Some advantages of this workflow:
This workflow is appropriate for packages where the Debian delta contains multiple pieces which interact, or which you don't expect to be able to upstream soon. For packages with simple and/or short-lived Debian deltas, use of git-debrebase(1) introduces unneeded complexity. For such packages, consider the workflow described in dgit-maint-merge(7).
% git clone -oupstream https://some.upstream/foo.git % cd foo % git verify-tag 1.2.2 % git reset --hard 1.2.2 % git branch --unset-upstream
The final command detaches your master branch from the upstream remote, so that git doesn't try to push anything there, or merge unreleased upstream commits. To maintain a copy of your packaging branch on salsa.debian.org in addition to dgit-repos, you can do something like this:
% git remote add -f origin salsa.debian.org:Debian/foo.git % git push --follow-tags -u origin master
Now go ahead and Debianise your package. Make commits on the master branch, adding things in the debian/ directory, or patching the upstream source. For technical reasons, it is essential that your first commit introduces the debian/ directory containing at least one file, and does nothing else. In other words, make a commit introducing debian/ before patching the upstream source.
Finally, you need an orig tarball:
% git deborig
See git-deborig(1) if this fails.
This tarball is ephemeral and easily regenerated, so we don't commit it anywhere (e.g. with tools like pristine-tar(1)).
Comparing upstream's tarball releases
If, as a user of the upstream source, you usually build from upstream tarball releases, rather than upstream git tags, you will sometimes find that the git tree doesn't contain everything that is in the tarball.
Additional build steps may be needed. For example, you may need your debian/rules to run autotools.
You can compare the upstream tarball release, and upstream git tag, within git, by importing the tarball into git as described in the next section, using a different value for 'upstream-tag', and then using git-diff(1) to compare the imported tarball to the release tag.
Using untagged upstream commits
For example, suppose that the latest upstream release is 1.2.2 and you want to package git commit ab34c21 which was made on 2013-12-11. A common convention is to use the upstream version number 1.2.2+git20131211.ab34c21 and so you could use
% git tag -s upstream/1.2.2+git20131211.ab34c21 ab34c21
to obtain a release tag, and then proceed as above.
% mkdir foo % cd foo % git init % git checkout -b upstream % gbp import-orig \ --upstream-branch=upstream --debian-branch=master \ --upstream-tag='upstream/%(version)s' \ --sign-tags --no-pristine-tar \ ../foo_1.2.2.orig.tar.xz % git branch -f upstream
This should leave you on the master branch. Next, our upstream branch cannot be pushed to dgit-repos, but since we will need it whenever we import a new upstream version, we must push it somewhere. The usual choice is salsa.debian.org:
% git remote add -f origin salsa.debian.org:Debian/foo.git % git push --follow-tags -u origin master upstream
You are now ready to proceed as above, making commits to the debian/ directory and to the upstream source. As above, for technical reasons, it is essential that your first commit introduces the debian/ directory containing at least one file, and does nothing else. In other words, make a commit introducing debian/ before patching the upstream source.
A convenient way to ensure this requirement is satisfied is to start by creating debian/gbp.conf:
[DEFAULT] upstream-branch = upstream debian-branch = master upstream-tag = upstream/%(version)s sign-tags = True pristine-tar = False pristine-tar-commit = False [import-orig] merge = False
and commit that:
% git add debian/gbp.conf && git commit -m "create gbp.conf"
Note that we couldn't create debian/gbp.conf before now for the same technical reasons which require our first commit to introduce debian/ without patching the upstream source. That's why we had to pass a lot of options to our first call to gbp-import-orig(1).
