <function>fork()</function>
164                                 as part of its start-up. The parent process is
165                                 expected to exit when start-up is
166                                 complete and all communication
167                                 channels are set up. The child continues
168                                 to run as the main daemon
169                                 process. This is the behavior of
170                                 traditional UNIX daemons. If this
171                                 setting is used, it is recommended to
172                                 also use the
173                                 <varname>PIDFile=</varname> option, so
174                                 that systemd can identify the main
175                                 process of the daemon. systemd will
176                                 proceed with starting follow-up units
177                                 as soon as the parent process
178                                 exits.</para>
179
180                                 <para>Behavior of
181                                 <option>oneshot</option> is similar to
182                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it
183                                 is expected that the process has to
184                                 exit before systemd starts follow-up
185                                 units. <varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname>
186                                 is particularly useful for this type
187                                 of service. This is the implied
188                                 default if neither
189                                 <varname>Type=</varname> or
190                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> are
191                                 specified.</para>
192
193                                 <para>Behavior of
194                                 <option>dbus</option> is similar to
195                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it is
196                                 expected that the daemon acquires a
197                                 name on the D-Bus bus, as configured
198                                 by
199                                 <varname>BusName=</varname>. systemd
200                                 will proceed with starting follow-up
201                                 units after the D-Bus bus name has been
202                                 acquired. Service units with this
203                                 option configured implicitly gain
204                                 dependencies on the
205                                 <filename>dbus.socket</filename>
206                                 unit. This type is the default if
207                                 <varname>BusName=</varname> is
208                                 specified.</para>
209
210                                 <para>Behavior of
211                                 <option>notify</option> is similar to
212                                 <option>simple</option>; however, it is
213                                 expected that the daemon sends a
214                                 notification message via
215                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
216                                 or an equivalent call when it has finished
217                                 starting up. systemd will proceed with
218                                 starting follow-up units after this
219                                 notification message has been sent. If
220                                 this option is used,
221                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> (see
222                                 below) should be set to open access to
223                                 the notification socket provided by
224                                 systemd. If
225                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is
226                                 not set, it will be implicitly set to
227                                 <option>main</option>. Note that
228                                 currently
229                                 <varname>Type=</varname><option>notify</option>
230                                 will not work if used in combination with
231                                 <varname>PrivateNetwork=</varname><option>yes</option>.</para>
232
233                                 <para>Behavior of
234                                 <option>idle</option> is very similar
235                                 to <option>simple</option>; however,
236                                 actual execution of the service
237                                 binary is delayed until all jobs are
238                                 dispatched. This may be used to avoid
239                                 interleaving of output of shell
240                                 services with the status output on the
241                                 console.</para>
242                                 </listitem>
243                         </varlistentry>
244
245                         <varlistentry>
246                                 <term><varname>RemainAfterExit=</varname></term>
247
248                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean value
249                                 that specifies whether the service
250                                 shall be considered active even when
251                                 all its processes exited. Defaults to
252                                 <option>no</option>.</para>
253                                 </listitem>
254                         </varlistentry>
255
256                         <varlistentry>
257                                 <term><varname>GuessMainPID=</varname></term>
258
259                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean value
260                                 that specifies whether systemd should
261                                 try to guess the main PID of a service
262                                 if it cannot be determined
263                                 reliably. This option is ignored
264                                 unless <option>Type=forking</option>
265                                 is set and <option>PIDFile=</option>
266                                 is unset because for the other types
267                                 or with an explicitly configured PID
268                                 file, the main PID is always known. The
269                                 guessing algorithm might come to
270                                 incorrect conclusions if a daemon
271                                 consists of more than one process. If
272                                 the main PID cannot be determined,
273                                 failure detection and automatic
274                                 restarting of a service will not work
275                                 reliably. Defaults to
276                                 <option>yes</option>.</para>
277                                 </listitem>
278                         </varlistentry>
279
280                         <varlistentry>
281                                 <term><varname>PIDFile=</varname></term>
282
283                                 <listitem><para>Takes an absolute file
284                                 name pointing to the PID file of this
285                                 daemon. Use of this option is
286                                 recommended for services where
287                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
288                                 <option>forking</option>. systemd will
289                                 read the PID of the main process of
290                                 the daemon after start-up of the
291                                 service. systemd will not write to the
292                                 file configured here.</para>
293                                 </listitem>
294                         </varlistentry>
295
296                         <varlistentry>
297                                 <term><varname>BusName=</varname></term>
298
299                                 <listitem><para>Takes a D-Bus bus
300                                 name that this service is reachable
301                                 as. This option is mandatory for
302                                 services where
303                                 <varname>Type=</varname> is set to
304                                 <option>dbus</option>.</para>
305                                 </listitem>
306                         </varlistentry>
307
308                         <varlistentry>
309                                 <term><varname>BusPolicy=</varname></term>
310
311                                 <listitem><para>If specified, a custom
312                                 <ulink url="https://code.google.com/p/d-bus/">kdbus</ulink>
313                                 endpoint will be created and installed as the
314                                 default bus node for the service. Such a custom
315                                 endpoint can hold an own set of policy rules
316                                 that are enforced on top of the bus-wide ones.
