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1 <?xml version='1.0'?> <!--*-nxml-*-->
2 <!DOCTYPE refentry PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
3         "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd">
4
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8   Copyright 2013 Tom Gundersen
9
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23
24 <refentry id="systemd.network" conditional='ENABLE_NETWORKD'>
25
26         <refentryinfo>
27                 <title>systemd.network</title>
28                 <productname>systemd</productname>
29
30                 <authorgroup>
31                         <author>
32                                 <contrib>Developer</contrib>
33                                 <firstname>Tom</firstname>
34                                 <surname>Gundersen</surname>
35                                 <email>teg@jklm.no</email>
36                         </author>
37                 </authorgroup>
38         </refentryinfo>
39
40         <refmeta>
41                 <refentrytitle>systemd.network</refentrytitle>
42                 <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
43         </refmeta>
44
45         <refnamediv>
46                 <refname>systemd.network</refname>
47                 <refpurpose>Network configuration</refpurpose>
48         </refnamediv>
49
50         <refsynopsisdiv>
51                 <para><filename><replaceable>network</replaceable>.network</filename></para>
52         </refsynopsisdiv>
53
54         <refsect1>
55                 <title>Description</title>
56
57                 <para>Network setup is performed by
58                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-networkd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
59                 </para>
60
61                 <para>Network files must have the extension <filename>.network</filename>;
62                 other extensions are ignored. Networks are applied to links whenever the links
63                 appear.</para>
64
65                 <para>The <filename>.network</filename> files are read from the files located in the
66                 system network directory <filename>/usr/lib/systemd/network</filename>,
67                 the volatile runtime network directory
68                 <filename>/run/systemd/network</filename> and the local administration
69                 network directory <filename>/etc/systemd/network</filename>.
70                 All configuration files are collectively sorted and processed in lexical order,
71                 regardless of the directories in which they live. However, files with
72                 identical filenames replace each other. Files in
73                 <filename>/etc</filename> have the highest priority, files in
74                 <filename>/run</filename> take precedence over files with the same
75                 name in <filename>/usr/lib</filename>. This can be used to override a
76                 system-supplied configuration file with a local file if needed; a symlink in
77                 <filename>/etc</filename> with the same name as a configuration file in
78                 <filename>/usr/lib</filename>, pointing to <filename>/dev/null</filename>,
79                 disables the configuration file entirely.</para>
80
81         </refsect1>
82
83         <refsect1>
84                 <title>[Match] Section Options</title>
85
86                         <para>The network file contains a <literal>[Match]</literal> section,
87                         which determines if a given network file may be applied to a given device;
88                         and a <literal>[Network]</literal> section specifying how the device should
89                         be configured. The first (in lexical order) of the network files that
90                         matches a given device is applied.</para>
91
92                         <para>A network file is said to match a device if each of the entries in the
93                         <literal>[Match]</literal> section matches, or if the section is empty.
94                         The following keys are accepted:</para>
95
96                         <variablelist class='network-directives'>
97                                 <varlistentry>
98                                         <term><varname>MACAddress=</varname></term>
99                                         <listitem>
100                                                 <para>The hardware address.</para>
101                                         </listitem>
102                                 </varlistentry>
103                                 <varlistentry>
104                                         <term><varname>Path=</varname></term>
105                                         <listitem>
106                                                 <para>The persistent path, as exposed by the udev
107                                                 property <literal>ID_PATH</literal>. May contain shell
108                                                 style globs.</para>
109                                         </listitem>
110                                 </varlistentry>
111                                 <varlistentry>
112                                         <term><varname>Driver=</varname></term>
113                                         <listitem>
114                                                 <para>The driver currently bound to the device, as
115                                                 exposed by the udev property <literal>DRIVER</literal>
116                                                 of its parent device, or if that is not set the driver
117                                                 as exposed by <literal>ethtool -i</literal> of the
118                                                 device itself.</para>
119                                         </listitem>
120                                 </varlistentry>
121                                 <varlistentry>
122                                         <term><varname>Type=</varname></term>
123                                         <listitem>
124                                                 <para>The device type, as exposed by the udev property
125                                                 <literal>DEVTYPE</literal>.</para>
126                                         </listitem>
127                                 </varlistentry>
128                                 <varlistentry>
129                                         <term><varname>Name=</varname></term>
130                                         <listitem>
131                                                 <para>The device name, as exposed by the udev property
132                                                 <literal>INTERFACE</literal>. May contain shell style
133                                                 globs.</para>
134                                         </listitem>
135                                 </varlistentry>
136                                 <varlistentry>
137                                         <term><varname>Host=</varname></term>
138                                         <listitem>
139                                                 <para>Matches against the hostname or machine ID of the
140                                                 host. See <literal>ConditionHost=</literal> in
141                                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
142                                                 for details.