If you have an existing git history that you have pushed to an ordinary git server like salsa.debian.org, we start with that. If you don't already have it locally, you'll need to clone it, and obtain the corresponding orig.tar from the archive:
% git clone salsa.debian.org:Debian/foo % cd foo % dgit setup-new-tree % origtargz
If you don't have any existing git history, or you have history only on the special dgit-repos server, we start with dgit clone:
% dgit clone foo % cd foo
Then we make new upstream tags available:
% git remote add -f upstream https://some.upstream/foo.git
We now use a git debrebase convert-from-* command to convert your existing history to the git-debrebase(5) data model. Which command you should use depends on some facts about your repository:
% git debrebase convert-from-gbp
% git debrebase convert-from-gbp
If you were not previously using dgit to upload your package (i.e. you were not using the workflow described in dgit-maint-gbp(7)), and you happen to have run dgit fetch sid in this clone of the repository, you will need to pass --fdiverged to this command.
% git debrebase convert-from-dgit-view
Finally, you need to ensure that your git HEAD is dgit-compatible, i.e., it is exactly what you would get if you deleted .git, invoked dpkg-buildpackage -S, and then unpacked the resultant source package.
To achieve this, you might need to delete debian/source/local-options. One way to have dgit check your progress is to run dgit build-source.
% git config --local pull.rebase true
Now when you pull work from other Debian contributors, git will rebase your work on top of theirs.
If you use this clone for upstream development in addition to Debian packaging work, you may not want to set this global setting. Instead, see the branch.autoSetupRebase and branch.<name>.rebase settings in git-config(5).
% git fetch --tags upstream
If you want to package an untagged upstream commit (because upstream does not tag releases or because you want to package an upstream development snapshot), see ``Using untagged upstream commits'' above.
When upstream releases only tarballs
You will need the debian/gbp.conf from ``When upstream releases only tarballs'', above. You will also need your upstream branch. Above, we pushed this to salsa.debian.org. You will need to clone or fetch from there, instead of relying on dgit clone/dgit fetch alone.
% gbp import-orig ../foo_1.2.3.orig.tar.xz
or if you have a working watch file
% gbp import-orig --uscan
% git debrebase new-upstream 1.2.3
This invocation of git-debrebase(1) involves a git rebase. You may need to resolve conflicts if the Debian delta queue does not apply cleanly to the new upstream source.
If all went well, you can now review the merge of the new upstream release:
git diff debian/1.2.2-1..HEAD -- . ':!debian'
Also, diff with --name-status and --diff-filter=ADR to see just the list of added or removed files, which is useful to determine whether there are any new or deleted files that may need accounting for in your copyright file.
If you obtained a tarball from upstream, you are ready to try a build. If you merged a git tag from upstream, you will first need to generate a tarball:
% git deborig
% git debrebase -i
to start an interactive rebase. You can edit, re-order and delete commits just as you would during git rebase -i.
If you are not yet ready to upload, and want to push your branch to a git remote such as salsa.debian.org,
% git debrebase conclude
Note that each time you conclude a debrebase you introduce a pseudomerge into your git history, which may make it harder to read. Try to do all of the editing of the delta queue that you think will be needed for this editing session in a single debrebase, so that there is a single debrebase stitch.
Upload with dgit push or dgit push-source. Remember to pass --new if the package is new in the target suite.
In some cases where you used git debrebase convert-from-gbp since the last upload, it is not possible for dgit to make your history fast-forwarding from the history on dgit-repos. In such cases you will have to pass --overwrite to dgit. git-debrebase will normally tell you if this will be needed.
If you want to upload with git-debpush(1), for the first upload you should pass the --quilt=linear quilt mode option (see git-debpush(1)).
Right before uploading, if you did not just already do so, you might want to have git-debrebase(1) shuffle your branch such that the Debian delta queue appears right at the tip of the branch you will push:
% git debrebase % dgit push-source
Note that this will introduce a new pseudomerge.
After dgit pushing, be sure to git push to salsa.debian.org, if you're using that.
If you encounter possibly-legally-dangerous material in the upstream
source code you should seek advice. It is often best not to make a
fuss on a public mailing list (at least, not at first). Instead,
email your archive administrators. For Debian that is
To: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
For the first upstream release that requires DFSG filtering:
% git checkout -b upstream-dfsg 1.2.3 % git rm evil.bin % git commit -m "upstream version 1.2.3 DFSG-cleaned" % git tag -s 1.2.3+dfsg % git checkout master
Now either proceed with ``Importing the release'' on the 1.2.3+dfsg tag, or in the case of a new package,
% git branch --unset-upstream % git reset --hard 1.2.3+dfsg
and proceed with ``INITIAL DEBIANISATION''.