317                                 The custom endpoint is named after the service
318                                 it was created for, and its node will be
319                                 bind-mounted over the default bus node
320                                 location, so the service can only access the
321                                 bus through its own endpoint. Note that custom
322                                 bus endpoints default to a 'deny all' policy.
323                                 Hence, if at least one
324                                 <varname>BusPolicy=</varname> directive is
325                                 given, you have to make sure to add explicit
326                                 rules for everything the service should be able
327                                 to do.</para>
328                                 <para>The value of this directive is comprised
329                                 of two parts; the bus name, and a verb to
330                                 specify to granted access, which is one of
331                                 <option>see</option>,
332                                 <option>talk</option>, or
333                                 <option>own</option>.
334                                 <option>talk</option> implies
335                                 <option>see</option>, and <option>own</option>
336                                 implies both <option>talk</option> and
337                                 <option>see</option>.
338                                 If multiple access levels are specified for the
339                                 same bus name, the most powerful one takes
340                                 effect.
341                                 </para>
342                                 <para>Examples:</para>
343                                 <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.freedesktop.systemd1 talk</programlisting>
344                                 <programlisting>BusPolicy=org.foo.bar see</programlisting>
345                                 <para>This option is only available on kdbus enabled systems.</para>
346                                 </listitem>
347                         </varlistentry>
348
349                         <varlistentry>
350                                 <term><varname>ExecStart=</varname></term>
351                                 <listitem><para>Commands with their
352                                 arguments that are executed when this
353                                 service is started. The value is split
354                                 into zero or more command lines is
355                                 according to the rules described below
356                                 (see section "Command Lines" below).
357                                 </para>
358
359                                 <para>When <varname>Type</varname> is
360                                 not <option>oneshot</option>, only one
361                                 command may and must be given. When
362                                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
363                                 used, zero or more commands may be
364                                 specified. This can be specified by
365                                 providing multiple command lines in
366                                 the same directive, or alternatively,
367                                 this directive may be specified more
368                                 than once with the same effect. If the
369                                 empty string is assigned to this
370                                 option, the list of commands to start
371                                 is reset, prior assignments of this
372                                 option will have no effect. If no
373                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname> is
374                                 specified, then the service must have
375                                 <varname>RemainAfterExit=yes</varname>
376                                 set.</para>
377
378                                 <para>For each of the specified
379                                 commands, the first argument must be
380                                 an absolute and literal path to an
381                                 executable. Optionally, if the
382                                 absolute file name is prefixed with
383                                 <literal>@</literal>, the second token
384                                 will be passed as
385                                 <literal>argv[0]</literal> to the
386                                 executed process, followed by the
387                                 further arguments specified. If the
388                                 absolute filename is prefixed with
389                                 <literal>-</literal>, an exit code of
390                                 the command normally considered a
391                                 failure (i.e. non-zero exit status or
392                                 abnormal exit due to signal) is
393                                 ignored and considered success. If
394                                 both <literal>-</literal> and
395                                 <literal>@</literal> are used, they
396                                 can appear in either order.</para>
397
398                                 <para>If more than one command is
399                                 specified, the commands are invoked
400                                 sequentially in the order they appear
401                                 in the unit file. If one of the
402                                 commands fails (and is not prefixed
403                                 with <literal>-</literal>), other
404                                 lines are not executed, and the unit
405                                 is considered failed.</para>
406
407                                 <para>Unless
408                                 <varname>Type=forking</varname> is
409                                 set, the process started via this
410                                 command line will be considered the
411                                 main process of the daemon.</para>
412
413                               </listitem>
414                         </varlistentry>
415
416                         <varlistentry>
417                                 <term><varname>ExecStartPre=</varname></term>
418                                 <term><varname>ExecStartPost=</varname></term>
419                                 <listitem><para>Additional commands
420                                 that are executed before or after
421                                 the command in
422                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, respectively.