143                                                 </para>
144                                         </listitem>
145                                 </varlistentry>
146                                 <varlistentry>
147                                         <term><varname>Virtualization=</varname></term>
148                                         <listitem>
149                                                 <para>Checks whether the system is executed in a virtualized
150                                                 environment and optionally test whether it is a specific
151                                                 implementation. See <literal>ConditionVirtualization=</literal> in
152                                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
153                                                 for details.
154                                                 </para>
155                                         </listitem>
156                                 </varlistentry>
157                                 <varlistentry>
158                                         <term><varname>KernelCommandLine=</varname></term>
159                                         <listitem>
160                                                 <para>Checks whether a specific kernel command line option is
161                                                 set (or if prefixed with the exclamation mark unset). See
162                                                 <literal>ConditionKernelCommandLine=</literal> in
163                                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
164                                                 for details.
165                                                 </para>
166                                         </listitem>
167                                 </varlistentry>
168                                 <varlistentry>
169                                         <term><varname>Architecture=</varname></term>
170                                         <listitem>
171                                                 <para>Checks whether the system is running on a specific
172                                                 architecture. See <literal>ConditionArchitecture=</literal> in
173                                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
174                                                 for details.
175                                                 </para>
176                                         </listitem>
177                                 </varlistentry>
178                         </variablelist>
179
180         </refsect1>
181
182         <refsect1>
183                 <title>[Link] Section Options</title>
184
185                 <para> The <literal>[Link]</literal> section accepts the following keys:</para>
186
187                 <variablelist class='network-directives'>
188                         <varlistentry>
189                                 <term><varname>MACAddress=</varname></term>
190                                 <listitem>
191                                         <para>The hardware address.</para>
192                                 </listitem>
193                         </varlistentry>
194                         <varlistentry>
195                                 <term><varname>MTUBytes=</varname></term>
196                                 <listitem>
197                                         <para>The maximum transmission unit in bytes to
198                                         set for the device. The usual suffixes K, M, G,
199                                         are supported and are understood to the base of
200                                         1024.</para>
201                                 </listitem>
202                         </varlistentry>
203                 </variablelist>
204         </refsect1>
205
206         <refsect1>
207                 <title>[Network] Section Options</title>
208
209                         <para>The <literal>[Network]</literal> section accepts the following keys:</para>
210
211                         <variablelist class='network-directives'>
212                                 <varlistentry>
213                                         <term><varname>Description=</varname></term>
214                                         <listitem>
215                                                 <para>A description of the device. This is only used for
216                                                 presentation purposes.</para>
217                                         </listitem>
218                                 </varlistentry>
219                                 <varlistentry>
220                                         <term><varname>DHCP=</varname></term>
221                                         <listitem>
222                                                 <para>Enables DHCPv4 and/or DHCPv6 support. Accepts
223                                                 <literal>both</literal>, <literal>none</literal>,
224                                                 <literal>v4</literal> or <literal>v6</literal>.</para>
225                                         </listitem>
226                                 </varlistentry>
227                                 <varlistentry>
228                                         <term><varname>DHCPServer=</varname></term>
229                                         <listitem>
230                                                 <para>A boolean. Enables a basic DHCPv4 server on the
231                                                 device. Mostly useful for handing out leases to container
232                                                 instances.</para>
233                                         </listitem>
234                                 </varlistentry>
235                                 <varlistentry>
236                                         <term><varname>IPv4LL=</varname></term>
237                                         <listitem>
238                                                 <para>A boolean. When true, enables IPv4 link-local support.
