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seccomp: add helper call to add all secondary archs to a seccomp filter
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7
8   Copyright 2010 Lennart Poettering
9
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23
24 <refentry id="systemd.exec">
25         <refentryinfo>
26                 <title>systemd.exec</title>
27                 <productname>systemd</productname>
28
29                 <authorgroup>
30                         <author>
31                                 <contrib>Developer</contrib>
32                                 <firstname>Lennart</firstname>
33                                 <surname>Poettering</surname>
34                                 <email>lennart@poettering.net</email>
35                         </author>
36                 </authorgroup>
37         </refentryinfo>
38
39         <refmeta>
40                 <refentrytitle>systemd.exec</refentrytitle>
41                 <manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
42         </refmeta>
43
44         <refnamediv>
45                 <refname>systemd.exec</refname>
46                 <refpurpose>Execution environment configuration</refpurpose>
47         </refnamediv>
48
49         <refsynopsisdiv>
50                 <para><filename><replaceable>service</replaceable>.service</filename>,
51                 <filename><replaceable>socket</replaceable>.socket</filename>,
52                 <filename><replaceable>mount</replaceable>.mount</filename>,
53                 <filename><replaceable>swap</replaceable>.swap</filename></para>
54         </refsynopsisdiv>
55
56         <refsect1>
57                 <title>Description</title>
58
59                 <para>Unit configuration files for services, sockets,
60                 mount points, and swap devices share a subset of
61                 configuration options which define the execution
62                 environment of spawned processes.</para>
63
64                 <para>This man page lists the configuration options
65                 shared by these four unit types. See
66                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
67                 for the common options of all unit configuration
68                 files, and
69                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
70                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
71                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.swap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
72                 and
73                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
74                 for more information on the specific unit
75                 configuration files. The execution specific
76                 configuration options are configured in the [Service],
77                 [Socket], [Mount], or [Swap] sections, depending on the unit
78                 type.</para>
79         </refsect1>
80
81         <refsect1>
82                 <title>Options</title>
83
84                 <variablelist class='unit-directives'>
85
86                         <varlistentry>
87                                 <term><varname>WorkingDirectory=</varname></term>
88
89                                 <listitem><para>Takes an absolute
90                                 directory path. Sets the working
91                                 directory for executed processes. If
92                                 not set, defaults to the root directory
93                                 when systemd is running as a system
94                                 instance and the respective user's
95                                 home directory if run as
96                                 user.</para></listitem>
97                         </varlistentry>
98
99                         <varlistentry>
100                                 <term><varname>RootDirectory=</varname></term>
101
102                                 <listitem><para>Takes an absolute
103                                 directory path. Sets the root
104                                 directory for executed processes, with
105                                 the
106                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
107                                 system call. If this is used, it must
108                                 be ensured that the process and all
109                                 its auxiliary files are available in
110                                 the <function>chroot()</function>
111                                 jail.</para></listitem>
112                         </varlistentry>
113
114                         <varlistentry>
115                                 <term><varname>User=</varname></term>
116                                 <term><varname>Group=</varname></term>
117
118                                 <listitem><para>Sets the Unix user
119                                 or group that the processes are executed
120                                 as, respectively. Takes a single user or group
121                                 name or ID as argument. If no group is
122                                 set, the default group of the user is
123                                 chosen.</para></listitem>
124                         </varlistentry>
125
126                         <varlistentry>
127                                 <term><varname>SupplementaryGroups=</varname></term>
128
129                                 <listitem><para>Sets the supplementary
130                                 Unix groups the processes are executed
131                                 as. This takes a space-separated list
132                                 of group names or IDs. This option may
133                                 be specified more than once in which
134                                 case all listed groups are set as
135                                 supplementary groups. When the empty
136                                 string is assigned the list of
137                                 supplementary groups is reset, and all
138                                 assignments prior to this one will
139                                 have no effect. In any way, this
140                                 option does not override, but extends
141                                 the list of supplementary groups
142                                 configured in the system group
143                                 database for the
144                                 user.</para></listitem>
145                         </varlistentry>
146
147                         <varlistentry>
148                                 <term><varname>Nice=</varname></term>
149
150                                 <listitem><para>Sets the default nice
151                                 level (scheduling priority) for
152                                 executed processes. Takes an integer
153                                 between -20 (highest priority) and 19
154                                 (lowest priority). See
155                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>setpriority</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
156                                 for details.</para></listitem>
157                         </varlistentry>
158
159                         <varlistentry>
160                                 <term><varname>OOMScoreAdjust=</varname></term>
161
162                                 <listitem><para>Sets the adjustment
163                                 level for the Out-Of-Memory killer for
164                                 executed processes. Takes an integer
165                                 between -1000 (to disable OOM killing
166                                 for this process) and 1000 (to make
167                                 killing of this process under memory
168                                 pressure very likely). See <ulink
169                                 url="https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt">proc.txt</ulink>
170                                 for details.</para></listitem>
171                         </varlistentry>
172
173                         <varlistentry>
174                                 <term><varname>IOSchedulingClass=</varname></term>
175
176                                 <listitem><para>Sets the IO scheduling
177                                 class for executed processes. Takes an
178                                 integer between 0 and 3 or one of the
179                                 strings <option>none</option>,
180                                 <option>realtime</option>,
181                                 <option>best-effort</option> or
182                                 <option>idle</option>. See
183                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ioprio_set</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
184                                 for details.</para></listitem>
185                         </varlistentry>
186
187                         <varlistentry>
188                                 <term><varname>IOSchedulingPriority=</varname></term>
189
190                                 <listitem><para>Sets the IO scheduling
191                                 priority for executed processes. Takes
192                                 an integer between 0 (highest
193                                 priority) and 7 (lowest priority). The
194                                 available priorities depend on the
195                                 selected IO scheduling class (see
196                                 above). See
197                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ioprio_set</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
198                                 for details.</para></listitem>
199                         </varlistentry>
200
201                         <varlistentry>
202                                 <term><varname>CPUSchedulingPolicy=</varname></term>
203
204                                 <listitem><para>Sets the CPU
205                                 scheduling policy for executed
206                                 processes. Takes one of
207                                 <option>other</option>,
208                                 <option>batch</option>,
209                                 <option>idle</option>,
210                                 <option>fifo</option> or
211                                 <option>rr</option>. See
212                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sched_setscheduler</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
213                                 for details.</para></listitem>
214                         </varlistentry>
215
216                         <varlistentry>
217                                 <term><varname>CPUSchedulingPriority=</varname></term>
218
219                                 <listitem><para>Sets the CPU
220                                 scheduling priority for executed
221                                 processes. The available priority
222                                 range depends on the selected CPU
223                                 scheduling policy (see above). For
224                                 real-time scheduling policies an
225                                 integer between 1 (lowest priority)
226                                 and 99 (highest priority) can be used.