423                                 Syntax is the same as for
424                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, except
425                                 that multiple command lines are allowed
426                                 and the commands are executed one
427                                 after the other, serially.</para>
428
429                                 <para>If any of those commands (not
430                                 prefixed with <literal>-</literal>)
431                                 fail, the rest are not executed and
432                                 the unit is considered failed.</para>
433                                 </listitem>
434                         </varlistentry>
435
436                         <varlistentry>
437                                 <term><varname>ExecReload=</varname></term>
438                                 <listitem><para>Commands to execute to
439                                 trigger a configuration reload in the
440                                 service. This argument takes multiple
441                                 command lines, following the same
442                                 scheme as described for
443                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
444                                 above. Use of this setting is
445                                 optional. Specifier and environment
446                                 variable substitution is supported
447                                 here following the same scheme as for
448                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>.</para>
449
450                                 <para>One additional, special
451                                 environment variable is set: if known,
452                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname> is set to
453                                 the main process of the daemon, and
454                                 may be used for command lines like the
455                                 following:</para>
456
457                                 <programlisting>/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID</programlisting>
458
459                                 <para>Note however that reloading a
460                                 daemon by sending a signal (as with
461                                 the example line above) is usually not
462                                 a good choice, because this is an
463                                 asynchronous operation and hence not
464                                 suitable to order reloads of multiple
465                                 services against each other. It is
466                                 strongly recommended to set
467                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname> to a
468                                 command that not only triggers a
469                                 configuration reload of the daemon,
470                                 but also synchronously waits for it to
471                                 complete.</para>
472                                 </listitem>
473                         </varlistentry>
474
475                         <varlistentry>
476                                 <term><varname>ExecStop=</varname></term>
477                                 <listitem><para>Commands to execute to
478                                 stop the service started via
479                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>. This
480                                 argument takes multiple command lines,
481                                 following the same scheme as described
482                                 for <varname>ExecStart=</varname>
483                                 above. Use of this setting is
484                                 optional. After the commands configured
485                                 in this option are run, all processes
486                                 remaining for a service are
487                                 terminated according to the
488                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname> setting
489                                 (see
490                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>). If
491                                 this option is not specified, the
492                                 process is terminated immediately when
493                                 service stop is requested. Specifier
494                                 and environment variable substitution
495                                 is supported (including
496                                 <varname>$MAINPID</varname>, see
497                                 above).</para></listitem>
498                         </varlistentry>
499
500                         <varlistentry>
501                                 <term><varname>ExecStopPost=</varname></term>
502                                 <listitem><para>Additional commands
503                                 that are executed after the service
504                                 was stopped. This includes cases where
505                                 the commands configured in
506                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname> were used,
507                                 where the service does not have any
508                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname> defined, or
509                                 where the service exited unexpectedly. This
510                                 argument takes multiple command lines,
511                                 following the same scheme as described
512                                 for <varname>ExecStart</varname>. Use
513                                 of these settings is
514                                 optional. Specifier and environment
515                                 variable substitution is
516                                 supported.</para></listitem>
517                         </varlistentry>
518
519                         <varlistentry>
520                                 <term><varname>RestartSec=</varname></term>
521                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
522                                 sleep before restarting a service (as
523                                 configured with
524                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>). Takes a
525                                 unit-less value in seconds, or a time
526                                 span value such as "5min
527                                 20s". Defaults to
528                                 100ms.</para></listitem>
529                         </varlistentry>
530
531                         <varlistentry>
532                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStartSec=</varname></term>
533                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
534                                 wait for start-up. If a
535                                 daemon service does not signal
536                                 start-up completion within the
537                                 configured time, the service will be
538                                 considered failed and will be shut
539                                 down again.
540                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
541                                 time span value such as "5min
542                                 20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to
543                                 disable the timeout logic. Defaults to
544                                 <varname>DefaultTimeoutStartSec=</varname> from
545                                 the manager configuration file, except
546                                 when <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> is
547                                 used, in which case the timeout
548                                 is disabled by default
549                                 (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
550                                 </para></listitem>
551                         </varlistentry>
552
553                         <varlistentry>
554                                 <term><varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname></term>
555                                 <listitem><para>Configures the time to
556                                 wait for stop. If a service is asked
557                                 to stop, but does not terminate in the
558                                 specified time, it will be terminated
559                                 forcibly via <constant>SIGTERM</constant>,
560                                 and after another timeout of equal duration
561                                 with <constant>SIGKILL</constant> (see
562                                 <varname>KillMode=</varname>
563                                 in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
564                                 Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a
565                                 time span value such as "5min
566                                 20s". Pass <literal>0</literal> to disable
567                                 the timeout logic. Defaults to
568                                 <varname>DefaultTimeoutStopSec=</varname> from the
569                                 manager configuration file
570                                 (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
571                                 </para></listitem>
572                         </varlistentry>
573
574                         <varlistentry>
575                                 <term><varname>TimeoutSec=</varname></term>
576                                 <listitem><para>A shorthand for configuring
577                                 both <varname>TimeoutStartSec=</varname>
578                                 and <varname>TimeoutStopSec=</varname>
579                                 to the specified value.
580                                 </para></listitem>
581                         </varlistentry>
582
583                         <varlistentry>
584                                 <term><varname>WatchdogSec=</varname></term>
585                                 <listitem><para>Configures the
586                                 watchdog timeout for a service. The
587                                 watchdog is activated when the start-up is
588                                 completed. The service must call
589                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
590                                 regularly with <literal>WATCHDOG=1</literal>
591                                 (i.e. the "keep-alive ping"). If the time
592                                 between two such calls is larger than
593                                 the configured time, then the service
594                                 is placed in a failed state and it will
595                                 be terminated with <varname>SIGABRT</varname>.