For subsequent releases (whether or not they require additional filtering):
% git checkout upstream-dfsg % git merge 1.2.4 % git rm further-evil.bin # if needed % git commit -m "upstream version 1.2.4 DFSG-cleaned" # if needed % git tag -s 1.2.4+dfsg % git checkout master % # proceed with "Importing the release" on 1.2.4+dfsg tag
Our upstream-dfsg branch cannot be pushed to dgit-repos, but since we will need it whenever we import a new upstream version, we must push it somewhere. Assuming that you have already set up an origin remote per the above,
% git push --follow-tags -u origin master upstream-dfsg
% dgit fetch % git merge --ff-only dgit/dgit/sid
If that fails, because your branch and the NMUers' work represent divergent branches of development, you have a number of options. Here we describe the two simplest.
Note that you should not try to resolve the divergent branches by editing files in debian/patches. Changes there would either cause trouble, or be overwritten by git-debrebase(1).
% git rebase dgit/dgit/sid
If the NMUer added new commits modifying the upstream source, you will probably want to debrebase before your next upload to tidy those up.
For example, the NMUer might have used git-revert(1) to unapply one of your patches. A debrebase can be used to strip both the patch and the reversion from the delta queue.
A simple convention you can use to minimise the number of pseudomerges is to git debrebase conclude only right before you upload or push to salsa.debian.org.
It is possible, though much less convenient, to reduce the number of pseudomerges yet further. We debrebase only (i) when importing a new release, and (ii) right before uploading. Instead of editing the existing delta queue, you append fixup commits (and reversions of commits) that alter the upstream source to the required state. You can push and pull to and from salsa.debian.org during this. Just before uploading, you debrebase, once, to tidy everything up.
debian/patches will often be out-of-date because git-debrebase(1) will only regenerate it when it needs to. So you should not rely on the information in that directory. When preparing patches to forward upstream, you should use git-format-patch(1) on git commits, rather than sending files from debian/patches.
Except when (i) upstream releases only tarballs, (ii) we require DFSG filtering, or (iii) you also happen to be involved in upstream development, we do not maintain any local branch corresponding to upstream, except temporary branches used to prepare patches for forwarding, and the like.
The idea here is that from Debian's point of view, upstream releases are immutable points in history. We want to make sure that we are basing our Debian package on a properly identified upstream version, rather than some arbitrary commit on some branch. Tags are more useful for this.
Upstream's branches remain available as the git remote tracking branches for your upstream remote, e.g. remotes/upstream/master.
History of package in Debian, disregarding history from upstream:
% gitk --first-parent
History of the packaging, excluding the delta queue:
% gitk :/debian :!/debian/patches
Just the delta queue (i.e. Debian's changes to upstream):
% gitk --first-parent -- :/ :!/debian
Full history including old versions of the delta queue:
% gitk --date-order
Complete diff since the last upload:
% git diff dgit/dgit/sid..HEAD -- :/ :!/debian/patches
Interdiff of delta queue since last upload, if you really want it:
% git debrebase make-patches % git diff dgit/dgit/sid..HEAD -- debian/patches
And of course there is:
% git debrebase status
% git debrebase -i
It is also possible to perform a non-interactive rebase, like this:
% git debrebase -- [git-rebase options...]
A third alternative is to have git-debrebase(1) shuffle all the Debian changes to the end of your branch, and then manipulate them yourself using git-rebase(1) directly. For example,
% git debrebase % git rebase -i HEAD~5 # there are 4 Debian patches
If you take this approach, you should be very careful not to start the rebase too early, including before the most recent pseudomerge. git-rebase without a base argument will often start the rebase too early, and should be avoided. Run git-debrebase instead. See also ``ILLEGAL OPERATIONS'' in git-debrebase(5).