227                                 See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sched_setscheduler</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
228                                 for details.
229                                 </para></listitem>
230                         </varlistentry>
231
232                         <varlistentry>
233                                 <term><varname>CPUSchedulingResetOnFork=</varname></term>
234
235                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
236                                 argument. If true, elevated CPU
237                                 scheduling priorities and policies
238                                 will be reset when the executed
239                                 processes fork, and can hence not leak
240                                 into child processes. See
241                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sched_setscheduler</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
242                                 for details. Defaults to false.</para></listitem>
243                         </varlistentry>
244
245                         <varlistentry>
246                                 <term><varname>CPUAffinity=</varname></term>
247
248                                 <listitem><para>Controls the CPU
249                                 affinity of the executed
250                                 processes. Takes a space-separated
251                                 list of CPU indices. This option may
252                                 be specified more than once in which
253                                 case the specificed CPU affinity masks
254                                 are merged. If the empty string is
255                                 assigned, the mask is reset, all
256                                 assignments prior to this will have no
257                                 effect. See
258                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sched_setaffinity</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
259                                 for details.</para></listitem>
260                         </varlistentry>
261
262                         <varlistentry>
263                                 <term><varname>UMask=</varname></term>
264
265                                 <listitem><para>Controls the file mode
266                                 creation mask. Takes an access mode in
267                                 octal notation. See
268                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>umask</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
269                                 for details. Defaults to
270                                 0022.</para></listitem>
271                         </varlistentry>
272
273                         <varlistentry>
274                                 <term><varname>Environment=</varname></term>
275
276                                 <listitem><para>Sets environment
277                                 variables for executed
278                                 processes. Takes a space-separated
279                                 list of variable assignments. This
280                                 option may be specified more than once
281                                 in which case all listed variables
282                                 will be set. If the same variable is
283                                 set twice, the later setting will
284                                 override the earlier setting. If the
285                                 empty string is assigned to this
286                                 option, the list of environment
287                                 variables is reset, all prior
288                                 assignments have no effect.
289                                 Variable expansion is not performed
290                                 inside the strings, however, specifier
291                                 expansion is possible. The $ character has
292                                 no special meaning.
293                                 If you need to assign a value containing spaces
294                                 to a variable, use double quotes (")
295                                 for the assignment.</para>
296
297                                 <para>Example:
298                                 <programlisting>Environment="VAR1=word1 word2" VAR2=word3 "VAR3=$word 5 6"</programlisting>
299                                 gives three variables <literal>VAR1</literal>,
300                                 <literal>VAR2</literal>, <literal>VAR3</literal>
301                                 with the values <literal>word1 word2</literal>,
302                                 <literal>word3</literal>, <literal>$word 5 6</literal>.
303                                 </para>
304
305                                 <para>
306                                 See
307                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>environ</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
308                                 for details about environment variables.</para></listitem>
309                         </varlistentry>
310                         <varlistentry>
311                                 <term><varname>EnvironmentFile=</varname></term>
312                                 <listitem><para>Similar to
313                                 <varname>Environment=</varname> but
314                                 reads the environment variables from a
315                                 text file. The text file should
316                                 contain new-line-separated variable
317                                 assignments. Empty lines and lines
318                                 starting with ; or # will be ignored,
319                                 which may be used for commenting. A line
320                                 ending with a backslash will be concatenated
321                                 with the following one, allowing multiline variable
322                                 definitions. The parser strips leading
323                                 and trailing whitespace from the values
324                                 of assignments, unless you use
325                                 double quotes (").</para>
326
327                                 <para>The argument passed should be an
328                                 absolute filename or wildcard
329                                 expression, optionally prefixed with
330                                 <literal>-</literal>, which indicates
331                                 that if the file does not exist, it
332                                 will not be read and no error or warning
333                                 message is logged.  This option may be
334                                 specified more than once in which case
335                                 all specified files are read. If the
336                                 empty string is assigned to this
337                                 option, the list of file to read is
338                                 reset, all prior assignments have no
339                                 effect.</para>
340
341                                 <para>The files listed with this
342                                 directive will be read shortly before
343                                 the process is executed. Settings from
344                                 these files override settings made
345                                 with
346                                 <varname>Environment=</varname>. If
347                                 the same variable is set twice from
348                                 these files, the files will be read in
349                                 the order they are specified and the
350                                 later setting will override the
351                                 earlier setting.</para></listitem>
352                         </varlistentry>
353
354                         <varlistentry>
355                                 <term><varname>StandardInput=</varname></term>
356                                 <listitem><para>Controls where file
357                                 descriptor 0 (STDIN) of the executed
358                                 processes is connected to. Takes one
359                                 of <option>null</option>,
360                                 <option>tty</option>,
361                                 <option>tty-force</option>,
362                                 <option>tty-fail</option> or
363                                 <option>socket</option>. If
364                                 <option>null</option> is selected,
365                                 standard input will be connected to
366                                 <filename>/dev/null</filename>,
367                                 i.e. all read attempts by the process
368                                 will result in immediate EOF. If
369                                 <option>tty</option> is selected,
370                                 standard input is connected to a TTY
371                                 (as configured by
372                                 <varname>TTYPath=</varname>, see
373                                 below) and the executed process
374                                 becomes the controlling process of the
375                                 terminal. If the terminal is already
376                                 being controlled by another process, the
377                                 executed process waits until the current
378                                 controlling process releases the
379                                 terminal.