239                                                 </para>
240                                         </listitem>
241                                 </varlistentry>
242                                 <varlistentry>
243                                         <term><varname>IPv4LLRoute=</varname></term>
244                                         <listitem>
245                                                 <para>A boolean. When true, sets up the route needed for
246                                                 non-IPv4LL hosts to communicate with IPv4LL-only hosts. Defaults
247                                                 to false.
248                                                 </para>
249                                         </listitem>
250                                 </varlistentry>
251                                 <varlistentry>
252                                         <term><varname>LLMNR=</varname></term>
253                                         <listitem>
254                                                 <para>A boolean or <literal>resolve</literal>. When true, enables
255                                                 Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution on the link, when set to
256                                                 <literal>resolve</literal> only resolution is enabled, but not
257                                                 announcement. Defaults to true.</para>
258                                         </listitem>
259                                 </varlistentry>
260                                 <varlistentry>
261                                         <term><varname>LLDP=</varname></term>
262                                         <listitem>
263                                                 <para>A boolean. When true, enables LLDP link receive support.
264                                                 </para>
265                                         </listitem>
266                                 </varlistentry>
267                                 <varlistentry>
268                                         <term><varname>Address=</varname></term>
269                                         <listitem>
270                                                 <para>A static IPv4 or IPv6 address and its prefix length,
271                                                 separated by a <literal>/</literal> character. Specify this
272                                                 key more than once to configure several addresses.
273                                                 The format of the address must be as described in
274                                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inet_pton</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
275                                                 This is a short-hand for an [Address] section only containing
276                                                 an Address key (see below). This option may be specified
277                                                 more than once.
278                                                 </para>
279
280                                                 <para>If the specified
281                                                 address is 0.0.0.0
282                                                 (for IPv4) or [::]
283                                                 (for IPv6), a new
284                                                 address range of the
285                                                 requested size is
286                                                 automatically
287                                                 allocated from a
288                                                 system-wide pool of
289                                                 unused ranges. The
290                                                 allocated range is
291                                                 checked against all
292                                                 current network
293                                                 interfaces and all
294                                                 known network
295                                                 configuration files to
296                                                 avoid address range
297                                                 conflicts. The default
298                                                 system-wide pool
299                                                 consists of
300                                                 192.168.0.0/16,
301                                                 172.16.0.0/12 and
302                                                 10.0.0.0/8 for IPv4,
303                                                 and fc00::/7 for
304                                                 IPv6. This
305                                                 functionality is
306                                                 useful to manage a
307                                                 large number of
308                                                 dynamically created
309                                                 network interfaces
310                                                 with the same network
311                                                 configuration and
312                                                 automatic address
313                                                 range
314                                                 assignment.</para>
315
316                                         </listitem>
317                                 </varlistentry>
318                                 <varlistentry>
319                                         <term><varname>Gateway=</varname></term>
320                                         <listitem>
321                                                 <para>The gateway address, which must be in the format described in
322                                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inet_pton</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
323                                                 This is a short-hand for a [Route] section only containing a Gateway
324                                                 key. This option may be specified more than once.</para>
325                                         </listitem>
326                                 </varlistentry>
327                                 <varlistentry>
328                                         <term><varname>DNS=</varname></term>
329                                         <listitem>