596                                 By setting <varname>Restart=</varname> to
597                                 <option>on-failure</option> or
598                                 <option>always</option>, the service
599                                 will be automatically restarted. The
600                                 time configured here will be passed to
601                                 the executed service process in the
602                                 <varname>WATCHDOG_USEC=</varname>
603                                 environment variable. This allows
604                                 daemons to automatically enable the
605                                 keep-alive pinging logic if watchdog
606                                 support is enabled for the service. If
607                                 this option is used,
608                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> (see
609                                 below) should be set to open access to
610                                 the notification socket provided by
611                                 systemd. If
612                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is
613                                 not set, it will be implicitly set to
614                                 <option>main</option>. Defaults to 0,
615                                 which disables this
616                                 feature.</para></listitem>
617                         </varlistentry>
618
619                         <varlistentry>
620                                 <term><varname>Restart=</varname></term>
621                                 <listitem><para>Configures whether the
622                                 service shall be restarted when the
623                                 service process exits, is killed,
624                                 or a timeout is reached. The service
625                                 process may be the main service
626                                 process, but it may also be one of the
627                                 processes specified with
628                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
629                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
630                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>,
631                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>, or
632                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>.
633                                 When the death of the process is a
634                                 result of systemd operation (e.g. service
635                                 stop or restart), the service will not be
636                                 restarted. Timeouts include missing
637                                 the watchdog "keep-alive ping"
638                                 deadline and a service start, reload,
639                                 and stop operation timeouts.</para>
640
641                                 <para>Takes one of
642                                 <option>no</option>,
643                                 <option>on-success</option>,
644                                 <option>on-failure</option>,
645                                 <option>on-abnormal</option>,
646                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>,
647                                 <option>on-abort</option>, or
648                                 <option>always</option>. If set to
649                                 <option>no</option> (the default), the
650                                 service will not be restarted. If set
651                                 to <option>on-success</option>, it
652                                 will be restarted only when the
653                                 service process exits cleanly.  In
654                                 this context, a clean exit means an
655                                 exit code of 0, or one of the signals
656                                 <constant>SIGHUP</constant>,
657                                 <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
658                                 <constant>SIGTERM</constant> or
659                                 <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>, and
660                                 additionally, exit statuses and
661                                 signals specified in
662                                 <varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname>.
663                                 If set to <option>on-failure</option>,
664                                 the service will be restarted when the
665                                 process exits with a non-zero exit
666                                 code, is terminated by a signal
667                                 (including on core dump, but excluding
668                                 the aforementiond four signals), when
669                                 an operation (such as service reload)
670                                 times out, and when the configured
671                                 watchdog timeout is triggered.  If set
672                                 to <option>on-abnormal</option>, the
673                                 service will be restarted when the
674                                 process is terminated by a signal
675                                 (including on core dump, excluding the
676                                 aforementioned four signals), when an
677                                 operation times out, or when the
678                                 watchdog timeout is triggered. If set
679                                 to <option>on-abort</option>, the
680                                 service will be restarted only if the
681                                 service process exits due to an
682                                 uncaught signal not specified as a
683                                 clean exit status.  If set to
684                                 <option>on-watchdog</option>, the
685                                 service will be restarted only if the
686                                 watchdog timeout for the service
687                                 expires.  If set to
688                                 <option>always</option>, the service
689                                 will be restarted regardless of
690                                 whether it exited cleanly or not, got
691                                 terminated abnormally by a signal, or
692                                 hit a timeout.</para>
693
694                                 <table>
695                                         <title>Exit causes and the effect of the <varname>Restart=</varname> settings on them</title>
696
697                                         <tgroup cols='2'>
698                                                 <colspec colname='path' />
699                                                 <colspec colname='expl' />
700                                                 <thead>
701                                                         <row>
702                                                                 <entry>Restart settings/Exit causes</entry>
703                                                                 <entry><option>no</option></entry>
704                                                                 <entry><option>always</option></entry>
705                                                                 <entry><option>on-success</option></entry>
706                                                                 <entry><option>on-failure</option></entry>
707                                                                 <entry><option>on-abnormal</option></entry>
708                                                                 <entry><option>on-abort</option></entry>
709                                                                 <entry><option>on-watchdog</option></entry>
710                                                         </row>
711                                                 </thead>
712                                                 <tbody>
713                                                         <row>
714                                                                 <entry>Clean exit code or signal</entry>
715                                                                 <entry/>
716                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
717                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
718                                                                 <entry/>
719                                                                 <entry/>
720                                                                 <entry/>
721                                                                 <entry/>
722                                                         </row>
723                                                         <row>
724                                                                 <entry>Unclean exit code</entry>
725                                                                 <entry/>
726                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
727                                                                 <entry/>
728                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
729                                                                 <entry/>
730                                                                 <entry/>
731                                                                 <entry/>
732                                                         </row>
733                                                         <row>
734                                                                 <entry>Unclean signal</entry>
735                                                                 <entry/>