380                                 <option>tty-force</option>
381                                 is similar to <option>tty</option>,
382                                 but the executed process is forcefully
383                                 and immediately made the controlling
384                                 process of the terminal, potentially
385                                 removing previous controlling
386                                 processes from the
387                                 terminal. <option>tty-fail</option> is
388                                 similar to <option>tty</option> but if
389                                 the terminal already has a controlling
390                                 process start-up of the executed
391                                 process fails.  The
392                                 <option>socket</option> option is only
393                                 valid in socket-activated services,
394                                 and only when the socket configuration
395                                 file (see
396                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
397                                 for details) specifies a single socket
398                                 only. If this option is set, standard
399                                 input will be connected to the socket
400                                 the service was activated from, which
401                                 is primarily useful for compatibility
402                                 with daemons designed for use with the
403                                 traditional
404                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
405                                 daemon. This setting defaults to
406                                 <option>null</option>.</para></listitem>
407                         </varlistentry>
408                         <varlistentry>
409                                 <term><varname>StandardOutput=</varname></term>
410                                 <listitem><para>Controls where file
411                                 descriptor 1 (STDOUT) of the executed
412                                 processes is connected to. Takes one
413                                 of <option>inherit</option>,
414                                 <option>null</option>,
415                                 <option>tty</option>,
416                                 <option>syslog</option>,
417                                 <option>kmsg</option>,
418                                 <option>journal</option>,
419                                 <option>syslog+console</option>,
420                                 <option>kmsg+console</option>,
421                                 <option>journal+console</option> or
422                                 <option>socket</option>. If set to
423                                 <option>inherit</option>, the file
424                                 descriptor of standard input is
425                                 duplicated for standard output. If set
426                                 to <option>null</option>, standard
427                                 output will be connected to
428                                 <filename>/dev/null</filename>,
429                                 i.e. everything written to it will be
430                                 lost. If set to <option>tty</option>,
431                                 standard output will be connected to a
432                                 tty (as configured via
433                                 <varname>TTYPath=</varname>, see
434                                 below). If the TTY is used for output
435                                 only, the executed process will not
436                                 become the controlling process of the
437                                 terminal, and will not fail or wait
438                                 for other processes to release the
439                                 terminal. <option>syslog</option>
440                                 connects standard output to the
441                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
442                                 system syslog
443                                 service. <option>kmsg</option>
444                                 connects it with the kernel log buffer
445                                 which is accessible via
446                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dmesg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. <option>journal</option>
447                                 connects it with the journal which is
448                                 accessible via
449                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>journalctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
450                                 (Note that everything that is written
451                                 to syslog or kmsg is implicitly stored
452                                 in the journal as well, those options
453                                 are hence supersets of this
454                                 one). <option>syslog+console</option>,
455                                 <option>journal+console</option> and
456                                 <option>kmsg+console</option> work
457                                 similarly but copy the output to the
458                                 system console as
459                                 well. <option>socket</option> connects
460                                 standard output to a socket from
461                                 socket activation, semantics are
462                                 similar to the respective option of
463                                 <varname>StandardInput=</varname>.
464                                 This setting defaults to the value set
465                                 with
466                                 <option>DefaultStandardOutput=</option>
467                                 in
468                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
469                                 which defaults to
470                                 <option>journal</option>.</para></listitem>
471                         </varlistentry>
472                         <varlistentry>
473                                 <term><varname>StandardError=</varname></term>
474                                 <listitem><para>Controls where file
475                                 descriptor 2 (standard error) of the
476                                 executed processes is connected to.