330                                                 <para>A DNS server address, which must be in the format described in
331                                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inet_pton</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
332                                                 This option may be specified more than once.</para>
333                                         </listitem>
334                                 </varlistentry>
335                                 <varlistentry>
336                                         <term><varname>Domains=</varname></term>
337                                         <listitem>
338                                                 <para>The domains used for DNS resolution over this link.</para>
339                                         </listitem>
340                                 </varlistentry>
341                                 <varlistentry>
342                                         <term><varname>NTP=</varname></term>
343                                         <listitem>
344                                                 <para>An NTP server address. This option may be specified more than once.</para>
345                                         </listitem>
346                                 </varlistentry>
347                                 <varlistentry>
348                                         <term><varname>Bridge=</varname></term>
349                                         <listitem>
350                                                 <para>The name of the bridge to add the link to.</para>
351                                         </listitem>
352                                 </varlistentry>
353                                 <varlistentry>
354                                         <term><varname>Bond=</varname></term>
355                                         <listitem>
356                                                 <para>The name of the bond to add the link to.</para>
357                                         </listitem>
358                                 </varlistentry>
359                                 <varlistentry>
360                                         <term><varname>VLAN=</varname></term>
361                                         <listitem>
362                                                 <para>The name of a VLAN to create on the link. This option
363                                                 may be specified more than once.</para>
364                                         </listitem>
365                                 </varlistentry>
366                                 <varlistentry>
367                                         <term><varname>MACVLAN=</varname></term>
368                                         <listitem>
369                                                 <para>The name of a MACVLAN to create on the link. This option
370                                                 may be specified more than once.</para>
371                                         </listitem>
372                                 </varlistentry>
373                                 <varlistentry>
374                                         <term><varname>VXLAN=</varname></term>
375                                         <listitem>
376                                                 <para>The name of a VXLAN to create on the link. This option
377                                                 may be specified more than once.</para>
378                                         </listitem>
379                                 </varlistentry>
380                                 <varlistentry>
381                                         <term><varname>Tunnel=</varname></term>
382                                         <listitem>
383                                                 <para>The name of a Tunnel to create on the link. This option
384                                                 may be specified more than once.</para>
385                                         </listitem>
386                                 </varlistentry>
387                         </variablelist>
388
389         </refsect1>
390
391         <refsect1>
392                 <title>[Address] Section Options</title>
393
394                         <para>An <literal>[Address]</literal> section accepts the following keys.
395                         Specify several <literal>[Address]</literal> sections to configure several
396                         addresses.</para>
397
398                         <variablelist class='network-directives'>
399                                 <varlistentry>
400                                         <term><varname>Address=</varname></term>
401                                         <listitem>
402                                                 <para>As in the <literal>[Network]</literal> section. This key is mandatory.</para>
403                                         </listitem>
404                                 </varlistentry>
405                                 <varlistentry>
406                                         <term><varname>Peer=</varname></term>
407                                         <listitem>
408                                                 <para>The peer address in a point-to-point connection. Accepts the same format as
409                                                 the <literal>Address</literal> key.</para>
410                                         </listitem>
411                                 </varlistentry>
412                                 <varlistentry>
413                                         <term><varname>Broadcast=</varname></term>
414                                         <listitem>
415                                                 <para>The broadcast address, which must be in the format described in
416                                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inet_pton</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
417                                                 This key only applies to IPv4 addresses. If it is not given, it is
418                                                 derived from the <literal>Address</literal> key.</para>
419                                         </listitem>
420                                 </varlistentry>
421                                 <varlistentry>
422                                         <term><varname>Label=</varname></term>
423                                         <listitem>
424                                                 <para>An address label.</para>
425                                         </listitem>
426                                 </varlistentry>
427                         </variablelist>