736                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
737                                                                 <entry/>
738                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
739                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
740                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
741                                                                 <entry/>
742                                                         </row>
743                                                         <row>
744                                                                 <entry>Timeout</entry>
745                                                                 <entry/>
746                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
747                                                                 <entry/>
748                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
749                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
750                                                                 <entry/>
751                                                                 <entry/>
752                                                         </row>
753                                                         <row>
754                                                                 <entry>Watchdog</entry>
755                                                                 <entry/>
756                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
757                                                                 <entry/>
758                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
759                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
760                                                                 <entry/>
761                                                                 <entry>X</entry>
762                                                         </row>
763                                                 </tbody>
764                                         </tgroup>
765                                 </table>
766
767                                 <para>As exceptions to the setting
768                                 above the service will not be
769                                 restarted if the exit code or signal
770                                 is specified in
771                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>
772                                 (see below). Also, the services will
773                                 always be restarted if the exit code
774                                 or signal is specified in
775                                 <varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname>
776                                 (see below).</para>
777
778                                 <para>Setting this to
779                                 <option>on-failure</option> is the
780                                 recommended choice for long-running
781                                 services, in order to increase
782                                 reliability by attempting automatic
783                                 recovery from errors. For services
784                                 that shall be able to terminate on
785                                 their own choice (and avoid
786                                 immediate restarting),
787                                 <option>on-abnormal</option> is an
788                                 alternative choice.</para>
789                                 </listitem>
790                         </varlistentry>
791
792                         <varlistentry>
793                                 <term><varname>SuccessExitStatus=</varname></term>
794                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
795                                 status definitions that when returned
796                                 by the main service process will be
797                                 considered successful termination, in
798                                 addition to the normal successful exit
799                                 code 0 and the signals <constant>SIGHUP</constant>, <constant>SIGINT</constant>,
800                                 <constant>SIGTERM</constant>, and <constant>SIGPIPE</constant>. Exit status
801                                 definitions can either be numeric exit
802                                 codes or termination signal names,
803                                 separated by spaces. For example:
804                                 <programlisting>SuccessExitStatus=1 2 8 SIGKILL</programlisting>
805                                 ensures that exit codes 1, 2, 8 and
806                                 the termination signal
807                                 <constant>SIGKILL</constant> are
808                                 considered clean service terminations.
809                                 </para>
810
811                                 <para>Note that if a process has a
812                                 signal handler installed and exits by
813                                 calling
814                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>_exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
815                                 in response to a signal, the
816                                 information about the signal is lost.
817                                 Programs should instead perform cleanup and kill themselves with the same signal instead. See
818                                 <ulink url="http://www.cons.org/cracauer/sigint.html">Proper handling of SIGINT/SIGQUIT — How to be a proper program</ulink>.</para>
819
820                                 <para>This option may appear more than once,
821                                 in which case the list of successful
822                                 exit statuses is merged. If the empty
823                                 string is assigned to this option, the
824                                 list is reset, all prior assignments
825                                 of this option will have no
826                                 effect.</para></listitem>
827                         </varlistentry>
828
829                         <varlistentry>
830                                 <term><varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname></term>
831                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
832                                 status definitions that when returned
833                                 by the main service process will
834                                 prevent automatic service restarts,
835                                 regardless of the restart setting
836                                 configured with
837                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. Exit
838                                 status definitions can either be
839                                 numeric exit codes or termination
840                                 signal names, and are separated by
841                                 spaces. Defaults to the empty list, so
842                                 that, by default, no exit status is
843                                 excluded from the configured restart
844                                 logic. For example:
845                                 <programlisting>RestartPreventExitStatus=1 6 SIGABRT</programlisting> ensures that exit
846                                 codes 1 and 6 and the termination
847                                 signal <constant>SIGABRT</constant> will
848                                 not result in automatic service
849                                 restarting. This
850                                 option may appear more than once, in
851                                 which case the list of restart-preventing
852                                 statuses is merged. If the empty
853                                 string is assigned to this option, the
854                                 list is reset and all prior assignments
855                                 of this option will have no
856                                 effect.</para></listitem>
857                         </varlistentry>
858
859                         <varlistentry>
860                                 <term><varname>RestartForceExitStatus=</varname></term>
861                                 <listitem><para>Takes a list of exit
862                                 status definitions that when returned
863                                 by the main service process will force
864                                 automatic service restarts, regardless
865                                 of the restart setting configured with
866                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>. The
867                                 argument format is similar to
868                                 <varname>RestartPreventExitStatus=</varname>.</para></listitem>
869                         </varlistentry>
870
871                         <varlistentry>
872                                 <term><varname>PermissionsStartOnly=</varname></term>
873                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
874                                 argument. If true, the permission-related
875                                 execution options, as
876                                 configured with
877                                 <varname>User=</varname> and similar
878                                 options (see
879                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
880                                 for more information), are only applied
881                                 to the process started with
882                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