477                                 The available options are identical to
478                                 those of
479                                 <varname>StandardOutput=</varname>,
480                                 with one exception: if set to
481                                 <option>inherit</option> the file
482                                 descriptor used for standard output is
483                                 duplicated for standard error. This
484                                 setting defaults to the value set with
485                                 <option>DefaultStandardError=</option>
486                                 in
487                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
488                                 which defaults to
489                                 <option>inherit</option>.</para></listitem>
490                         </varlistentry>
491                         <varlistentry>
492                                 <term><varname>TTYPath=</varname></term>
493                                 <listitem><para>Sets the terminal
494                                 device node to use if standard input, output,
495                                 or error are connected to a
496                                 TTY (see above). Defaults to
497                                 <filename>/dev/console</filename>.</para></listitem>
498                         </varlistentry>
499                         <varlistentry>
500                                 <term><varname>TTYReset=</varname></term>
501                                 <listitem><para>Reset the terminal
502                                 device specified with
503                                 <varname>TTYPath=</varname> before and
504                                 after execution. Defaults to
505                                 <literal>no</literal>.</para></listitem>
506                         </varlistentry>
507                         <varlistentry>
508                                 <term><varname>TTYVHangup=</varname></term>
509                                 <listitem><para>Disconnect all clients
510                                 which have opened the terminal device
511                                 specified with
512                                 <varname>TTYPath=</varname>
513                                 before and after execution. Defaults
514                                 to
515                                 <literal>no</literal>.</para></listitem>
516                         </varlistentry>
517                         <varlistentry>
518                                 <term><varname>TTYVTDisallocate=</varname></term>
519                                 <listitem><para>If the terminal
520                                 device specified with
521                                 <varname>TTYPath=</varname> is a
522                                 virtual console terminal, try to
523                                 deallocate the TTY before and after
524                                 execution. This ensures that the
525                                 screen and scrollback buffer is
526                                 cleared. Defaults to
527                                 <literal>no</literal>.</para></listitem>
528                         </varlistentry>
529                         <varlistentry>
530                                 <term><varname>SyslogIdentifier=</varname></term>
531                                 <listitem><para>Sets the process name
532                                 to prefix log lines sent to syslog or
533                                 the kernel log buffer with. If not set,
534                                 defaults to the process name of the
535                                 executed process. This option is only
536                                 useful when
537                                 <varname>StandardOutput=</varname> or
538                                 <varname>StandardError=</varname> are
539                                 set to <option>syslog</option> or
540                                 <option>kmsg</option>.</para></listitem>
541                         </varlistentry>
542                         <varlistentry>
543                                 <term><varname>SyslogFacility=</varname></term>
544                                 <listitem><para>Sets the syslog
545                                 facility to use when logging to
546                                 syslog. One of <option>kern</option>,
547                                 <option>user</option>,
548                                 <option>mail</option>,
549                                 <option>daemon</option>,
550                                 <option>auth</option>,
551                                 <option>syslog</option>,
552                                 <option>lpr</option>,
553                                 <option>news</option>,
554                                 <option>uucp</option>,
555                                 <option>cron</option>,
556                                 <option>authpriv</option>,
557                                 <option>ftp</option>,
558                                 <option>local0</option>,
559                                 <option>local1</option>,
560                                 <option>local2</option>,
561                                 <option>local3</option>,
562                                 <option>local4</option>,
563                                 <option>local5</option>,
564                                 <option>local6</option> or
565                                 <option>local7</option>. See
566                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
567                                 for details. This option is only
568                                 useful when
569                                 <varname>StandardOutput=</varname> or
570                                 <varname>StandardError=</varname> are
571                                 set to <option>syslog</option>.
572                                 Defaults to
573                                 <option>daemon</option>.</para></listitem>
574                         </varlistentry>
575                         <varlistentry>
576                                 <term><varname>SyslogLevel=</varname></term>
577                                 <listitem><para>Default syslog level
578                                 to use when logging to syslog or the
579                                 kernel log buffer. One of
580                                 <option>emerg</option>,
581                                 <option>alert</option>,
582                                 <option>crit</option>,
583                                 <option>err</option>,
584                                 <option>warning</option>,
585                                 <option>notice</option>,
586                                 <option>info</option>,
587                                 <option>debug</option>. See
588                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
589                                 for details. This option is only
590                                 useful when
591                                 <varname>StandardOutput=</varname> or
592                                 <varname>StandardError=</varname> are
593                                 set to <option>syslog</option> or
594                                 <option>kmsg</option>. Note that
595                                 individual lines output by the daemon
596                                 might be prefixed with a different log
597                                 level which can be used to override
598                                 the default log level specified
599                                 here. The interpretation of these
600                                 prefixes may be disabled with
601                                 <varname>SyslogLevelPrefix=</varname>,
602                                 see below. For details see
603                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd-daemon</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
604
605                                 Defaults to
606                                 <option>info</option>.</para></listitem>
607                         </varlistentry>
608
609                         <varlistentry>
610                                 <term><varname>SyslogLevelPrefix=</varname></term>
611                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
612                                 argument. If true and
613                                 <varname>StandardOutput=</varname> or
614                                 <varname>StandardError=</varname> are
615                                 set to <option>syslog</option>,
616                                 <option>kmsg</option> or
617                                 <option>journal</option>, log lines
618                                 written by the executed process that
619                                 are prefixed with a log level will be
620                                 passed on to syslog with this log
621                                 level set but the prefix removed. If
622                                 set to false, the interpretation of
623                                 these prefixes is disabled and the
624                                 logged lines are passed on as-is. For
625                                 details about this prefixing see
626                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd-daemon</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
627                                 Defaults to true.</para></listitem>
628                         </varlistentry>
629
630                         <varlistentry>
631                                 <term><varname>TimerSlackNSec=</varname></term>
632                                 <listitem><para>Sets the timer slack
633                                 in nanoseconds for the executed
634                                 processes. The timer slack controls
635                                 the accuracy of wake-ups triggered by
636                                 timers. See
637                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>prctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