428         </refsect1>
429
430         <refsect1>
431                 <title>[Route] Section Options</title>
432                         <para>The <literal>[Route]</literal> section accepts the following keys. Specify
433                         several <literal>[Route]</literal> sections to configure several routes.</para>
434
435                         <variablelist class='network-directives'>
436                                 <varlistentry>
437                                         <term><varname>Gateway=</varname></term>
438                                         <listitem>
439                                                 <para>As in the <literal>[Network]</literal> section.</para>
440                                         </listitem>
441                                 </varlistentry>
442                                 <varlistentry>
443                                         <term><varname>Destination=</varname></term>
444                                         <listitem>
445                                                 <para>The destination prefix of the route. Possibly followed by a slash and the
446                                                 prefixlength. If omitted, a full-length host route is assumed.</para>
447                                         </listitem>
448                                 </varlistentry>
449                                 <varlistentry>
450                                         <term><varname>Source=</varname></term>
451                                         <listitem>
452                                                 <para>The source prefix of the route. Possibly followed by a slash and the
453                                                 prefixlength. If omitted, a full-length host route is assumed.</para>
454                                         </listitem>
455                                 </varlistentry>
456                                 <varlistentry>
457                                         <term><varname>Metric=</varname></term>
458                                         <listitem>
459                                                 <para>The metric of the route. An unsigned integer</para>
460                                         </listitem>
461                                 </varlistentry>
462                         </variablelist>
463         </refsect1>
464
465         <refsect1>
466                 <title>[DHCP] Section Options</title>
467                         <para>The <literal>[DHCP]</literal> section accepts the following keys:</para>
468
469                         <variablelist class='network-directives'>
470                                 <varlistentry>
471                                         <term><varname>UseDNS=</varname></term>
472                                         <listitem>
473                                                 <para>When true (the default), the DNS servers received from the DHCP server will
474                                                 be used and take precedence over any statically configured ones.</para>
475                                         </listitem>
476                                 </varlistentry>
477                                 <varlistentry>
478                                         <term><varname>UseMTU=</varname></term>
479                                         <listitem>
480                                                 <para>When true, the interface maximum transmission unit from the DHCP server will
481                                                 be used on the current link. Defaults to false.</para>
482                                         </listitem>
483                                 </varlistentry>
484                                 <varlistentry>
485                                         <term><varname>SendHostname=</varname></term>
486                                         <listitem>
487                                                 <para>When true (the default), the machine's hostname will be sent to the DHCP
488                                                 server</para>
489                                         </listitem>
490                                 </varlistentry>
491                                 <varlistentry>
492                                         <term><varname>UseHostname=</varname></term>
493                                         <listitem>
494                                                 <para>When true (the default), the hostname received from the DHCP server
495                                                 will be used as the transient hostname.</para>
496                                         </listitem>
497                                 </varlistentry>
498                                 <varlistentry>
499                                         <term><varname>UseDomains=</varname></term>
500                                         <listitem>
501                                                 <para>When true (not the default), the domain name received from the DHCP server
502                                                 will be used for DNS resolution over this link.</para>
503                                         </listitem>
504                                 </varlistentry>
505                                 <varlistentry>
506                                         <term><varname>UseRoutes=</varname></term>
507                                         <listitem>
508                                                 <para>When true (the default), the static routes will be requested from the DHCP server
509                                                 and added to the routing table with metric of 1024.</para>
510                                         </listitem>
511                                 </varlistentry>
512                                 <varlistentry>
513                                         <term><varname>CriticalConnection=</varname></term>
514                                         <listitem>
515                                                 <para>When true, the connection will never be torn down even if the DHCP lease
516                                                 expires. This is contrary to the DHCP specification, but may be the best choice
517                                                 if, say, the root filesystem relies on this connection. Defaults to false.</para>
518                                         </listitem>
519                                 </varlistentry>
520                                 <varlistentry>
521                                         <term><varname>VendorClassIdentifier=</varname></term>
522                                         <listitem>