883                                 to the various other
884                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
885                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
886                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
887                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
888                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
889                                 commands. If false, the setting is
890                                 applied to all configured commands the
891                                 same way. Defaults to
892                                 false.</para></listitem>
893                         </varlistentry>
894
895                         <varlistentry>
896                                 <term><varname>RootDirectoryStartOnly=</varname></term>
897                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
898                                 argument. If true, the root directory,
899                                 as configured with the
900                                 <varname>RootDirectory=</varname>
901                                 option (see
902                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
903                                 for more information), is only applied
904                                 to the process started with
905                                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>, and not
906                                 to the various other
907                                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
908                                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
909                                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
910                                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
911                                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname>
912                                 commands. If false, the setting is
913                                 applied to all configured commands the
914                                 same way. Defaults to
915                                 false.</para></listitem>
916                         </varlistentry>
917
918                         <varlistentry>
919                                 <term><varname>NonBlocking=</varname></term>
920                                 <listitem><para>Set the
921                                 <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
922                                 for all file descriptors passed via
923                                 socket-based activation. If true, all
924                                 file descriptors >= 3 (i.e. all except
925                                 stdin, stdout, and stderr) will have
926                                 the <constant>O_NONBLOCK</constant> flag
927                                 set and hence are in
928                                 non-blocking mode. This option is only
929                                 useful in conjunction with a socket
930                                 unit, as described in
931                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Defaults
932                                 to false.</para></listitem>
933                         </varlistentry>
934
935                         <varlistentry>
936                                 <term><varname>NotifyAccess=</varname></term>
937                                 <listitem><para>Controls access to the
938                                 service status notification socket, as
939                                 accessible via the
940                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_notify</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
941                                 call. Takes one of
942                                 <option>none</option> (the default),
943                                 <option>main</option> or
944                                 <option>all</option>. If
945                                 <option>none</option>, no daemon status
946                                 updates are accepted from the service
947                                 processes, all status update messages
948                                 are ignored. If <option>main</option>,
949                                 only service updates sent from the
950                                 main process of the service are
951                                 accepted. If <option>all</option>, all
952                                 services updates from all members of
953                                 the service's control group are
954                                 accepted. This option should be set to
955                                 open access to the notification socket
956                                 when using
957                                 <varname>Type=notify</varname> or
958                                 <varname>WatchdogSec=</varname> (see
959                                 above). If those options are used but
960                                 <varname>NotifyAccess=</varname> is not
961                                 configured, it will be implicitly set
962                                 to
963                                 <option>main</option>.</para></listitem>
964                         </varlistentry>
965
966                         <varlistentry>
967                                 <term><varname>Sockets=</varname></term>
968                                 <listitem><para>Specifies the name of
969                                 the socket units this service shall
970                                 inherit socket file descriptors
971                                 from when the service is
972                                 started. Normally it should not be
973                                 necessary to use this setting as all
974                                 socket file descriptors whose unit
975                                 shares the same name as the service
976                                 (subject to the different unit name
977                                 suffix of course) are passed to the
978                                 spawned process.</para>
979
980                                 <para>Note that the same socket file
981                                 descriptors may be passed to multiple
982                                 processes simultaneously. Also note
983                                 that a different service may be
984                                 activated on incoming socket traffic
985                                 than the one which is ultimately
986                                 configured to inherit the socket file
987                                 descriptors. Or in other words: the
988                                 <varname>Service=</varname> setting of
989                                 <filename>.socket</filename> units
990                                 does not have to match the inverse of
991                                 the <varname>Sockets=</varname>
992                                 setting of the
993                                 <filename>.service</filename> it
994                                 refers to.</para>
995
996                                 <para>This option may appear more than
997                                 once, in which case the list of socket
998                                 units is merged. If the empty string
999                                 is assigned to this option, the list of
1000                                 sockets is reset, and all prior uses of
1001                                 this setting will have no
1002                                 effect.</para></listitem>
1003                         </varlistentry>
1004
1005                         <varlistentry>
1006                                 <term><varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname></term>
1007                                 <term><varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname></term>
1008
1009                                 <listitem><para>Configure service
1010                                 start rate limiting. By default,
1011                                 services which are started more
1012                                 than 5 times within 10 seconds are not
1013                                 permitted to start any more times
1014                                 until the 10 second interval ends. With
1015                                 these two options, this rate limiting
1016                                 may be modified. Use
1017                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
1018                                 to configure the checking interval (defaults to
1019                                 <varname>DefaultStartLimitInterval=</varname> in
1020                                 manager configuration file, set to 0 to disable
1021                                 any kind of rate limiting). Use
1022                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> to
1023                                 configure how many starts per interval
1024                                 are allowed (defaults to
1025                                 <varname>DefaultStartLimitBurst=</varname> in
1026                                 manager configuration file). These
1027                                 configuration options are particularly
1028                                 useful in conjunction with
1029                                 <varname>Restart=</varname>; however,
1030                                 they apply to all kinds of starts
1031                                 (including manual), not just those
1032                                 triggered by the
1033                                 <varname>Restart=</varname> logic.