638                                 for more information. Note that in
639                                 contrast to most other time span
640                                 definitions this parameter takes an
641                                 integer value in nano-seconds if no
642                                 unit is specified. The usual time
643                                 units are understood
644                                 too.</para></listitem>
645                         </varlistentry>
646
647                         <varlistentry>
648                                 <term><varname>LimitCPU=</varname></term>
649                                 <term><varname>LimitFSIZE=</varname></term>
650                                 <term><varname>LimitDATA=</varname></term>
651                                 <term><varname>LimitSTACK=</varname></term>
652                                 <term><varname>LimitCORE=</varname></term>
653                                 <term><varname>LimitRSS=</varname></term>
654                                 <term><varname>LimitNOFILE=</varname></term>
655                                 <term><varname>LimitAS=</varname></term>
656                                 <term><varname>LimitNPROC=</varname></term>
657                                 <term><varname>LimitMEMLOCK=</varname></term>
658                                 <term><varname>LimitLOCKS=</varname></term>
659                                 <term><varname>LimitSIGPENDING=</varname></term>
660                                 <term><varname>LimitMSGQUEUE=</varname></term>
661                                 <term><varname>LimitNICE=</varname></term>
662                                 <term><varname>LimitRTPRIO=</varname></term>
663                                 <term><varname>LimitRTTIME=</varname></term>
664                                 <listitem><para>These settings control
665                                 various resource limits for executed
666                                 processes. See
667                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>setrlimit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
668                                 for details. Use the string
669                                 <varname>infinity</varname> to
670                                 configure no limit on a specific
671                                 resource.</para></listitem>
672                         </varlistentry>
673
674                         <varlistentry>
675                                 <term><varname>PAMName=</varname></term>
676                                 <listitem><para>Sets the PAM service
677                                 name to set up a session as. If set,
678                                 the executed process will be
679                                 registered as a PAM session under the
680                                 specified service name. This is only
681                                 useful in conjunction with the
682                                 <varname>User=</varname> setting. If
683                                 not set, no PAM session will be opened
684                                 for the executed processes. See
685                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pam</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
686                                 for details.</para></listitem>
687                         </varlistentry>
688
689                         <varlistentry>
690                                 <term><varname>TCPWrapName=</varname></term>
691                                 <listitem><para>If this is a
692                                 socket-activated service, this sets the
693                                 tcpwrap service name to check the
694                                 permission for the current connection
695                                 with. This is only useful in
696                                 conjunction with socket-activated
697                                 services, and stream sockets (TCP) in
698                                 particular. It has no effect on other
699                                 socket types (e.g. datagram/UDP) and
700                                 on processes unrelated to socket-based
701                                 activation. If the tcpwrap
702                                 verification fails, daemon start-up
703                                 will fail and the connection is
704                                 terminated. See
705                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
706                                 for details. Note that this option may
707                                 be used to do access control checks
708                                 only. Shell commands and commands
709                                 described in
710                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>hosts_options</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
711                                 are not supported.</para></listitem>
712                         </varlistentry>
713
714                         <varlistentry>
715                                 <term><varname>CapabilityBoundingSet=</varname></term>
716
717                                 <listitem><para>Controls which
718                                 capabilities to include in the
719                                 capability bounding set for the
720                                 executed process. See
721                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>capabilities</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
722                                 for details. Takes a whitespace-separated
723                                 list of capability names as read by
724                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cap_from_name</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
725                                 e.g. <constant>CAP_SYS_ADMIN</constant>,
726                                 <constant>CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE</constant>,
727                                 <constant>CAP_SYS_PTRACE</constant>.
728                                 Capabilities listed will be included
729                                 in the bounding set, all others are
730                                 removed. If the list of capabilities
731                                 is prefixed with <literal>~</literal>,
732                                 all but the listed capabilities will
733                                 be included, the effect of the
734                                 assignment inverted. Note that this
735                                 option also affects the respective
736                                 capabilities in the effective,
737                                 permitted and inheritable capability
738                                 sets, on top of what
739                                 <varname>Capabilities=</varname>
740                                 does. If this option is not used, the
741                                 capability bounding set is not
742                                 modified on process execution, hence
743                                 no limits on the capabilities of the
744                                 process are enforced. This option may
745                                 appear more than once in which case
746                                 the bounding sets are merged. If the
747                                 empty string is assigned to this
748                                 option, the bounding set is reset to
749                                 the empty capability set, and all
750                                 prior settings have no effect. If set
751                                 to <literal>~</literal> (without any
752                                 further argument), the bounding set is
753                                 reset to the full set of available
754                                 capabilities, also undoing any
755                                 previous settings.</para></listitem>
756                         </varlistentry>
757
758                         <varlistentry>
759                                 <term><varname>SecureBits=</varname></term>
760                                 <listitem><para>Controls the secure
761                                 bits set for the executed process. See
762                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>capabilities</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
763                                 for details. Takes a list of strings:
764                                 <option>keep-caps</option>,
765                                 <option>keep-caps-locked</option>,
766                                 <option>no-setuid-fixup</option>,
767                                 <option>no-setuid-fixup-locked</option>,
768                                 <option>noroot</option> and/or
769                                 <option>noroot-locked</option>. This
770                                 option may appear more than once in
771                                 which case the secure bits are
772                                 ORed. If the empty string is assigned
773                                 to this option, the bits are reset to
774                                 0.</para></listitem>
775                         </varlistentry>
776
777                         <varlistentry>
778                                 <term><varname>Capabilities=</varname></term>
779                                 <listitem><para>Controls the
780                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>capabilities</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
781                                 set for the executed process. Take a
782                                 capability string describing the
783                                 effective, permitted and inherited
784                                 capability sets as documented in
785                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cap_from_text</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
786                                 Note that these capability sets are
787                                 usually influenced by the capabilities