523                                                 <para>The vendor class identifier used to identify vendor type and configuration.</para>
524                                         </listitem>
525                                 </varlistentry>
526                                 <varlistentry>
527                                         <term><varname>RequestBroadcast=</varname></term>
528                                         <listitem>
529                                                 <para>Request the server to use broadcast messages before the IP address has been
530                                                 configured. This is necessary for devices that cannot receive RAW packets, or that
531                                                 cannot receive packets at all before an IP address has been configured. On the other
532                                                 hand, this must not be enabled on networks where broadcasts are filtered out.</para>
533                                         </listitem>
534                                 </varlistentry>
535                                 <varlistentry>
536                                         <term><varname>RouteMetric=</varname></term>
537                                         <listitem>
538                                                 <para>Set the routing metric for routes specified by the DHCP server.</para>
539                                         </listitem>
540                                 </varlistentry>
541                        </variablelist>
542
543         </refsect1>
544
545         <refsect1>
546                 <title>[Bridge] Section Options</title>
547                         <para>The <literal>[Bridge]</literal> section accepts the following keys.</para>
548                         <variablelist class='network-directives'>
549                                 <varlistentry>
550                                         <term><varname>Cost=</varname></term>
551                                         <listitem>
552                                           <para>Each port in a bridge may have different speed. Cost is used to decide which link to use. Faster interfaces should have lower costs</para>
553                                         </listitem>
554                                 </varlistentry>
555                         </variablelist>
556         </refsect1>
557
558         <refsect1>
559                 <title>[BridgeFDB] Section Options</title>
560                         <para>The <literal>[BridgeFDB]</literal> section manages the forwarding database table of a port and accepts the following keys. Specify
561                         several <literal>[BridgeFDB]</literal> sections to configure several static MAC table entries.</para>
562
563                         <variablelist class='network-directives'>
564                                 <varlistentry>
565                                         <term><varname>MACAddress=</varname></term>
566                                         <listitem>
567                                                 <para>As in the <literal>[Network]</literal> section. This key is mandatory.</para>
568                                         </listitem>
569                                 </varlistentry>
570                                 <varlistentry>
571                                         <term><varname>VLANId=</varname></term>
572                                         <listitem>
573                                                 <para>The VLAN Id for the new static MAC table entry.
574                                                 If omitted, no VLAN Id info is appended to the new static MAC table entry.</para>
575                                         </listitem>
576                                 </varlistentry>
577                         </variablelist>
578         </refsect1>
579
580         <refsect1>
581                 <title>Example</title>
582                 <example>
583                         <title>/etc/systemd/network/50-static.network</title>
584
585                         <programlisting>[Match]
586 Name=enp2s0
587
588 [Network]
589 Address=192.168.0.15/24
590 Gateway=192.168.0.1</programlisting>
591                 </example>
592
593                 <example>
594                         <title>/etc/systemd/network/80-dhcp.network</title>
595
596                         <programlisting>[Match]
597 Name=en*
598
599 [Network]
600 DHCP=both</programlisting>
601                 </example>
602
603                 <example>
604                         <title>/etc/systemd/network/bridge-static.network</title>
605
606                         <programlisting>[Match]
607 Name=bridge0
608
609 [Network]
610 Address=192.168.0.15/24
611 Gateway=192.168.0.1
612 DNS=192.168.0.1</programlisting>
613                 </example>
614
615                 <example>
616                         <title>/etc/systemd/network/bridge-slave-interface.network</title>
617
618                         <programlisting>[Match]
619 Name=enp2s0
620
621 [Network]
622 Bridge=bridge0</programlisting>
623                 </example>
624                 <example>
625                         <title>/etc/systemd/network/ipip.network</title>
626
627                         <programlisting>[Match]
628 Name=em1
629
630 [Network]
631 Tunnel=ipip-tun</programlisting>
632                 </example>
633
634                 <example>
635                         <title>/etc/systemd/network/sit.network</title>
636
637                         <programlisting>[Match]
638 Name=em1
639
640 [Network]
641 Tunnel=sit-tun</programlisting>
642                 </example>
643
644                 <example>
645                         <title>/etc/systemd/network/gre.network</title>
646
647                         <programlisting>[Match]
648 Name=em1
649
650 [Network]
651 Tunnel=gre-tun</programlisting>
652                 </example>
653
654                 <example>
655                         <title>/etc/systemd/network/vti.network</title>
656
657                         <programlisting>[Match]
658 Name=em1
659
660 [Network]
661 Tunnel=vti-tun</programlisting>
662                 </example>
663         </refsect1>
664
665         <refsect1>
666                 <title>See Also</title>
667                 <para>
668                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
669                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-networkd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
670                         <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.netdev</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
671                 </para>
672         </refsect1>
673
674 </refentry>