1034                                 Note that units which are configured
1035                                 for <varname>Restart=</varname> and
1036                                 which reach the start limit are not
1037                                 attempted to be restarted anymore;
1038                                 however, they may still be restarted
1039                                 manually at a later point, from which
1040                                 point on, the restart logic is again
1041                                 activated. Note that
1042                                 <command>systemctl
1043                                 reset-failed</command> will cause the
1044                                 restart rate counter for a service to
1045                                 be flushed, which is useful if the
1046                                 administrator wants to manually start
1047                                 a service and the start limit
1048                                 interferes with
1049                                 that.</para></listitem>
1050                         </varlistentry>
1051
1052                         <varlistentry>
1053                                 <term><varname>StartLimitAction=</varname></term>
1054
1055                                 <listitem><para>Configure the action
1056                                 to take if the rate limit configured
1057                                 with
1058                                 <varname>StartLimitInterval=</varname>
1059                                 and
1060                                 <varname>StartLimitBurst=</varname> is
1061                                 hit. Takes one of
1062                                 <option>none</option>,
1063                                 <option>reboot</option>,
1064                                 <option>reboot-force</option>,
1065                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>,
1066                                 <option>poweroff</option>,
1067                                 <option>poweroff-force</option> or
1068                                 <option>poweroff-immediate</option>. If
1069                                 <option>none</option> is set, hitting
1070                                 the rate limit will trigger no action
1071                                 besides that the start will not be
1072                                 permitted. <option>reboot</option>
1073                                 causes a reboot following the normal
1074                                 shutdown procedure (i.e. equivalent to
1075                                 <command>systemctl reboot</command>).
1076                                 <option>reboot-force</option> causes a
1077                                 forced reboot which will terminate all
1078                                 processes forcibly but should cause no
1079                                 dirty file systems on reboot
1080                                 (i.e. equivalent to <command>systemctl
1081                                 reboot -f</command>) and
1082                                 <option>reboot-immediate</option>
1083                                 causes immediate execution of the
1084                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1085                                 system call, which might result in
1086                                 data loss. Similar,
1087                                 <option>poweroff</option>,
1088                                 <option>poweroff-force</option>,
1089                                 <option>poweroff-immediate</option>
1090                                 have the effect of powering down the
1091                                 system with similar
1092                                 semantics. Defaults to
1093                                 <option>none</option>.</para></listitem>
1094                         </varlistentry>
1095
1096                         <varlistentry>
1097                                 <term><varname>FailureAction=</varname></term>
1098                                 <listitem><para>Configure the action
1099                                 to take when the service enters a failed
1100                                 state. Takes the same values as
1101                                 <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
1102                                 and executes the same actions.
1103                                 Defaults to <option>none</option>.
1104                                 </para></listitem>
1105                         </varlistentry>
1106
1107                         <varlistentry>
1108                                 <term><varname>RebootArgument=</varname></term>
1109                                 <listitem><para>Configure the optional
1110                                 argument for the
1111                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1112                                 system call if
1113                                 <varname>StartLimitAction=</varname>
1114                                 or <varname>FailureAction=</varname>
1115                                 is a reboot action. This works just
1116                                 like the optional argument to
1117                                 <command>systemctl reboot</command>
1118                                 command.</para></listitem>
1119                         </varlistentry>
1120
1121                 </variablelist>
1122
1123                 <para>Check
1124                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1125                 and
1126                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1127                 for more settings.</para>
1128
1129         </refsect1>
1130
1131         <refsect1>
1132                 <title>Command lines</title>
1133
1134                 <para>This section describes command line parsing and
1135                 variable and specifier substitions for
1136                 <varname>ExecStart=</varname>,
1137                 <varname>ExecStartPre=</varname>,
1138                 <varname>ExecStartPost=</varname>,
1139                 <varname>ExecReload=</varname>,
1140                 <varname>ExecStop=</varname>, and
1141                 <varname>ExecStopPost=</varname> options.</para>
1142
1143                 <para>Multiple command lines may be concatenated in a
1144                 single directive by separating them with semicolons
1145                 (these semicolons must be passed as separate words).