788                                 attached to the executed file. Due to
789                                 that
790                                 <varname>CapabilityBoundingSet=</varname>
791                                 is probably the much more useful
792                                 setting.</para></listitem>
793                         </varlistentry>
794
795                         <varlistentry>
796                                 <term><varname>ReadWriteDirectories=</varname></term>
797                                 <term><varname>ReadOnlyDirectories=</varname></term>
798                                 <term><varname>InaccessibleDirectories=</varname></term>
799
800                                 <listitem><para>Sets up a new
801                                 file system namespace for executed
802                                 processes. These options may be used
803                                 to limit access a process might have
804                                 to the main file system
805                                 hierarchy. Each setting takes a
806                                 space-separated list of absolute
807                                 directory paths. Directories listed in
808                                 <varname>ReadWriteDirectories=</varname>
809                                 are accessible from within the
810                                 namespace with the same access rights
811                                 as from outside. Directories listed in
812                                 <varname>ReadOnlyDirectories=</varname>
813                                 are accessible for reading only,
814                                 writing will be refused even if the
815                                 usual file access controls would
816                                 permit this. Directories listed in
817                                 <varname>InaccessibleDirectories=</varname>
818                                 will be made inaccessible for
819                                 processes inside the namespace. Note
820                                 that restricting access with these
821                                 options does not extend to submounts
822                                 of a directory. You must list
823                                 submounts separately in these settings
824                                 to ensure the same limited
825                                 access. These options may be specified
826                                 more than once in which case all
827                                 directories listed will have limited
828                                 access from within the namespace. If
829                                 the empty string is assigned to this
830                                 option, the specific list is reset, and
831                                 all prior assignments have no
832                                 effect.</para>
833                                 <para>Paths in
834                                 <varname>ReadOnlyDirectories=</varname>
835                                 and
836                                 <varname>InaccessibleDirectories=</varname>
837                                 may be prefixed with
838                                 <literal>-</literal>, in which case
839                                 they will be ignored when they do not
840                                 exist.</para></listitem>
841                         </varlistentry>
842
843                         <varlistentry>
844                                 <term><varname>PrivateTmp=</varname></term>
845
846                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
847                                 argument. If true, sets up a new file
848                                 system namespace for the executed
849                                 processes and mounts private
850                                 <filename>/tmp</filename> and
851                                 <filename>/var/tmp</filename>
852                                 directories inside it that is not
853                                 shared by processes outside of the
854                                 namespace. This is useful to secure
855                                 access to temporary files of the
856                                 process, but makes sharing between
857                                 processes via
858                                 <filename>/tmp</filename> or
859                                 <filename>/var/tmp</filename>
860                                 impossible. All temporary data created
861                                 by service will be removed after
862                                 the service is stopped. Defaults to
863                                 false. Note that it is possible to run
864                                 two or more units within the same
865                                 private <filename>/tmp</filename> and
866                                 <filename>/var/tmp</filename>
867                                 namespace by using the
868                                 <varname>JoinsNamespaceOf=</varname>
869                                 directive, see
870                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
871                                 for details.</para></listitem>
872                         </varlistentry>
873
874                         <varlistentry>
875                                 <term><varname>PrivateNetwork=</varname></term>
876
877                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
878                                 argument. If true, sets up a new
879                                 network namespace for the executed
880                                 processes and configures only the
881                                 loopback network device
882                                 <literal>lo</literal> inside it. No
883                                 other network devices will be
884                                 available to the executed process.
885                                 This is useful to securely turn off
886                                 network access by the executed
887                                 process. Defaults to false. Note that
888                                 it is possible to run two or more
889                                 units within the same private network
890                                 namespace by using the
891                                 <varname>JoinsNamespaceOf=</varname>
892                                 directive, see
893                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
894                                 for details.</para></listitem>
895                         </varlistentry>
896
897                         <varlistentry>
898                                 <term><varname>PrivateDevices=</varname></term>
899
900                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
901                                 argument. If true, sets up a new /dev
902                                 namespace for the executed processes
903                                 and only adds API pseudo devices such
904                                 as <filename>/dev/null</filename>,
905                                 <filename>/dev/zero</filename> or
906                                 <filename>/dev/random</filename> to
907                                 it, but no physical devices such as
908                                 <filename>/dev/sda</filename>. This is
909                                 useful to securely turn off physical
910                                 device access by the executed
911                                 process. Defaults to
912                                 false.</para></listitem>
913                         </varlistentry>
914
915                         <varlistentry>
916                                 <term><varname>MountFlags=</varname></term>
917
918                                 <listitem><para>Takes a mount
919                                 propagation flag:
920                                 <option>shared</option>,
921                                 <option>slave</option> or
922                                 <option>private</option>, which
923                                 control whether the file system
924                                 namespace set up for this unit's
925                                 processes will receive or propagate
926                                 new mounts. See
927                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
928                                 for details. Default to
929                                 <option>shared</option>.</para></listitem>
930                         </varlistentry>
931
932                         <varlistentry>
933                                 <term><varname>UtmpIdentifier=</varname></term>
934
935                                 <listitem><para>Takes a four
936                                 character identifier string for an
937                                 utmp/wtmp entry for this service. This
938                                 should only be set for services such
939                                 as <command>getty</command>
940                                 implementations where utmp/wtmp
941                                 entries must be created and cleared
942                                 before and after execution. If the
943                                 configured string is longer than four
944                                 characters, it is truncated and the
945                                 terminal four characters are
946                                 used. This setting interprets %I style
947                                 string replacements. This setting is
948                                 unset by default, i.e. no utmp/wtmp
949                                 entries are created or cleaned up for
950                                 this service.</para></listitem>
951                         </varlistentry>
952
953                         <varlistentry>
954                                 <term><varname>SELinuxContext=</varname></term>
955
956                                 <listitem><para>Set the SELinux
957                                 security context of the executed
958                                 process. If set, this will override
959                                 the automated domain
960                                 transition. However, the policy still
961                                 needs to autorize the transition. This
962                                 directive is ignored if SELinux is
963                                 disabled. If prefixed by
964                                 <literal>-</literal>, all errors will
965                                 be ignored. See
966                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>setexeccon</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
967                                 for details.</para></listitem>
968                         </varlistentry>
969
970                         <varlistentry>
971                                 <term><varname>IgnoreSIGPIPE=</varname></term>
972
973                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
974                                 argument. If true, causes <constant>SIGPIPE</constant> to be
975                                 ignored in the executed
976                                 process. Defaults to true because
977                                 <constant>SIGPIPE</constant> generally is useful only in
978                                 shell pipelines.</para></listitem>
979                         </varlistentry>
980
981                         <varlistentry>
982                                 <term><varname>NoNewPrivileges=</varname></term>
983
984                                 <listitem><para>Takes a boolean
985                                 argument. If true, ensures that the
986                                 service process and all its children
987                                 can never gain new privileges. This
988                                 option is more powerful than the respective
989                                 secure bits flags (see above), as it
990                                 also prohibits UID changes of any
991                                 kind. This is the simplest, most
992                                 effective way to ensure that a process
993                                 and its children can never elevate
994                                 privileges again.</para></listitem>
995                         </varlistentry>
996
997                         <varlistentry>
998                                 <term><varname>SystemCallFilter=</varname></term>
999
1000                                 <listitem><para>Takes a space-separated
1001                                 list of system call
1002                                 names. If this setting is used, all
1003                                 system calls executed by the unit
1004                                 processes except for the listed ones
1005                                 will result in immediate process
1006                                 termination with the
1007                                 <constant>SIGSYS</constant> signal
1008                                 (whitelisting). If the first character
1009                                 of the list is <literal>~</literal>,
1010                                 the effect is inverted: only the
1011                                 listed system calls will result in
1012                                 immediate process termination
1013                                 (blacklisting). If this option is used,
1014                                 <varname>NoNewPrivileges=yes</varname>
1015                                 is implied. This feature makes use of
1016                                 the Secure Computing Mode 2 interfaces
1017                                 of the kernel ('seccomp filtering')
1018                                 and is useful for enforcing a minimal
1019                                 sandboxing environment. Note that the
1020                                 <function>execve</function>,
1021                                 <function>rt_sigreturn</function>,
1022                                 <function>sigreturn</function>,
1023                                 <function>exit_group</function>,
1024                                 <function>exit</function> system calls
1025                                 are implicitly whitelisted and do not
1026                                 need to be listed explicitly. This
1027                                 option may be specified more than once
1028                                 in which case the filter masks are
1029                                 merged. If the empty string is
1030                                 assigned, the filter is reset, all
1031                                 prior assignments will have no
1032                                 effect.</para>
1033
1034                                 <para>If you specify both types of
1035                                 this option (i.e. whitelisting and
1036                                 blacklisting), the first encountered
1037                                 will take precedence and will dictate
1038                                 the default action (termination or
1039                                 approval of a system call). Then the
1040                                 next occurrences of this option will
1041                                 add or delete the listed system calls
1042                                 from the set of the filtered system
1043                                 calls, depending of its type and the
1044                                 default action. (For example, if you have started
1045                                 with a whitelisting of
1046                                 <function>read</function> and
1047                                 <function>write</function>, and right
1048                                 after it add a blacklisting of
1049                                 <function>write</function>, then
1050                                 <function>write</function> will be
1051                                 removed from the set.)
1052                                 </para></listitem>
1053                         </varlistentry>
1054
1055                         <varlistentry>
1056                                 <term><varname>SystemCallErrorNumber=</varname></term>
1057
1058                                 <listitem><para>Takes an
1059                                 <literal>errno</literal> error number
1060                                 name to return when the system call
1061                                 filter configured with
1062                                 <varname>SystemCallFilter=</varname>
1063                                 is triggered, instead of terminating
1064                                 the process immediately. Takes an
1065                                 error name such as
1066                                 <literal>EPERM</literal>,
1067                                 <literal>EACCES</literal> or
1068                                 <literal>EUCLEAN</literal>. When this
1069                                 setting is not used, or when the empty
1070                                 string is assigned, the process will be
1071                                 terminated immediately when the filter
1072                                 is triggered.</para></listitem>
1073                         </varlistentry>
1074
1075                         <varlistentry>
1076                                 <term><varname>SystemCallArchitectures=</varname></term>
1077
1078                                 <listitem><para>Takes a space
1079                                 separated list of architecture
1080                                 identifiers to include in the system
1081                                 call filter. The known architecture
1082                                 identifiers are
1083                                 <literal>x86</literal>,
1084                                 <literal>x86-64</literal>,
1085                                 <literal>x32</literal>,
1086                                 <literal>arm</literal> as well as the
1087                                 special identifier
1088                                 <literal>native</literal>. Only system
1089                                 calls of the specified architectures
1090                                 will be permitted to processes of this
1091                                 unit. This is an effective way to
1092                                 disable compatibility with non-native
1093                                 architectures for processes, for
1094                                 example to prohibit execution of
1095                                 32-bit x86 binaries on 64-bit x86-64
1096                                 systems. The special
1097                                 <literal>native</literal> identifier
1098                                 implicitly maps to the native
1099                                 architecture of the system (or more
1100                                 strictly: to the architecture the
1101                                 system manager is compiled for). Note
1102                                 that setting this option to a
1103                                 non-empty list implies that
1104                                 <literal>native</literal> is included
1105                                 too. By default, this option is set to
1106                                 the empty list, i.e. no architecture
1107                                 system call filtering is
1108                                 applied.</para></listitem>
1109                         </varlistentry>
1110
1111                 </variablelist>
1112         </refsect1>
1113
1114         <refsect1>
1115                 <title>Environment variables in spawned processes</title>
1116
1117                 <para>Processes started by the system are executed in
1118                 a clean environment in which select variables
1119                 listed below are set. System processes started by systemd
1120                 do not inherit variables from PID 1, but processes
1121                 started by user systemd instances inherit all
1122                 environment variables from the user systemd instance.