1146                 Lone semicolons may be escaped as
1147                 <literal>\;</literal>.</para>
1148
1149                 <para>Each command line is split on whitespace, with
1150                 the first item being the command to execute, and the
1151                 subsequent items being the arguments.  Double quotes
1152                 ("...") and single quotes ('...') may be used, in
1153                 which case everything until the next matching quote
1154                 becomes part of the same argument. Quotes themselves
1155                 are removed after parsing. In addition, a trailing
1156                 backslash (<literal>\</literal>) may be used to merge
1157                 lines. </para>
1158
1159                 <para>This syntax is intended to be very similar to
1160                 shell syntax, but only the meta-characters and
1161                 expansions described in the following paragraphs are
1162                 understood.  Specifically, redirection using
1163                 <literal>&lt;</literal>, <literal>&lt;&lt;</literal>,
1164                 <literal>&gt;</literal>, and
1165                 <literal>&gt;&gt;</literal>, pipes using
1166                 <literal>|</literal>, running programs in the
1167                 background using <literal>&amp;</literal>, and
1168                 <emphasis>other elements of shell syntax are not
1169                 supported</emphasis>.</para>
1170
1171                 <para>The command line accepts <literal>%</literal>
1172                 specifiers as described in
1173                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1174                 Note that the first argument of the command line
1175                 (i.e. the program to execute) may not include
1176                 specifiers.</para>
1177
1178                 <para>Basic environment variable substitution is
1179                 supported. Use <literal>${FOO}</literal> as part of a
1180                 word, or as a word of its own, on the command line, in
1181                 which case it will be replaced by the value of the
1182                 environment variable including all whitespace it
1183                 contains, resulting in a single argument. Use
1184                 <literal>$FOO</literal> as a separate word on the
1185                 command line, in which case it will be replaced by the
1186                 value of the environment variable split at whitespace
1187                 resulting in zero or more arguments. For this type of
1188                 expansion, quotes and respected when splitting into
1189                 words, and afterwards removed.</para>
1190
1191                 <para>Example:</para>
1192
1193                 <programlisting>Environment="ONE=one" 'TWO=two two'
1194 ExecStart=/bin/echo $ONE $TWO ${TWO}</programlisting>
1195
1196                 <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
1197                 with four arguments: <literal>one</literal>,
1198                 <literal>two</literal>, <literal>two</literal>, and
1199                 <literal>two two</literal>.</para>
1200
1201                 <para>Example:</para>
1202                 <programlisting>Environment=ONE='one' "TWO='two two' too" THREE=
1203 ExecStart=/bin/echo ${ONE} ${TWO} ${THREE}
1204 ExecStart=/bin/echo $ONE $TWO $THREE</programlisting>
1205                 <para>This results in <filename>echo</filename> being
1206                 called twice, the first time with arguments
1207                 <literal>'one'</literal>,
1208                 <literal>'two two' too</literal>, <literal></literal>,
1209                 and the second time with arguments
1210                 <literal>one</literal>, <literal>two two</literal>,
1211                 <literal>too</literal>.
1212                 </para>
1213
1214                 <para>To pass a literal dollar sign, use
1215                 <literal>$$</literal>. Variables whose value is not
1216                 known at expansion time are treated as empty
1217                 strings. Note that the first argument (i.e. the
1218                 program to execute) may not be a variable.</para>
1219
1220                 <para>Variables to be used in this fashion may be
1221                 defined through <varname>Environment=</varname> and
1222                 <varname>EnvironmentFile=</varname>.  In addition,
1223                 variables listed in the section "Environment variables
1224                 in spawned processes" in
1225                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1226                 which are considered "static configuration", may be
1227                 used (this includes e.g. <varname>$USER</varname>, but
1228                 not <varname>$TERM</varname>).</para>
1229
1230                 <para>Note that shell command lines are not directly
1231                 supported. If shell command lines are to be used, they
1232                 need to be passed explicitly to a shell implementation
1233                 of some kind. Example:</para>
1234                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/sh -c 'dmesg | tac'</programlisting>
1235
1236                 <para>Example:</para>
1237
1238                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo one ; /bin/echo "two two"</programlisting>
1239
1240                 <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
1241                 two times, each time with one argument:
1242                 <literal>one</literal> and <literal>two two</literal>,
1243                 respectively. Because two commands are specified,
1244                 <varname>Type=oneshot</varname> must be used.</para>
1245
1246                 <para>Example:</para>
1247
1248                 <programlisting>ExecStart=/bin/echo / &gt;/dev/null &amp; \; \
1249 /bin/ls</programlisting>
1250
1251                 <para>This will execute <command>/bin/echo</command>
1252                 with five arguments: <literal>/</literal>,
1253                 <literal>&gt;/dev/null</literal>,
1254                 <literal>&amp;</literal>, <literal>;</literal>, and
1255                 <literal>/bin/ls</literal>.</para>
1256         </refsect1>
1257
1258         <refsect1>
1259                   <title>See Also</title>
1260                   <para>
1261                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1262                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1263                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1264                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1265                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1266                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1267                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.directives</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1268                   </para>
1269         </refsect1>
1270
1271 </refentry>