1123                 </para>
1124
1125                 <variablelist class='environment-variables'>
1126                         <varlistentry>
1127                                 <term><varname>$PATH</varname></term>
1128
1129                                 <listitem><para>Colon-separated list
1130                                 of directiories to use when launching
1131                                 executables. Systemd uses a fixed
1132                                 value of
1133                                 <filename>/usr/local/sbin</filename>:<filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>:<filename>/usr/sbin</filename>:<filename>/usr/bin</filename>:<filename>/sbin</filename>:<filename>/bin</filename>.
1134                                 </para></listitem>
1135                         </varlistentry>
1136
1137                         <varlistentry>
1138                                 <term><varname>$LANG</varname></term>
1139
1140                                 <listitem><para>Locale. Can be set in
1141                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>locale.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1142                                 or on the kernel command line (see
1143                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1144                                 and
1145                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kernel-command-line</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>).
1146                                 </para></listitem>
1147                         </varlistentry>
1148
1149                         <varlistentry>
1150                                 <term><varname>$USER</varname></term>
1151                                 <term><varname>$LOGNAME</varname></term>
1152                                 <term><varname>$HOME</varname></term>
1153                                 <term><varname>$SHELL</varname></term>
1154
1155                                 <listitem><para>User name (twice), home
1156                                 directory, and the login shell.
1157                                 The variables are set for the units that
1158                                 have <varname>User=</varname> set,
1159                                 which includes user
1160                                 <command>systemd</command> instances.
1161                                 See
1162                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1163                                 </para></listitem>
1164                         </varlistentry>
1165
1166                         <varlistentry>
1167                                 <term><varname>$XDG_RUNTIME_DIR</varname></term>
1168
1169                                 <listitem><para>The directory for volatile
1170                                 state. Set for the user <command>systemd</command>
1171                                 instance, and also in user sessions.
1172                                 See
1173                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pam_systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1174                                 </para></listitem>
1175                         </varlistentry>
1176
1177                         <varlistentry>
1178                                 <term><varname>$XDG_SESSION_ID</varname></term>
1179                                 <term><varname>$XDG_SEAT</varname></term>
1180                                 <term><varname>$XDG_VTNR</varname></term>
1181
1182                                 <listitem><para>The identifier of the
1183                                 session, the seat name, and
1184                                 virtual terminal of the session. Set
1185                                 by
1186                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pam_systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1187                                 for login sessions.
1188                                 <varname>$XDG_SEAT</varname> and
1189                                 <varname>$XDG_VTNR</varname> will
1190                                 only be set when attached to a seat and a
1191                                 tty.</para></listitem>
1192                         </varlistentry>
1193
1194                         <varlistentry>
1195                                 <term><varname>$MANAGERPID</varname></term>
1196
1197                                 <listitem><para>The PID of the user
1198                                 <command>systemd</command> instance,
1199                                 set for processes spawned by it.
1200                                 </para></listitem>
1201                         </varlistentry>
1202
1203                         <varlistentry>
1204                                 <term><varname>$LISTEN_FDS</varname></term>
1205                                 <term><varname>$LISTEN_PID</varname></term>
1206
1207                                 <listitem><para>Information about file
1208                                 descriptors passed to a service for
1209                                 socket activation.  See
1210                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sd_listen_fds</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1211                                 </para></listitem>
1212                         </varlistentry>
1213
1214                         <varlistentry>
1215                                 <term><varname>$TERM</varname></term>
1216
1217                                 <listitem><para>Terminal type, set
1218                                 only for units connected to a terminal
1219                                 (<varname>StandardInput=tty</varname>,
1220                                 <varname>StandardOutput=tty</varname>,
1221                                 or
1222                                 <varname>StandardError=tty</varname>).
1223                                 See
1224                                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>termcap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
1225                                 </para></listitem>
1226                         </varlistentry>
1227                 </variablelist>
1228
1229                 <para>Additional variables may be configured by the
1230                 following means: for processes spawned in specific
1231                 units, use the <varname>Environment=</varname> and
1232                 <varname>EnvironmentFile=</varname> options above; to
1233                 specify variables globally, use
1234                 <varname>DefaultEnvironment=</varname> (see
1235                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd-system.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>)
1236                 or the kernel option
1237                 <varname>systemd.setenv=</varname> (see
1238                 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>). Additional
1239                 variables may also be set through PAM,
1240                 c.f. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pam_env</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
1241         </refsect1>
1242
1243         <refsect1>
1244                   <title>See Also</title>
1245                   <para>
1246                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1247                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1248                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>journalctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1249                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.unit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1250                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1251                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.socket</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1252                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.swap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1253                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1254                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1255                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.resource-control</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1256                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>systemd.directives</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
1257                           <citerefentry><refentrytitle>exec</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>
1258                   </para>
1259         </refsect1>
1260
1261 </refentry>